The population of Scotland rose to 5,295,400, at the 2011 Census. This
corresponds to 8% of the UK population (63.26 millions).
In the 2011 Census, 62% of Scotland's population stated their national identity
as 'Scottish only', 18% as 'Scottish and British', 8% as 'British only', and 4%
chose 'other identity only'.
Although Edinburgh is the capital of Scotland, the largest city is Glasgow, which
has just over 584,000 inhabitants.
The Economy of Scotland had an estimated nominal gross domestic product (GDP) of up to $216
billion in 2016. This corresponds to 8% of the UK economy ($2600 billion).
GDP per capita is around $43K which is a little higher than $41K in the whole UK.
Scotland budget deﬁcit is also much higher than the UK (11.2% of GDP against 5.8% of GDP)
Scotland generated 9.1% (£53.1bn) of the UK's tax revenues and received 9.3% (£65.2bn) of spending.
Scotland's public spending deﬁcit was £12bn, a £3.5bn increase on the previous year; over the same
period, the UK's deﬁcit decreased by £2.6bn.
Finally Scotland unemployment rate is 5.6% which is higher than UK 4.5%.
The Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the
Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707.
In 1997, a Scottish Parliament was re-established, in the form of a devolved
unicameral legislature comprising 129 members, having authority over many
areas of domestic policy. Scotland is represented in the United Kingdom
Parliament by 59 MPs and in the European Parliament by 6 MEPs.
The legal system remained separate from those of England and Wales and
Northern Ireland; Scotland constitutes a distinct jurisdiction in both public and
private law. The continued existence of legal, educational, religious and other
institutions distinct from those in the remainder of the UK have all contributed
to the continuation of Scottish culture and national identity since the 1707
union with England.
The UK Parliament retains control over reserved matters speciﬁed in the
Scotland Act 1998, including UK taxes, social security, defence, international
relations and broadcasting
A referendum on Scottish independence from the United Kingdom took place
on 18 September 2014. The referendum question, which voters answered with
"Yes" or "No", was "Should Scotland be an independent country?" The "No" side
won, with 2,001,926 (55.3%) voting against independence and 1,617,989
(44.7%) voting in favour. The turnout was of 84.6%.
The Scottish Independence Referendum Act 2013 was passed by the Scottish
Parliament in November 2013, following an agreement between the Scottish
Government and the UK government. To pass, the independence proposal
required a simple majority.
As of 2016, the oﬃcial population of Catalonia was 7,448,332 (16% of Spain
pop.). About 1,104,782 residents had non-Spanish nationalities representing
about 15% of the population.
The Urban Region of Barcelona includes 5,217,864 people.
As of January 1, 2014, Spain had a total population of 46,507,760, which
represents a 0.5% decrease since 2013.
A highly industrialized land, the nominal GDP of Catalonia in 2014 was €200 billion (the
highest in Spain) and the per capita GDP was €27,000, behind Madrid (€31,000), the
Basque Country (€30,000), and Navarre (€28,000). This corresponds to 14% of Spain GDP
that year (1,377 trillion). In recent years there has been a negative net relocation rate of
companies based in Catalonia moving to other autonomous communities of Spain.
Catalonia's debt in 2012 was the highest of all Spain's autonomous communities,
reaching €13,476 million, i.e. 38% of the total debt of the 17 autonomous communities,
but in recent years its economy recovered a positive evolution and the GDP grew a 3.3%
Catalonia belongs to the organisation Four Motors for Europe.
It was part of different empires, until in the modern era, the fall of Barcelona on 11
September 1714 to the Bourbon king Philip V militarily ended the Habsburg claim to the
Spanish Crown, which became legal fact in the Treaty of Utrecht. Philip felt that he had
been betrayed by the Catalan Courts, as it had initially sworn its loyalty to him when he
had presided over it in 1701. In retaliation for the betrayal, the ﬁrst Bourbon king
introduced the Nueva Planta decrees that incorporated the territories of the Crown of
Aragon, including Catalonia, as provinces under the Crown of Castile in 1716, terminating
their separate institutions, laws and rights, within a united kingdom of Spain.
In the Spanish Constitution of 1978 Catalonia, along with the Basque Country and Galicia, was deﬁned
as a "nationality". The same constitution gave Catalonia the automatic right to autonomy, which
resulted in the Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia of 1979.
Both the 1979 Statute of Autonomy and the current one, approved in 2006, state that "Catalonia, as a
nationality, exercises its self-government constituted as an Autonomous Community in accordance
with the Constitution and with the Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia, which is its basic institutional
law, always under the law in Spain".
The Parliament of Catalonia is the legislative body of the Generalitat and represents the citizens of
Catalonia. It is elected every four years by universal suffrage, and it has powers to legislate in different
matters such as education, health, culture, internal institutional and territorial organization, election
and control of the President of the Generalitat and the Government, budget and others, according with
the Statute of Autonomy.
On 9 November 2015, Catalan lawmakers approved a plan for secession from Spain by 2017 with a
majority vote 72 to 63. The plan was suspended by the Spanish Constitutional Court, but the Catalan
government has insisted that it will complete the plan despite the suspension. On 9 June 2017, the
Catalan government announced that an independence referendum would be held 1 October 2017.
However, Spanish courts had declared the referendum to be illegal, and the Public Prosecutor's Oﬃce
of Catalonia ordered the seizure of paraphernalia related to the referendum, including ballots, ballot
boxes, promotional materials, and websites.
A controversial independence referendum was held in Catalonia on 1 October 2017, using a disputed
voting process. It was declared illegal on 6 September 2017 and suspended by the Constitutional
Court of Spain because it breached the 1978 Constitution. Subsequently, the European Commission
agreed that the referendum was illegal. The referendum asked the question: "Do you want Catalonia to
become an independent state in the form of a republic?
One sixth of the Italian population or about 10 million people live in Lombardy
(16.2% of the national italian population), making it the second most densely
populated region in Italy after Campania.
The primary religion is Catholicism; signiﬁcant religious minorities include
Christian Waldenses, Protestants and Orthodox, as well as Jews, Sikh and
As of 2013, the gross domestic product (GDP) of Lombardy, equal to over €350
billion, accounts for about 20% of the total GDP of Italy. When this measure is
considered by inhabitant, it results in a value of €33,066 per inhabitant, which is
more than 25% higher than the national average of €25,729.
Lombardy's development has been marked by the growth of the services sector
since the 1980s, and in particular by the growth of innovative activities in the
sector of services to enterprises and in credit and ﬁnancial services. At the
same time, the strong industrial vocation of the region has not suffered.
Lombardy is one of the Four Motors for Europe.
It had many different rulers and was part of many empires. In the modern era, the
restoration of Austrian rule in 1815, as the Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia, was
characterized by the struggle with the new ideals introduced by the Napoleonic era. The
popular republic established by the 1848 revolution was short-lived, its suppression
leading to renewed Austrian rule. This came to a decisive end when Lombardy was
annexed to the Kingdom of Italy 1859 as a result of the Second Italian Independence War.
The politics of Lombardy take place in a framework of a presidential representative
democracy, whereby the President of the Region is the head of government, and of a
pluriform multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the Regional Government.
Legislative power is vested in the 80 members Regional Council.
Italy is subdivided into 20 regions (regioni).
Article 116 of the Italian Constitution grants to ﬁve regions (namely Sardinia, Sicily,
Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, Aosta Valley and Friuli-Venezia Giulia) home rule,
acknowledging their powers in relation to legislation, administration and ﬁnance. These
regions became autonomous in order to take into account cultural differences and
protect linguistic minorities. Moreover, the government wanted to prevent their secession
from Italy after the Second World War.
The 2017 referendum in Lombardy is a regional referendum consultation that
took place in Lombardy on October 22, 2017. The referendum was deliberated
by the regional council to get the opinion of the constituents of the region
regarding the possible request for additional powers and special conditions of
autonomy to its own territorial entity, according to Article 116, paragraph 3, of
the Italian Constitution.
In the referendum no quorum was required, and vote was held electronically.
The turnout was of 38% and YES vote won with 96% of the voters against 4% of