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  1. 1. Leadership
  2. 2. Leadership Defined The process of directing the behavior of others towards the accomplishment of some objective. Directing means causing individuals to act in a certain way or to follow a particular course. Ideally, the course is consistent with such factors as established organizational policies, procedures, and job description. ORGANIZATIONAL GOALS ORGANIZING LEADING (INFLUENCING) CONTROLLING PLANNING ORGANIZATIONAL GOALS ORGANIZING LEADING (INFLUENCING) CONTROLLING PLANNING
  3. 3. Parts of Leadership 1. “One having to do with vision, direction, values, and purposes;” 2. “Inspiring and motivating people to work together with a common vision and purpose” FROM: STEPHEN COVEY, “PRINCIPLE CENTERED LEADERSHIP”
  4. 4. Leader versus Manager Debate “Leading is not the same as managing.” “Leadership occurs only at the top levels of organizations and managing occurs in the levels farther down the organization.” “Leadership occurs (or should occur) throughout the organization, but still use the term "leadership" mostly to refer to the top positions in the organization.” “Managing and leading occur at many levels of the organization.” “Leaders and managers are two separate groups of people that would reside in organizations.”
  5. 5. Leader Versus Manager Managers focus on Leadership focuses on • Goals & objectives • Vision • Telling how and when • Selling what and why • Shorter range • Longer range • Organization & structure • People • Autocracy • Democracy • Restraining • Enabling • Maintaining • Developing • Conforming • Challenging • Imitating • Originating • Administrating • Innovating • Directing & Controlling • Inspiring trust • Procedures • Policy • Consistency • Flexibility • Risk-avoidance • Risk-opportunity • Bottom line • Top line Good managers do Good leadership does the things right the right thing Sources: Adapted from Warren Bennis On Becoming a Leader, Addison Wesley, 1989; J. W. McLean & William WeitzelLeadership, Magic or Method?, AMACOM, 1991; Stephen R.Covey Principle-Centered Leadership, Summit Books, 1991
  6. 6. Effective Manager vs Effective Leader Effective management involves the creation of a positive work environment in which the organization and the employees have the opportunity (and the incentives) to achieve high performance. Effective leadership, by contrast, is the ability to influence others to achieve the goals of the organization.
  7. 7. Leader versus Manager “Leadership is the highest component of management.” (Stephen Covey). “Modern executives need to combine management and leadership”. (Certo) “The New Managers for the New Economy: Shift from Management to Leadership” (Warren Bennis) New Manager Classical Managerial Work New Leadership Task Planning Organizing Controlling Creating vision and inspiring Aligning the web of relations Empowering and coaching
  8. 8. The Most Effective Managers Over the Long Term are also Leaders Managers Leaders Leaders Who Are Not Managers Managers Who Are Not Leaders Managers Who Are Also Leaders
  9. 9. Leadership and Management Transactional Leaders Focus on fair exchanges with members to motivate achieving goals by: • Clarifying role or task requirements • Setting up structures • Providing appropriate rewards • Being considerate of the needs of subordinates Personal characteristics: • Take pride in running smoothly and efficiently • Have a sense of commitment to the organization • Encourage conformity to norms and values
  10. 10. Leadership and Management Leadership The process of influencing others so that their work efforts lead to the achievement of organizational goals. Leadership versus Management Are leading and managing different functions? • Are leaders managers? • Are there substitutes for leadership?
  11. 11. Leadership and Management (cont’d) Transformational Leaders Focus on inspiring change in members and the organization by: • Inspiring and arousing others to unite in seeking extraordinary performance accomplishments • Challenging the status quo and stimulating change in the organization’s mission, strategy, structure, and culture
  12. 12. Leadership and Management (cont’d) Transformational Leaders (cont’d) Personal characteristics: • Identify with followers, creating personal loyalty. • Motivate employees to transcend individual goals for the sake of a team or organization by articulating a clear vision. • Pay personal attention to followers’ needs by supporting and encouraging followers in their attempts to work toward the vision. • Challenge followers to be innovative, model new behaviors, and exhibit a high moral standard in their actions.
  13. 13. What Do You Think? Are Leaders Born or Made? Consider leaders whom you know or are familiar with. Are they born leaders or were they made leaders through learning and life experience?
  14. 14. Mainstream Leadership Leadership Traits The desire to lead Drive Self-confidence Honesty and integrity Intelligence and job-relevant knowledge Charisma A special trait or “gift” that some leaders have to attract and inspire others.
  15. 15. Mainstream Leadership (cont’d) Charismatic Leader Traits Are enthusiastic and self-confident Relate to others on an interpersonal level Are superior motivators Persuasive communicators of their vision Are risk takers Are sensitive to follower needs Display extraordinary behaviors in pursuit of their vision
  16. 16. Mainstream Leadership (cont’d) Leadership Behavior Dimensions of leadership behavior • Consideration – Supportive, relational, and/or employee-oriented – Related to employee satisfaction • Initiating structure – Directive, structural, and/or task-oriented – Related to productivity Digital Vision at Getty Images®
  17. 17. Figure 15.1: The Leadership Grid
  18. 18. Mainstream Leadership (cont’d) Situational (Contingency) Leadership The situation determines which leadership style is effective at maximizing productivity. An effective leadership style in one situation will not necessarily work in another situation. Contingency Models Fiedler’s Contingency Theory House’s Path-Goal Theory Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership
  19. 19. Mainstream Leadership (cont’d) Fiedler’s Contingency Theory Assumes that a leader’s style is either relationship- oriented or task-oriented and that this style is fixed. Leaders will need to seek out or be assigned positions that fit their style. Situational Contingencies Leader-member relations Task structure Position power
  20. 20. Figure 15.2: Summary of Fiedler’s Situational Contingencies
  21. 21. Mainstream Leadership (cont’d) House’s Path-Goal Theory Focuses on what leaders can do to motivate and align their employees’ behavior to achieve organizational goals. Leader’s role is direction and support by: 1.Clearly identifying the outcomes subordinates are trying to obtain in the workplace 2.Rewarding high performance and the attainment of work goals 3.Clarifying for subordinates the path that will bring about the attainment of work goals
  22. 22. Mainstream Leadership (cont’d) Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Theory Focused on the characteristics of followers (personal readiness) in determining appropriate leadership behavior. Situational Leadership II (Blanchard) Posits basing leadership style on developmental level of subordinates • Competence (formerly ability) • Commitment (formerly willingness)
  23. 23. Figure 15.3: Four Basic Mainstream Leadership Styles
  24. 24. Mainstream Leadership (cont’d) Integrated Mainstream Leadership Theory: Behavioral perspective: a leader’s style can be described as a combination of supportive (relational) and directive (task-oriented) behaviors. Leadership style depends on contingencies, particularly a member’s or follower’s competence and commitment.
  25. 25. Digging Deeper Do We Really Need Leaders? Substitutes-for-Leadership Theory Argues that characteristics of the task and work environment may: • Substitute for the influence of leaders • Neutralize the influence of leaders • Enhance the influence of leaders
  26. 26. Multistream Leadership Servant Leadership An active approach to leadership that promotes the interests of others. Servant Leader Characteristics Help others to “grow as persons.” Want others to become “healthier, wiser, freer, more autonomous, [and] more likely to themselves become servants.” Have a positive effect on the stakeholders who are “the least privileged in society.”
  27. 27. Digging Deeper Spiritual Leadership Spirituality A state or quality of a heightened sensitivity to one’s human or transcendent spirit. Spiritual Leadership Who the leader is, the leader’s being, the leader’s within the organization. • Vision, faith, hope, and love as means to align values and build commitment. Can spiritual leadership be taught?
  28. 28. Figure 15.4: Personality Traits from Mainstream and Multistream Perspectives
  29. 29. Multistream Leadership (cont’d) Leadership Behavior Socioemotional behaviors • Include but go beyond supportive behavior to address interpersonal and emotional needs. Structural behaviors • Include but go beyond directive behavior to address the structure of the task and work context. Transparency (Multistream) versus frequency (Mainstream) of leadership behaviors
  30. 30. Multistream Leadership (cont’d) Situational Leadership Appropriate socioemotional behavior • Behavior a leader shows to others (behavioral theory) • Behavior required by others or appropriate for the situation (contingency theory). Appropriate structural behavior • Behavior that a leader initiates (behavioral theory) • Behavior that is appropriate for the situation (contingency theory).
  31. 31. Figure 15.5: Four Basic Multistream Leadership Styles
  32. 32. Multistream Leadership (cont’d) Situational Leadership Styles Enabling • Sharing or explaining information related to a job and its context. Equipping • Creating an environment for continuous learning on the job. Engaging • Encouraging affiliation and enhancing the intrinsic meaningfulness of work. Empowering • Freeing people to be responsible for work and do thing differently and possibly better than the leader might suggest.
  33. 33. Table 15.1: Contrasting and Comparing Mainstream and Multistream Leadership Styles
  34. 34. Leadership Theories Leadership Trait Theories attempts to explain distinctive characteristics accounting for leadership effectiveness to identify a set of traits that all successful leaders possess. Behavioral Leadership Theories attempt to explain distinctive styles used by effective leaders or the nature of their work. Contingency Leadership Theories attempt to explain the appropriate leadership style based on the leader, followers, and situation. Integrative Leadership Theories attempt to combine the train, behavioral, and contingency theories to explain successful influencing leader follower relationships.
  35. 35. Trait Approach to Leadership 1. Comparing the traits of those who have emerged as leaders with the trait of those who have not; and, 2. Comparing the traits of effective leaders with those of ineffective leaders Both have failed to uncover traits strongly associated with effective leaders One study did find that intelligence, initiative, and self- assurance were associated with managerial performance The single most important factor related to managerial level and performance was the manager’s supervisory ability – his/her skill in using supervisory methods in a particular situation.
  36. 36. Behavioral Approach to Leadership Behavioral characteristics of effective leaders i.e. what effective leaders do. Behavior can be learned Two aspects of leadership behavior Leadership functions • Task-related or problem solving functions • Group maintenance or social functions Leadership styles • Task-oriented style • Employee-oriented style
  37. 37. Leadership Styles Leadership Continuum From: Tannenbaum, R., & Schmidt, W. H. (1973, May/June). How to choose a leadership pattern. Harvard Business Review.
  38. 38. What is your management/leadership style?
  39. 39. Situational Management Model LOW Low Ability/ Low Motivation OUTSTANDING High Ability/ High Motivation HIGH High Ability Low Motivation MODERATE Low Ability/ High Motivation AUTOCRATIC High Directive/ Low Supportive CONSULTATIVE High Directive/ High Supportive PARTICIPATIVE Low Directive/ High Supportive EMPOWERMENT Low Directive/ Low Supportive Employees are unable to perform the task, or totally lack motivation (unwilling to perform w/o coercion) Employees have moderate ability and are motivated (have confidence) to do the task with direction. Employees have the ability to do the task but need motivation (reluctant or need confidence buildup) Employees have the ability and motivation to perform the task without direction or support. Manager tells employees What to do and how to do It and closely oversees Task performance. Manager makes decisions Without employee output. Manager sells employees on doing the task and oversees performance. manager includes employee Input in decisions while developing a supportive relationship. Manager develops motivation by developing confidence through shared decision making in a supportive relationship. Manager gives employees authority to do the task their way; employees make decisions without the manager’s input. CAPABILITY LEVELS (Employee Ability and Motivation to Perform the Task) MANAGEMENT STYLES
  40. 40. Leadership Styles OSU Studies Low Structure and High Consideration High Structure and High Consideration Low Structure and Low Consideration High Structure and Low Consideration Low High Low High INITIATING STRUCTURE CONSIDERATION Structure Behavior Consideration Behavior
  41. 41. Management Style: Importance vs Urgency IMPORTANT AND URGENT • a crisis • pressing problems • deadline driven projects. IMPORTANT BUT NOT URGENT • preparation • personal development • promoting relationships • prevention planning. NOT IMPORTANT BUT URGENT • interruptions that aren’t pressing • e-mails asking for an immediate response • reports where the purpose is obscure — find out if your input is vital • meetings that seem to drag on — focus on the agenda items relevant to you. NOT IMPORTANT/ NOT URGENT •Responding to a survey •Reading another computer magazine •Changing Windows colors •Making our e-mails look really pretty URGENT NOT URGENT IMPORTANT NOT IMPORTANT CONSOLIDATED BOSS-CENTERES AUTOCRATIC STYLE Malard Oakmark DEGREE OF URGENCY DELEGATE OR YOU DON’T DO
  42. 42. Integrative Leadership Models Transformational (Charismatic) Leadership Coaching Leadership Superleadership Entrepreneurial Leadership
  43. 43. Kouzes-Posner Behavioral Approach 1. Challenging the Process 2. Inspiring a Shared Vision 3. Enabling others to act 4. Modeling the way 5. Encouraging the heart From: Kouzes and Posner, “ The Leadership Challenge”, 1995
  44. 44. Contingency Leadership Models Fiedler’s Contingency Model Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Model House’s Path-Goal Model Vroom-Jago Leadership Model Followers Capability Motivation FollowersFollowers Capability Motivation Leader Personality traits Behavior Experience LeaderLeader Personality traits Behavior Experience Contingency Leadership Framework Variables Contingency LeadershipContingency Leadership Framework VariablesFramework Variables Situation Task Structure Environment SituationSituation Task Structure Environment
  45. 45. Fiedler’s Contingency Model Causal Variables Group Performance Contingency Variables Leader-Member relations Task Structure Position Power Leader’s LPC Score High, Medium, Low (Least Preferred Co-worker)
  46. 46. Hershey and Blanchard Situational Leadership Model High Relationships and Low Task High Relationships and High Task Low Relationships and Low Task Low Relationships and High Task Low High Low High TASK BEHAVIOR RELATIONSHIP BEHAVIOR Mature Immature “Readiness” (Providing Guidance) (Providing Supportive Behavior)
  47. 47. Evans-House’s Path-Goal Model Leader’s Style Contingency Factors Employee’s Expectations Employee’s Motivations Supportive Directive Participative Achievement- oriented Employee Characteristics Task Characteristics Employees Removing Task Obstacles Satisfaction and Performance
  48. 48. Vroom-Yetton-Jago Leadership Model Uses tradeoffs and decision trees for a range of attributes and variables: Quality Requirements (QR) Committment Requirements (CR) Leader’s Information (LI) Problem Structure (ST) Committment Probability (CP) Goal Congruence (GC) Subordinate Conflict (CO)
  49. 49. Vroom-Yetton-Jago Leadership Model Decision Making Style Description Autocratic l (Al) Leader solves the problem along using information that is readily available to him/her Autocratic ll (All) Leader obtains additional information from group members, then makes decision alone. Group members may or may not be informed. Consultative l (Cl) Leader shares problem with group members individually, and asks for information and evaluation. Group members do not meet collectively, and leader makes decision alone. Consultative ll (Cll) Leader shares problem with group members collectively, but makes decision alone Group ll (Gll) Leader meets with group to discuss situation. Leader focuses and directs discussion, but does not impose will. Group makes final decision.
  50. 50. Transformational Leadership Followers’ Behaviours Situational Factors Leader’s Behaviours Major Change Higher Effort by Followers Greater Satisfaction Increased Cohesiveness
  51. 51. Coaching Leadership Instructs followers on how to meet the special organizational challenges. Coaching behavior Listen closely Gives emotional support Shows by example what constitutes appropriate behavior
  52. 52. Superleadership Leading by showing others how to lead themselves. Teach followers how to think on their own and act constructively and independently. Objective is to develop followers which require very little leadership. FROM: Charles Manz and Henry Sims Jr., “New Superleaders”, 1989
  53. 53. Entrepreneurial Leadership Based on the attitude that the leader is self- employed. Entrepreneurial leaders act as if they play a critical role in the organization that take risk of losing money
  54. 54. Are leaders born, or made?
  55. 55. Do Men and Women Differ in Leaderhip Styles? Judy Roesner’s study …….. Men tend to rely more on their formal authority and on rewards and punishment, Women tend to use their charisma, interpersonal skills, hard work, and personal contacts.
  56. 56. Five Leadership Practices Kouzes-Posner Behavioral Approach 1. Challenging the Process 2. Inspiring a Shared Vision 3. Enabling others to act 4. Modeling the way 5. Encouraging the heart From: Kouzes and Posner, “ The Leadership Challenge”, 1995
  57. 57. Five Practices of Leaders 1. Challenging the Process Leaders search for opportunities to change the status quo Leaders look for innovative ways to change the organization They experiment and take risks They accept the inevitable disappointments as learning opportunities
  58. 58. Five Leadership Practices 2. Inspiring a Shared Vision Leaders passionately believe that they can make a difference They envision the future – ideal and unique organization Leaders enlist others in their dream They breathe life into their vision and get and get people to see possibilities into the future
  59. 59. Five Leadership Practices 3. Enabling Others to Act Leaders foster collaboration and build spirited teams They strive to create an atmosphere of trust and human dignity They strengthen each others, making each person capable
  60. 60. Five Leadership Practices 4. Modeling the Way Leaders establish principles concerning the way people (colleagues, customers, etc) should be treated and the way goals should be pursued They create standards of excellence and set an example for others to follow They set interim goals so that people can work on small wins while working towards larger objectives They unravel bureaucracy when it impedes action and set direction when people are unsure of where to go
  61. 61. Five Leadership Practices 5. Encouraging the Heart Leaders recognize contributions that individuals make, to keep hope and determination alive Leaders celebrate accomplishments They make people feel like heroes
  62. 62. Developing Leadership “Know thyself”
  63. 63. Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI) Read each sentence carefully. Then look at the rating scale and decide how frequently you engage in the behavior described. In selecting each response, please be realistic about the extent to which you actually engage in the behavior. Do not answer in terms of how you would like to see yourself or in terms of what you should be doing. Answer in terms of how you typically behave - on most days, on most projects, and with most people. Select the rating that applies in each case by choosing the number that most closely applies and recording in the blank You can only select one out of the ten. You must answer all questions
  64. 64. Developing Leadership “Managers wear square hats and learn through training. Leaders wear sombreros and opt for education.” FROM: WARREN BENNIS, “ON LEADERSHIP”
  65. 65. Learning Leadership EDUCATION Inductive Understanding Ideas Broad Process Experiential Strategy Whole brain Long-term Flexible Synthesis Imagination TRAINING Deductive Memorizing Facts Narrow Content Rote Tactics Left brain Short-term Rigid Thesis Common Sense THE SUM: MANAGER LEADER FROM: WARREN BENNIS, “ON LEADERSHIP”
  66. 66. END