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COMP 4010 - Lecture 1: Introduction to Virtual Reality

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Lecture 1 of the VR/AR class taught by Mark Billinghurst and Bruce Thomas at the University of South Australia. This lecture provides an introduction to VR and was taught on July 26th 2016.

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COMP 4010 - Lecture 1: Introduction to Virtual Reality

  1. 1. LECTURE 1: INTRODUCTION TO VIRTUAL REALITY COMP 4010 - Virtual Reality July 26th 2016 Mark Billinghurst, Bruce Thomas University of South Australia
  2. 2. Overview • Introduction • Class Overview • What is Virtual Reality? • History of Virtual Reality
  3. 3. Lecturers •  Mark Billinghurst •  Director of the Empathic Computing Lab •  Expert in AR, 3D user interfaces •  mark.billinghurst@unisa.edu.au •  Bruce Thomas •  Director of the Wearable Computing Lab •  Expert in AR/VR, wearable computing •  bruce.thomas@unisa.edu.au •  Teaching Assistants •  Tham Piumsomboon (Unity expert) •  Bradley Herbert (AR/Unity)
  4. 4. Class Logistics •  Weekly lecture (2 hrs) •  Tuesday 11am – 1pm •  Room F1-16 •  Weekly Lab (1 hr) •  Tuesday 2-3pm •  Assessment •  3 projects @ 20%, 30%, 40% •  Paper reading/class presentation @ 10% •  What you will need •  iOS or Android phone/tablet •  Google Cardboard VR display
  5. 5. Google Cardboard •  Buy a cardboard viewer or compatible viewer ($10+)
  6. 6. Unity3D •  Who has Unity3D Experience?
  7. 7. Lecture Schedule – 13 Lectures •  July 26th : 1. Introduction - (no lab) •  Aug 2nd : 2. VR Technology – Intro to Unity •  Aug 9th : 3. VR Content Creation – Intro to Cardboard SDK •  Aug 16th : 4. VR Systems – Building VR scenes in Unity •  Aug 23rd : 5. 3D User Interfaces – Scripting in Unity •  Aug 30th : 6. Interaction Design – Navigation in VR •  Sept 6th : 7. VR Applications – Interaction in VR •  Sept 13th : 8. Introduction to AR – Interaction in VR •  Oct 4th : 9. AR Tracking – Building Apps using ARToolKit •  Oct 11th : 10. AR Interface Design – AR Tracking •  Oct 18th : 11. Mobile AR – Handheld AR Interaction •  Oct 25th : 12. AR Applications - Handheld AR Interaction •  Nov 1st : 13. Research Directions - (no lab)
  8. 8. Projects •  Assignment One – VR Scene – August 23rd •  Create a VR scene with at least 10 objects in it •  Include complex 3D models, texture, skybox, lighting, animations •  Deploy to Google Cardboard •  Assignment Two – VR Interaction – September 13th •  Add interactivity to the VR scene •  Movement navigation •  Ability to select and manipulation objects •  Assignment Three – AR Application – November 1st •  Handheld AR application •  Using image based tracking •  Screen based interaction techniques
  9. 9. What You Will Learn •  What Augmented Reality/Virtual Reality is •  History of AR/VR •  Current AR/VR commercial market •  Different AR/VR applications •  Human perception side of VR/AR •  AR/VR technology •  3D user interface guidelines •  How to design good AR/VR experiences •  How to build your own AR/VR applications •  Important directions for future research in AR/VR
  10. 10. WHAT IS VIRTUAL REALITY?
  11. 11. Ivan Sutherland (1963) •  Sketchpad – first interactive graphics program
  12. 12. Ivan Sutherland Sketchpad Demo •  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DWAIp3t6SLU
  13. 13. The Ultimate Display “The ultimate display would, of course, be a room within which the computer can control the existence of matter. A chair displayed in such a room would be good enough to sit in. Handcuffs displayed in such a room would be confining, and a bullet displayed in such a room would be fatal”. Ivan Sutherland, 1965
  14. 14. An Invisible Interface
  15. 15. Holodeck (1974) •  First shown in Star Trek; The Animated Series
  16. 16. HoloDeck Video •  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oZwtVz7z0wM
  17. 17. Trend Towards Invisible Interfaces • Trend from room scale to invisible computing • Making Computers Invisible • hide the computer in the real world •  Ubiquitous Computing • put the user inside the computer •  Virtual Reality
  18. 18. Making Interfaces Invisible Rekimoto, J. and Nagao, K. 1995. The world through the computer: computer augmented interaction with real world environments. In Proceedings of the 8th Annual ACM Symposium on User interface and Software Technology. UIST '95. ACM, New York, NY, 29-36.
  19. 19. Graphical User Interfaces • Separation between real and digital worlds •  WIMP (Windows, Icons, Menus, Pointer) metaphor
  20. 20. Ubiquitous Computing • Computing and sensing embedded in real world •  Particle devices, RFID, motes, arduino, etc
  21. 21. Virtual Reality •  1985…
  22. 22. Virtual Reality • ImmersiveVR • Head mounted display, gloves • Separation from the real world
  23. 23. What is Virtual Reality?
  24. 24. VR Goggles and Gloves •  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ak-Bt7IM8Jc
  25. 25. Types of VR 2 5
  26. 26. Other Definitions Virtual reality is.. a computer technology that replicates an environment, real or imagined, and simulates a user's physical presence and environment to allow for user interaction. (Wikipedia) electronic simulations of environments experienced via head mounted eye goggles and wired clothing enabling the end user to interact in realistic three-dimensional situations. (Coates, 1992) an alternate world filled with computer-generated images that respond to human movements. (Greenbaum, 1992) an interactive, immersive experience generated by a computer (Pimental 1995)
  27. 27. Key Characteristics for VR • Virtual Reality has three key characteristics • 3D stereoscopic display • Wide field of view display • Low latency head tracking • When these three things are combined they provide a compelling immersive experience
  28. 28. Defining Characteristics •  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FPcbBJbGhmk
  29. 29. VR Experience •  “This is so real..” •  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pAC5SeNH8jw
  30. 30. Defined in Terms of Presence •  Presence is the key to defining VR in terms of experience •  Presence is defined as the sense of being in an environment •  Telepresence is defined as the experience of presence in an environment by means of a communication medium. •  A “virtual reality” is defined as a real or simulated environment in which a perceiver experiences telepresence.
  31. 31. David Zeltzer’s AIP Cube ! Autonomy – User can to react to events and stimuli. ! Interaction – User can interact with objects and environment. ! Presence – User feels immersed through sensory input and output channels Interaction Autonomy Presence VR Zeltzer, D. (1992). Autonomy, interaction, and presence. Presence: Teleoperators & Virtual Environments, 1(1), 127-132.
  32. 32. Defined in Terms of User Experience Inducing targeted behavior in an organism by using artificial sensory stimulation, while the organism has little or no awareness of the interference. (LaValle 2016) •  Targeted Behavior: Having an experience designed by another person. •  Organism: Person or other life form •  Artificial Sensory Stimulation: One or more sensors replaced by artificial means •  Awareness: Organism unaware of the interface
  33. 33. Virtuix Omni – Human on VR Treadmill •  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aTtfAQEeAJI
  34. 34. Fly on Treadmill – Insect VR •  Fruit fly on treadmill and VR display •  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1ezL8nGo--I
  35. 35. Augmented Reality 1977 – Star Wars
  36. 36. Augmented Reality Definition • Defining Characteristics [Azuma 97] • Combines Real andVirtual Images • Both can be seen at the same time • Interactive in real-time • The virtual content can be interacted with • Registered in 3D • Virtual objects appear fixed in space Azuma, R. T. (1997). A survey of augmented reality. Presence, 6(4), 355-385.
  37. 37. 2008 - CNN https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v7fQ_EsMJMs
  38. 38. •  Put AR pictures here Augmented Reality Examples
  39. 39. Pokemon GO..
  40. 40. AR vsVR
  41. 41. Making Interfaces Invisible Rekimoto, J. and Nagao, K. 1995. The world through the computer: computer augmented interaction with real world environments. In Proceedings of the 8th Annual ACM Symposium on User interface and Software Technology. UIST '95. ACM, New York, NY, 29-36.
  42. 42. From Reality toVirtual Reality Ubiquitous Computing Augmented Reality Virtual Reality
  43. 43. Milgram’s Reality-Virtuality continuum Mixed Reality Reality - Virtuality (RV) Continuum Real Environment Augmented Reality (AR) Augmented Virtuality (AV) Virtual Environment "...anywhere between the extrema of the virtuality continuum." P. Milgram and A. F. Kishino, Taxonomy of Mixed Reality Visual Displays IEICE Transactions on Information and Systems, E77-D(12), pp. 1321-1329, 1994.
  44. 44. AugmentedVirtuality • VR with windows into the real world
  45. 45. Other Context: The Metaverse • Neal Stephenson’s “SnowCrash” • The Metaverse is the convergence of: • 1) virtually enhanced physical reality • 2) physically persistent virtual space • Metaverse Roadmap • http://metaverseroadmap.org/
  46. 46. Metaverse Dimensions • Augmentation technologies that layer information onto our perception of the physical environment. • Simulation refers to technologies that model reality • Intimate technologies are focused inwardly, on the identity and actions of the individual or object; • External technologies are focused outwardly, towards the world at large;
  47. 47. Metaverse Components • Four Key Components • Virtual Worlds • Augmented Reality • Mirror Worlds • Lifelogging
  48. 48. MirrorWorlds • Mirror worlds are informationally-enhanced virtual models of the physical world. •  Google Earth, MS StreetView, Google Maps
  49. 49. Mark’s House in New Zealand
  50. 50. LifeLogging • Technologies record and report the intimate states and life histories of objects and users • Nokia LifeBlog, Nike+, FitBit
  51. 51. Narrative Clip • Wearable camera • Automatic picture capture - 2 pics/minute • http://getnarrative.com
  52. 52. Summary • Virtual Reality can be defined in a number of ways • In terms of technology • From a Presence perspective • In terms of User Experience • VR can also be classified with other technologies • Invisible Interfaces • Milgram’s Mixed Reality continuum • MetaVerse
  53. 53. HISTORY OF VR
  54. 54. VR History Timeline https://immersivelifeblog.files.wordpress.com/2015/04/vr_history.jpg
  55. 55. When anything new comes along, everyone, like a child discovering the world thinks that they’ve invented it, but you scratch a little and you find a caveman scratching on a wall is creating virtual reality in a sense. Morton Helig (Hammit 1993)
  56. 56. Early History (30,000 BC - ) The history of VR is rooted in human’s first attempts to reproduce the world around them
  57. 57. 1800’s – Capturing Reality • Panoramas (1790s) •  Immersive paintings • Photography (1820-30s) •  Oldest surviving photo (Niépce, 1826) • Stereo imagery (1830s) •  Wheatstone (1832) •  Brewster (1851) • Movies (1870s) •  Muybridge (1878) •  Roundhay Garden Scene (1888)
  58. 58. Stereo Viewers Wheatstone (1832) Brewster (1860)
  59. 59. Viewmaster (1939)
  60. 60. 3D Cinema Golden Era (1950-60s) •  Polarized 3D projection or anaglyph (red/blue)
  61. 61. 1900s – Interactive Experiences • Early Simulators (<1960s) •  Flight simulation •  Sensorama (1955) • Early HMDs (1960s) •  Philco, Ivan Sutherland • Military + University Research (1970-80s) •  US Airforce, NASA, MIT, UNC • First Commercial Wave (1980-90s) •  VPL, Virtual i-O, Division, Virtuality •  VR Arcades, Virtual Boy
  62. 62. Pygmalion's Spectacles (1935) •  Stanley Weinbaum Short Story •  Main character, Dan Burke, tries a pair of goggles The goggle provide: "a movie that gives one sight and sound [...] taste, smell, and touch. [...] You are in the story, you speak to the shadows (characters) and they reply, and instead of being on a screen, the story is all about you, and you are in it."
  63. 63. Link Trainer (1929 – 1950s) •  Flight Simulator Training •  Full six degree of freedom rotation •  Force feedback and motion control •  Simulated instruments •  Modeling common flight conditions •  Over 500,000 pilots trained
  64. 64. Link Trainer Video (1966) •  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MEKkVg9NqGM
  65. 65. Sensorama (1955) • Created by Morton Heilig • Experience Theater • Multi-sensory •  Visuals •  Sound •  Wind •  Vibration •  Smell • No financial support •  Commercial failure
  66. 66. Sensorama Video •  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vSINEBZNCks
  67. 67. Early HMD Patents
  68. 68. First HMD (1961) •  Philco Headsight– Remote Camera Viewing •  Components – HMD,closed circuit television •  Custom magnetic tracking for head orientation
  69. 69. Ivan Sutherland (1960s) 7 0 Ivan Sutherland’s Head-Mounted Display (1968)
  70. 70. Sutherland Display https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NtwZXGprxag
  71. 71. Super Cockpit (1965-80’s) •  US Airforce Research Program •  Wright Patterson Air Force Base •  Tom Furness III •  Multisensory •  Visual, auditory, tactile •  Head, eye, speech, and hand input •  Addressing pilot information overload •  Flight controls and tasks too complicated •  Research only •  big system, not safe for ejecting
  72. 72. UNC Haptic Systems (1967 – 80’s) •  Haptic/kinesthetic display system •  6D force fields of molecular structures •  Progression •  Grope I, simple fields, particle feedback •  Grope II, 1978, children’s building blocks •  Grope III, late 80’s, Remote Manipulator •  Sarcos arm
  73. 73. StarWars (1977) •  Use of 3D graphics and AR interfaces
  74. 74. Aspen Movie Map (1978) •  Andrew Lippman, MIT •  Car driven through Aspen •  4 stop motion cameras •  Pictures every 10 feet •  Interactive playback •  Played from laserdisc, touch screen •  People able to navigation in any direction •  Map interface •  3D graphics overlay •  Early version of Google StreetView
  75. 75. Aspen Movie Map Demo •  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X5Oj4S_x2Cc
  76. 76. VideoPlace (1975-80’s) •  Myron Krueger •  Graphics/gesture recognition •  Real time interaction •  VideoDesk •  camera captures gestures •  relays to remote collaborator •  gestures control graphics •  paint, draw, menu selection •  Wrote Book – Artificial Reality 2
  77. 77. VideoPlace Demo •  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dqZyZrN3Pl0
  78. 78. LEEP Optics (1979) •  Large Expanse, Extra Perspective optics •  Developed by Eric Howlett •  Lens design for extremely wide field of view •  High resolution in centre, lower resolution in periphery •  90o direct FOV, 140o corneal FOV •  Used as basis for most VR HMDs
  79. 79. LEEP Optics Design
  80. 80. Tron (1982) •  asdfa
  81. 81. The Data Glove (1981-82) • Precursor, Sayre Glove •  Univ. of Illinois, 1977 • Thomas Zimmerman (1982) • Fiber optic bend sensors •  Detecting finger bending • Commercialized by VPL •  Mattel PowerGlove (1989)
  82. 82. VPL DataGlove Demo •  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fs3AhNr5o6o
  83. 83. NASA VIEW/VIVED (1981-86) • Early HMD (McGreevy Humphries) •  LCD “Watchman” displays • VIEW (Scott Fisher) •  Polhemus tracker •  LEEP-based HMD •  3D audio (Convolvotron) •  DataGlove gesture input •  Simple graphics
  84. 84. Virtual Interface Environment Workstation •  Motorbike helmet + LEEP
  85. 85. Jaron Lanier •  Founded VPL, coined term “Virtual Reality”
  86. 86. VPL Research (1985 – 1999) • First Commercial VR Company •  Jaron Lanier, Jean-Jacques Grimaud • Provided complete systems •  Displays, software, gloves, etc •  DataGlove, EyePhone, AudioSphere
  87. 87. The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (1980s-1990s) 8 9 Head-Mounted Displays Tracking, Haptics, Applications
  88. 88. University of Washington (1989 - ) •  Human Interface Technology Laboratory (HIT Lab) •  Founded by Tom Furness III •  Many AR/VR Innovations •  Virtual Retinal Display •  ARToolKit AR Tracking library •  GreenSpace shared VR experience •  VR and pain care •  VR and Education
  89. 89. TheVirtual Retinal Display (1991) • Image scanned onto retina • Commercialized through Microvision •  Nomad System - www.mvis.com • Lead to MagicLeap technology
  90. 90. Lawnmower Man (1992)
  91. 91. VR Learning in Lawnmower Man •  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zTrgHXNAs24
  92. 92. CAVE (1992) •  Projection VR system •  3-6 wall stereo projection, viewpoint tracking •  Developed at EVL, University of Illinois Chicago •  Commercialized by Mechdyne Corporation(1996) C. Cruz-Neira, D. J. Sandin, T. A. DeFanti, R. V. Kenyon and J. C. Hart. "The CAVE: Audio Visual Experience Automatic Virtual Environment", Communications of the ACM, vol. 35(6), 1992, pp. 64–72.
  93. 93. CAVE Demo Video •  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aKL0urEdtPU
  94. 94. Desktop VR - 1995 •  Expensive - $150,000+ •  2 million polys/sec •  VGA HMD – 30 Hz •  Magnetic tracking
  95. 95. Virtual Reality was HOT! .. In 1995..
  96. 96. MyVR Predictions (1996) • I knew everyone would useVR when: • HMDs were cheap (<$500) • Computers generate millions of polys/sec • Tracking was inexpensive • Good 3D input devices
  97. 97. Rise of Commercial VR Companies •  W Industries/Virtuality (1985 - 97) •  Location based entertainment •  Virtuality VR Arcades •  Division (1989 – 1998) •  Turn key VR systems •  Visual programming tools •  Virtual i-O (1993 -1997) •  Inexpensive gamer HMDs •  Sense8 (1990 - 1998) •  WorldToolKit, WorldUp •  VR authoring tools
  98. 98. Dactyl Nightmare •  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L60wgPuuDpE
  99. 99. Overview of VR in the 1990’s https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tdAaU0CRHng&feature=youtu.be&t=1m51s
  100. 100. • April 2007 Computer World • VRVoted 7th on list of 21 biggest technology flops •  MS Bob #1
  101. 101. Lessons Learned • Don’t believe the hype • Not everything is better inVR • Many factors determine technology acceptance • Human Centered Design/Design for users • Need to move from Demo to Production • Profitable niche markets first • Follow the money
  102. 102. VR Second Wave (2010 - ) • Palmer Luckey •  HMD hacker •  Mixed Reality Lab (MxR) intern • Oculus Rift (2011 - ) •  2012 - $2.4 million kickstarter •  2014 - $2B acquisition FaceBook •  $350 USD, 110o FOV
  103. 103. The Oculus Kickstarter Video •  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aNSYscbxFAw
  104. 104. Desktop VR in 2016 • Graphics Desktop • $1,500 USD • >4 Billion poly/sec • $600 HMD • 1080x1200, 90Hz • Optical tracking • Room scale
  105. 105. Oculus Rift Sony Morpheus HTC/Valve Vive 2016 - Rise of Consumer HMDs
  106. 106. HTC Vive •  Room scale tracking •  Gesture input devices
  107. 107. Example Vive App – Tilt Brush •  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ijukZmYFX-0
  108. 108. VR2GO (2013) •  MxR Lab •  3D print VR viewer for mobiles •  Open source hardware + software •  http://projects.ict.usc.edu/mxr/diy/vr2go/ •  Early Mobile VR viewer
  109. 109. Google Cardboard • Released 2014 (Google 20% project) • >5 million shipped/given away • Easy to use developer tools + =
  110. 110. Many Different Cardboard Viewers
  111. 111. Multiple Mobile VR Viewers Available
  112. 112. •  zxcvz
  113. 113. Gartner Hype Cycle (2016)
  114. 114. Gartner Hype Cycle (2016)
  115. 115. Projected HMD Sales •  asdf
  116. 116. Market Size
  117. 117. AR / VR Market Size •  sadf
  118. 118. AR/VR Investments •  > $1 Billion USD from VCs, > 120 deals in US alone
  119. 119. Companies •  sdfa
  120. 120. •  sdas
  121. 121. Potential for Disruption (BDMI) •  asD
  122. 122. Why 2016 won’t be like 1996 • It’s not just VR anymore • Huge amount of investment • Inexpensive hardware platforms • Easy to use content creation tools • New devices for input and output • Proven use cases – no more Hype! • Most important: Focus on User Experience
  123. 123. Conclusion •  Virtual Reality has a long history •  > 50 years of HMDs, simulators •  Key elements for VR were in place by early 1990’s •  Displays, tracking, input, graphics •  Strong support from military, government, universities •  First commercial wave failed in late 1990’s •  Too expensive, bad user experience, poor technology, etc •  We are now in second commercial wave •  Better experience, Affordable hardware •  Large commercial investment, Significant installed user base •  Will Virtual Reality be a commercial success this time?
  124. 124. www.empathiccomputing.org @marknb00 mark.billinghurst@unisa.edu.au

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