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... Energy production..
Renewable energy resources..
Non renewable energy resources..
Energy and environmental concerns..
Energy development is a field of
endeavor focused on making available
sufficient primary energy sources and
secondary energy forms to meet the
needs of society. ...
These includes SOLAR, WIND, BIOMASS, AND
SMALL HYDRO SOURCES!!!
Among the renewable sources,hydropower is the
Wind power has also a great potential. wind mills
and sails have been in use since ancient times..it’s a
fast growing resource.
The use of solar energy is through photovoltaic
The biomass resource are various types of cultivated
or unciltivated vegetation.
The energy policy of the govt. Aims to
ensure adequate energy supplies at
minimum possible costs,achieving self-
sufficiency in energy supplies and
protecting the environment from adverse
impact due to utilisation of energy
In Indian country COAL, OILAND NATURAL
GAS resources are the primary commercial
sources of energy...!!!!!
COAL: Indian ranks 3rd amongst the coal
producing countries of the world.The bulk of the
coal produced is inferior grade non-coking coal
used to meet the demands of the power sector....
Indian is the one of the least explored regions
which a oil well density of 20per 10,000sq km
as against world average of 100.
Of the 26 sedimenatary basins,only 6 have been
explored so far, accounting for 30% the
countries prognosticated reserves...s
Major product inported in 1998/99 were high
speed disel oil, kerosine and liquified petroleum
Major Energy consumption includes in these
This sector is the largest consumer of energy
consuming about 50% of the total commercial
energy produced in the country followed by the
COAL and LIGNITE contribute about 57%,
OIL and GAS around 33%,
HYDROELECTRIC POWER 3%, and
NUCLEAR POWER 0.2% these are the
commecial sources of energy used in Industrial
Industrial sector consumed 104 biilion kWh
from the utilities and 34 billion from in capative
In this sector largely consumes PETROLEUM
products__ mainly in the form of High speed
diesel(HSD)and Gasoline and accounts for nearly 50% of
Consumption of HSD increased from about 9million
tonnes in 1980/81 to 30MT in 1996/97.
The higher rates of growth in energy consumption in1990s
primarily due to increase in the share of road transport
visa-a-vis rail for both passenger & freight movements & a
phenomenal increase in the no. Of personalised vis-a-vis
This has serious implications for health and environment
This sector consumption of commercial energy has
grown significantly with increased of mechanisation
& modernisation of agricultural activities..
The relative share of electricity & diesel power as
against human & animal labor has increased
significantly from 5.37% in 1950/51 to almost 50% of
the total farm power consumed for irrigation in
Elecricity consumption by agriculture has grown
from 8.7billion kWh in 1975/76 to 23.4billion kWh in
1985/86 and to 34billion kWh in 1996/97.
The consumption of biomass(wood) energy is very
Around 78% of rural & 30% of urban households
depends on firewood.
However, the fix of traditional fuelsin the national
energy mix is decreasing as efficient commericial
fuels are increasingly substituting these.
In b/w 1970/71 & 1994/95, the annual consumption
of electricity per household went up from 7kWh to
53kWh: of kerosine from 6.6kg to 9.9kg & of
cooking gas from 0.33kg to 3.8 kg.
The environmental effects of the use of various
fuels are of serious concern owing to increasing
Pollutants associated with the combustion of
fossil fuels, viz.., SPM, SO2,Nox, & CO pose a
major threat to environmental qulity and human
The problem is compounded due to poor qulality 7
of Indian coal
In addition to the emissions, land requirements for
the disposal of fly ash generated in the thermal
power plants is a major concern.
Electric power generation is also the largest source
of GREENHOUSE gasses & accounts for 48% if
The nuclear option comes with its own set of
Large hydro projects in turn, may entail serve often
irreriable social & environmental costs including the
dislocation of people...
The contribution of natural gasses to energy
management is a significant step.
Advanced technologies for electric power generation
have resulted in energy efficiency gains.
Fuel cells that combine hydrogen and oxygen
electrochemically to produce electricity, water and
Biomass as another source energy. It has
environmental implications and its is use is being
examined after taking into consideration the
biodiversity and pollution effects aspects.
Photovolatic cells trap solar energy to produce