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Citizen Science & Geographical Technologies: creativity, learning, and engagement

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These slides are from a keynote talk at the Esri Education User Conference in 2016, about citizen science and extreme citizen science, and their link to geographical technologies

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Citizen Science & Geographical Technologies: creativity, learning, and engagement

  1. 1. Citizen Science & Geographical Technologies: creativity, learning, and engagement Muki Haklay Extreme Citizen Science (ExCiteS) research group, UCL @mhaklay @UCL_ExCiteS
  2. 2. Acknowledgement This talk would not be possible without the generosity of the many people and communities that we have worked with over the years…
  3. 3. Acknowledgement … and the funders, project partners, and sponsors that we’ve worked with (and will work with in the future)
  4. 4. Outline • Citizen science – why now? • Citizen science today: across disciplines, technologies, and levels of engagement • Pushing citizen science to the extremes • Learning & creativity in citizen science • Over to you!
  5. 5. Citizen Science (OED 2014) citizen science n. scientific work undertaken by members of the general public, often in collaboration with or under the direction of professional scientists and scientific institutions. citizen scientist n. (a) a scientist whose work is characterized by a sense of responsibility to serve the best interests of the wider community (now rare); (b) a member of the general public who engages in scientific work, often in collaboration with or under the direction of professional scientists and scientific institutions; an amateur scientist.
  6. 6. Citizen Science & Science Early science (1600’s – early 1800’s) Professional science (late 1800’s – 1900’s) Opening Science (since 2000s)
  7. 7. Citizen Science & Science Early science (1600’s – earl 1800’s) Professional science (late 1800’s – 1900’s) Opening Science (since 2000s) Illiteracy Basic to High-school Higher Education
  8. 8. Citizen Science & Science Early science (1600’s – early 1800’s) Professional science (late 1800’s – 1900’s) Opening Science (since 2000s) Illiteracy Basic to High-school Higher Education Citizen Science as Gentlemen/ Gentlewomen science Mary Anning (1799-1847)
  9. 9. Citizen Science & Science Early science (1600’s – early 1800’s) Professional science (late 1800’s – 1900’s) Opening Science (since 2000s) Illiteracy Basic to High-school Higher Education Citizen Science as Gentlemen/ Gentlewomen science Citizen Science diminishing © WMO–No. 919 Volunteer rainfall observer Rick Grocke checks the rain gauge at Tanami Downs cattle station in the Northern Territory of Australia
  10. 10. The era of professional science • Involvement continued: archaeology, astronomy, ornithology, conservation, meteorology … • No recognition, views of volunteers as ‘untrustworthy’ contributors Shoemaker-Levy 9 on 17 May 1994
  11. 11. Why Now? • Societal trends: – Education and qualifications – Leisure – Sharing economies / peer production systems • Technological trends: – Internet access (broadband) – Collaborative Web – Mobile devices – DIY electronics
  12. 12. Years of school completed by population 25+ years 1940-2009
  13. 13. Part of a global trend… >200 million Source: UNESCO
  14. 14. … with many PhD students (>1%) >2.5 million Source: UNESCO
  15. 15. Leisure • Across the developed world there have been a marked declined in the number of working hours Source: the Atlantic
  16. 16. Sharing economies • In many areas, especially in production and sharing of information
  17. 17. Collaborative Web
  18. 18. Active mobile-broadband subscriptions, 2007-2013* R Nial Bradshaw
  19. 19. DIY electronics
  20. 20. Citizen Science & Science Early science (1600’s – early 1800’s) Professional science (late 1800’s – 1900’s) Opening Science (since 2000s) Illiteracy Basic to High-school Higher Education Citizen Science as Gentlemen/ Gentlewomen science Citizen Science diminishing Citizen Science as open & inclusive science
  21. 21. Citizen Science Today Haklay, M., 2013, Citizen Science and Volunteered Geographic Information – overview and typology of participation in Crowdsourcing Geographic Knowledge Citizen Science Long running Citizen Science Ecology & biodiversity Meteorology Astronomy Citizen Cyberscience Volunteer computing Volunteer thinking Passive Sensing Community Science Participatory sensing DIY Science Civic Science
  22. 22. A new era of citizen science Haklay, M., 2013, Citizen Science and Volunteered Geographic Information – overview and typology of participation in Crowdsourcing Geographic Knowledge Citizen Science Long running Citizen Science Ecology & biodiversity Meteorology Astronomy Citizen Cyberscience Volunteer computing Volunteer thinking Passive Sensing Community Science Participatory sensing DIY Science Civic Science
  23. 23. Biodiversity/Ecology Participating in Big Garden Bridwatch (source: RSPB) Participating in BioBlitz (source: OPAL, Esri) Kerski, J., 2016, Mapping BioBlitz Field Data in ArcGIS Online Esri GIS Education Community Blog
  24. 24. Meteorology • Community Collaborative Rain, Hail & Snow Network Rebecca Jacobson
  25. 25. Astronomy Using an app to learn about the importance of dark skies – and about the stars
  26. 26. A new era of citizen science Haklay, M., 2013, Citizen Science and Volunteered Geographic Information – overview and typology of participation in Crowdsourcing Geographic Knowledge Citizen Science Long running Citizen Science Ecology & biodiversity Meteorology Astronomy Citizen Cyberscience Volunteer computing Volunteer thinking Passive Sensing Community Science Participatory sensing DIY Science Civic Science
  27. 27. Volunteer computing You can join World Community Grid at http://www.worldcommunitygrid.org/
  28. 28. Volunteer Thinking
  29. 29. Passive Sensing
  30. 30. A new era of citizen science Haklay, M., 2013, Citizen Science and Volunteered Geographic Information – overview and typology of participation in Crowdsourcing Geographic Knowledge Citizen Science Long running Citizen Science Ecology & biodiversity Meteorology Astronomy Citizen Cyberscience Volunteer computing Volunteer thinking Passive Sensing Community Science Participatory sensing DIY Science Civic Science
  31. 31. Mapping for ChangeEveryAware website at http://www.everyaware.eu
  32. 32. Download WideNoise at http://cs.everyaware.eu
  33. 33. October2012
  34. 34. More information at http://publiclaboratory.org DIY/Civic Science
  35. 35. Coming soon: the Crowd & the Cloud Follow the Crowd & the Cloud at crowdandcloud.org
  36. 36. Gathering pace…
  37. 37. Problem definition Data collection Visualisation & analysis Action Classification & basic analysis Basic School High School Postgraduate PhD Literacy Current Citizen Science University/ College
  38. 38. Problem definition Data collection Visualisation & analysis Action Classification & basic analysis Basic School High School University/ College Postgraduate PhD Literacy Where next for Citizen Science?
  39. 39. Participation in citizen science • Collaborative science – problem definition, data collection and analysis Level 4 ‘Extreme/ Up-Science’ • Participation in problem definition and data collection Level 3 ‘Participatory science’ • Citizens as basic interpreters Level 2 ‘Distributed intelligence’ • Citizens as sensors Level 1 ‘Crowdsourcing’ Haklay. 2013. Citizen Science and volunteered geographic information: Overview and typology of participation, Crowdsourcing Geographic Knowledge Haklay, M., 2013, Citizen Science and Volunteered Geographic Information – overview and typology of participation in Crowdsourcing Geographic Knowledge
  40. 40. Extreme Citizen Science Extreme Citizen Science (ExCiteS) is a situated, bottom-up practice that takes into account local needs, practices and culture and works with broad networks of people to design and build new devices and knowledge creation processes that can transform the world. Creating technologies that are designed to be embedded within participatory processes.
  41. 41. Engagement: Free, Prior Informed Consent 44
  42. 42. Jerome Lewis, ExCiteS
  43. 43. Participatory Software design
  44. 44. Recording community resources
  45. 45. Towards Intelligent Maps Survey 123 ArcGIS Web Services
  46. 46. Ashaninka village “Apiwtxa” José Frank Melo
  47. 47. Community based monitoring Carolina Comandulli
  48. 48. Earthquake preparedness
  49. 49. What Citizen Science offers? • Learning to volunteer for a wider goal (contribute to science) • Awareness of environmental and scientific issues • Education in science, technology, engineering & mathematics • Developing new skills and insights • Linking studies to place and local community • Adapting to different types of learning
  50. 50. What do they learn? 1. Task/game mechanics 2. Pattern recognition 3. On topic learning 5. Off topic knowledge and skills 4. Scientific process 6. Personal development Participation as volunteer Source: Laure Kloetzer, University of Geneva See citizencyberlab.eu
  51. 51. Rich diversity: • A taxonomy on learning outcomes in citizen science projects • 3 mains categories: 1. personal development, 2. generic knowledege & skills, 3. project-specific knowledge and skills Source: Laure Kloetzer, University of Geneva
  52. 52. Model for volunteers who lead projects Source: Charlene Jennett, UCL
  53. 53. Doing It Together Science ‘escalator’ See TogetherScience.eu
  54. 54. Start you own project
  55. 55. Other opportunities • Join the Citizen Science Association, or the European Citizen Science Association – both have education working groups • Link to local or national projects (e.g. eBird, iNaturalist, CoCoRHaS) • Check citizenscience.gov and SciStarter.com • Let’s talk more in the unconference session (Tuesday 8:30am)
  56. 56. Conclusions • Citizen science has grown dramatically over the past decade • With suitable effort, it is possible to engage people at all levels, and all stages of the process • Citizen science provide ample opportunities for creativity and learning, and geographical technologies have a major role to play in this
  57. 57. • Follow us: – http://www.ucl.ac.uk/excites – Twitter: @UCL_ExCiteS @mhaklay – Blog: http://uclexcites.wordpress.com http://povesham.wordpress.com – m.haklay@ucl.ac.uk

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