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LKCE18 Steve McGee - KMM Cultural Appraisal and Practical Guidance for Leaders

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The Kanban Maturity Model levels are defined by the outcomes an organization consistently achieves, by the sophistication of the general practices we recommend, and by the nature of the culture - defined by the values people hold.

This talk will explain how the KMM approach to culture appraisal avoids the bias of self-reporting, and using invalid instruments for measurement, by instead relying on four types of evidence the appraiser finds that supports or contradicts if a value is strongly held.

People need to hold these values strongly - to believe these things matter - or they will be unwilling to implement changes or abandon disciplines that got them improved results.

Therefore, this talk will also explain the approach to providing practical guidance for leaders (and coaches) to drive the adoption of the values that increase the willingness to evolve the implementation of the specific practices as a means to get improved results.

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LKCE18 Steve McGee - KMM Cultural Appraisal and Practical Guidance for Leaders

  2. 2. Learn More: @smcgeeci WHY VALUES?
  3. 3. Learn More: @smcgeeci TOPIC IS FOCUSED ON VALUES • But I must provide some context for those new to the KMM, briefly • This is not an explanation of the entire KMM • Teodora’s LKNA18 presentation: • Teodora and David’s podcast - Agile Uprising: • Let’s start with - what’s the point?
  4. 4. Learn More: @smcgeeci THE GOAL IS FITNESS FOR PURPOSE To be able to find, satisfy and keep customers
  5. 5. Learn More: @smcgeeci WHAT IS THE KMM?
  6. 6. Learn More: @smcgeeci More information: © Lean Kanban Incorporated. All rights reserved. Reproduction by permission only. Evolving Fit-for-Purpose Organizations second beta release Kanban Maturity Model Cultural Values Respect Flow Initial Understanding Acts of Leadership Transparency Collaboration Evolutionary Change Customer Intimacy Competition Short-term Results Social Mobility Business Focus Long-term Investment Experimentation Survivability Diversity Tolerance Customer Service Agreement Deeper Understanding Purpose Balance Leadership Development Regulatory Compliance Achievement Why we exist What we do How we do it Who we are Who I am Challenge How, What, Why & Who Cultural Focus TribalismIndividualism Leadership SystemsThinking|AltruisticBehavior|ContributorSociety ALIGNMENT,UNITY,SHAREDPURPOSE 4 GENERAL PRACTICES Organizational Maturity Level 0 1 2 5 3 6 Oblivious • Ambivalent • Personal Kanban Team- Focused • Inconsistent process • Team Kanban Customer- Driven • Consistent process • “Routine” • Delivery Kanban • Discovery Kanban • End-to-end flow Market Leader • Continuous improvement • Fittest-for-purpose • Improving economics TRANSITION TRANSITION TRANSITION TRANSITION TRANSITION TRANSITION CONSOLIDATION CONSOLIDATION CONSOLIDATION CONSOLIDATION CONSOLIDATION CONSOLIDATION CONSOLIDATION FRAGILERESILIENTROBUST Risk ANTIFRAGILE Lean / TPS Muri Mura Kaizen Culture Hoshin Kanri Muda Antifragile • “Built to last” • Business sustainability • Consistent alignment • Continually fit-for- purpose Fit-for- Purpose • Consistent outcome • Meet expectations • Fit-for-purpose Risk Hedged • Model-driven management • Anticipating risks • Portfolio management • Forecasting outcomes • Consistent economics • Fitter-for-purpose IndividualTeamProject/Service Business Portfolio MultipleProjects andSharedServices Project/Product Portfolio Scale LIMIT WIP MARSHAL OPTIONS - MANAGE FLOW MAKE POLICIES EXPLICIT IMPROVE COLLABORATIVELY, EVOLVE EXPERIMENTALLYVISUALIZE FEEDBACK LOOPS 0.1 Visualize an individual’s work by means of a personal kanban board 0.2 Visualize basic work item related information on a ticket 0.1 Establish personal WIP limits 0.1 Define personal Kanban policies0.1 Define work types based on nature of tasks 0.1 Make personal reflection 1.1 Conduct Kanban meeting 2.1 Conduct internal team replenishment meeting 2.2 Make team retrospective 2.1 Identify sources of dissatisfaction 2.2 Identify problematic policies 3.1 Suggest improvements using a suggestion box 3.2 Identify sources of delay 4.1 Develop qualitative understanding of common vs. special cause for process performance variation 4.2 Identify impact of shared resources 4.3 Identify bottleneck and resolve it 4.4 Identify transaction and coordination costs 4.5 Develop quantitative understanding of common vs. chance cause for process performance variation 5.1 After meetings: Discuss - Suggest - Take actions - Seek forgiveness 6.1 After meetings: Take congruent actions with confidence 3.3 Analyze blocker likelihood and impact 3.4 Analyze Lead time tail risk 3.5 After meetings: discuss a problem spontaneously – bring it to the service delivery review 3.1 Conduct replenishment meeting 3.2 Make suggestion box review 3.3 Conduct service capability review 3.4 Conduct delivery planning meeting 3.5 Conduct service delivery review 3.6 Conduct options review (upstream) 4.1 Conduct risk review 4.2 Conduct portfolio review 4.3 Conduct operations review 5.1 Conduct strategy review 1.1 Define initial policies 2.1 Define initial services 2.2 Elaborate further policies 2.3 Define blocking issue escalation policies 2.4 Define policies for managing defects and other rework types 3.1 Establish explicit purpose of metrics 3.2 Establish initial request acceptance policies 3.3 Define work request abandonment policies 3.4 Establish replenishment commitment point 3.5 Establish pull criteria 3.6 Establish a delivery commitment point 3.7 Establish customer acceptance criteria for each work item or a class of work items 3.8 Define classes of service 4.1 Fitness for purpose explicitly defined and managed based on metrics 4.2 Establish demand shaping policies 4.3 Establish SLA on dependent service 5.1 Align strategy and capability 2.1 Define work types based on customer requests 2.2 Map upstream and downstream flow 2.3 Manage blocking issues 2.4 Manage defects and other rework types 3.1 Organize around the knowledge discovery process 3.2 Defer commitment (decide at the “last responsible moment”) 3.3 Use cumulative flow diagram to monitor queues 3.4 Use Little’s law 3.8 Develop triage discipline 3.9 Manage dependencies 3.10 Analyze and report aborted work items 3.11 Use classes of service to affect selection 3.12 Forecast Delivery 3.13 Apply qualitative Real Options Thinking 4.1 Collect and report detailed flow efficiency analysis 4.2 Use explicit buffers to smooth flow 4.3 Use two-phase commit for delivery commitment 4.4 Analyze to anticipate dependences 4.5 Establish refutable vs. irrefutable demand 4.6 Determine reference class data set 4.7 Forecast using reference classes, Monte Carlo simulations, and other models 4.8 Allocate capacity across swimlanes 4.9 Allocate capacity by color of work item 4.10 Make appropriate use of forecasting 4.11 Assess forecasting models for robustness 4.12 Use statistical methods for decision making 5.1 Utilize hybrid fixed service teams together with a flexible labor pool 3.5 Gradually eliminate infinite buffers 3.6 Report rudimentary flow efficiency to understand the value of reducing buffers and the leverage of eliminating sources of delay 3.7 Actively close upstream requests which meet the abandonment criteria 1.1 Establish per- person WIP limits 1.2 Establish team WIP limits 2.1 Establish activity based WIP limits 2.2 Establish CONWIP limits on emergent workflow 3.1 Use an order point (min limit) for upstream replenishment 3.2 Use a max limit to define capacity 3.3 Bracket WIP limits for different states 4.1 Limit WIP on dependency parking lot 1.1 Visualize work for several individuals by means of an aggregated personal kanban board 1.2 Visualize the work carried out by a team by means of a team kanban board 1.3 Use avatars to visualize an individual’s workload 2.1 Visualize work items by means of a delivery kanban board with per-person WIP limits 2.2 Visualize work types by means of card colors or board rows 2.3 Visualize blocked work items 3.1 Visualize “ready to commit” status (also known as “ready to pull”) 3.2 Visualize “ready to pull” criteria (also known as “definition of ready,” “entry criteria”) 3.3 Visualize workflow and teamwork items by means of an aggregated team kanban board 4.1 Visualize local cycle time 4.2 Use ticket decorators to indicate risks 5.1 Visualize fixed teams and floating workers (shared resources) across aggregated services 4.3 Visualize risk classes with different swimlanes 4.4 Visualize split and merge workflows 4.7 Visualize SLA exceeded in dependencies4.5 Visualize WIP limits on dependencies parking lot 4.6 Visualize waiting time in dependencies parking lot 3.7 Visualize upstream options by means of an upstream/discovery kanban board 3.8 Visualize discarded options using a bin on an upstream/discovery kanban board 3.9 Visualize replenishment signals 3.10 Visualize pull signals 3.11 Visualize pull criteria (also known as “pull policies,” “definition of done,” “exit criteria”) 3.12 Visualize available capacity 3.4 Visualize project work items on a two-tiered project kanban board 3.5 Visualize parent-child and peer-peer dependencies 3.6 Use parking lot to visualize dependent work requests of another service or system currently waiting or blocked 3.13 Visualize work item aging 3.14 Visualize target date or SLA 3.15 Visualize failure demand vs. value demand 3.16 Visualize aborted work 3.17 Visualize class of service using ticket colors, board rows, or ticket decorators 3.18 Use an Earned Value portfolio kanban board to visualize project progress and schedule or budget risk 2.7 Ticket design: Visualize concurrent or unordered activities with checkboxes 2.8 Ticket design: Visualize concurrent activities performed by specialist teams using partial rows 2.9 Board design: Visualize sequential activities where no dependency or preferred sequence exists using rows or vertical spaces 2.4 Visualize development of options by means of a discovery kanban board 2.5 Visualize individual workload on a discovery kanban board by means of per-person WIP limits, potentially implemented using avatars 2.6 Visualize basic policies 2.10 Visualize defects and other rework types 2.11 Use CONWIP with an emergent workflow delivery kanban board to provide workflow level relief from overburdening and basic mechanics of a pull system, with separate replenishment and delivery cadences 2.12 Visualize workflow by means of enhanced discovery/delivery boards 2.13 Visualize project progress on a portfolio kanban board 1.4 Visualize initial policies 1.5 Visualize teamwork by means of an emergent workflow kanban board
  7. 7. Learn More: @smcgeeci MATURITY = VALUES + PRACTICES + OUTCOMES
  9. 9. Learn More: @smcgeeci WHY ISN’T EVERYONE FIT-FOR-PURPOSE?
  10. 10. Learn More: @smcgeeci 
  13. 13. Learn More: @smcgeeci WILLINGNESS
  14. 14. Learn More: @smcgeeci THEY DON’T KNOW Training
 Coaching Implementation THEY DON’T CARE HOW DAREYOU SAY 
  15. 15. Learn More: @smcgeeci BUT THEY ALSO CARE ABOUT OTHER THINGS
  16. 16. Learn More: @smcgeeci
  17. 17. Learn More: @smcgeeci BEHAVIOR IS IN PURSUIT OF VALUES
  18. 18. Learn More: @smcgeeci “LET’S DO SOMETHING ABOUT IT.” (This is what we want.)
  19. 19. Learn More: @smcgeeci
  20. 20. Learn More: @smcgeeci HOW DO WE KNOW THE VALUES PEOPLE HOLD?
  21. 21. Learn More: @smcgeeci THE RISKS IN USING SELF-REPORTED SURVEYS • Bias • Shame • “Of course I care about…” • Blind spots • Language in the instrument vs. national language and nuance
  22. 22. Learn More: @smcgeeci WE LOOK FOR EVIDENCE DATA ARTIFACTS OBSERVATIONS ANECDOTES Records to show they actually care about it Rituals and structures they use to ensure management of what matters What we train lead appraisers to look for Sure, self-reporting is useful but it’s lowest priority. “In the last month this happened ‘x’ times” “Feature requests clarify intended purpose” “Daily meetings dwell on status updates” “Last week my boss told me to ignore this customer”
  23. 23. Learn More: @smcgeeci HIERARCHY OF EVIDENCE VALUE DATA ARTIFACTS OBSERVATIONS ANECDOTES Transparency Lead time run chart viewed in SCR Ticket status on wall Capability charts in public view Mistakes discussed in weekly reviews Manager says she tells customers about conflicting priorities that will cause delays Collaboration Flow efficiency reduction attributed to cross-service standups No infinite queues on aggregated team Kanban Manager from downstream attends Replenishment meeting Stories about swarming on delayed project
  24. 24. Learn More: @smcgeeci EXAMPLES OF EVIDENCE • Current pilot appraisals are gathering types of evidence for the values • Also collecting contra- evidence • Appraisers can use as a guide for capturing evidence
  25. 25. Learn More: @smcgeeci SCORING METHOD - ‘STRONG’ VS. ‘WEAK’ • Lower risk of putting words in people’s mouths • Overcome language limitations • Can keep collecting evidence until agreed upon assessment • If people adjust behavior as a result of wanting to look like they do care about this stuff, that’s great. It’s why we do this at all.
  26. 26. Learn More: @smcgeeci LEVERAGING VALUES
  27. 27. Learn More: @smcgeeci USING VALUES TO DRIVE ADOPTION 4Customer Intimacy Competition Short-term Results 3 Customer Service Agreement Deeper Understanding Purpose Balance Leadership Development Regulatory Compliance 2 Respect Flow
 Basic Understanding TRANSITIONING: Low-disruption to ‘push’ TRANSITIONING: Low-disruption to ‘push’ TRANSITIONING: Low-disruption to ‘push’ CONSOLIDATING: Willingness - wait for ‘pull’ CONSOLIDATING: Willingness - wait for ‘pull’ CONSOLIDATING: Willingness - wait for ‘pull’
  28. 28. Learn More: @smcgeeci HOW TO INFLUENCE WHAT PEOPLE VALUE?
  29. 29. Learn More: @smcgeeci INFLUENCE: ACTS OF LEADERSHIP DIRECT EXAMPLE SIGNAL INSPIRE Tell people what you want Tell people what to do Do things in the way you want others to Indirectly show Indicate a gap and create space for others to solve Explicit intent, instructions, expectations The ‘Golden Rule’ “Does this move the needle?” “What we need now is to make friends with that department.”
  30. 30. Learn More: @smcgeeci INVITATION
  31. 31. Learn More: @smcgeeci INVITATION TO GET INVOLVED • Talk to me • Talk toTeodora • Talk to David • Join COYO pilot • Ask for formal appraisal or informal assessment • Take the training:
  32. 32. Learn More: @smcgeeci THANK YOU
  33. 33. Learn More: @smcgeeci IF YOU’RE INTERESTED: