2. Lecture 01 - Agenda
1. Definition of pharmaceutical chemistry
2. Introduction of pharmaceutical chemistry
3. Analytical chemistry
4. Introduction to Analytical Instruments/Terms
5. Analytical Devices
6. Analytical Devices, Cont.
7. Common instruments
8. Applications of Instrumentation
3. (Pharm Chem)
The science dealing with the composition and preparation of chemical compounds
used in medical diagnoses and therapies.
Pharmaceutical chemistry can be define as
The chemistry of medicines, their composition, synthesis, analysis, storage, and ac
Pharmaceutical chemistry is the branch of this field of study that can tick
therapeutic since it includes analysis, study, search and tuning of organic and
inorganic compounds to be used in medicine. Pharmaceutical chemistry is one
of the most direct applications in society, since its impact on this is so
important that it represents one of the first variants discussed in finding a new
element or component in the natural, is basically wonder if what's new that
you are getting or synthesizing serves as a treatment for any disease.
Pharmaceutical Chemistry Definition
It's a very deep and complex discipline that combines knowledge of organic
chemistry,, combinatorial chemistry, bioinformatics, biochemistry,
pharmacodynamics, Biopharmacy and pharmacokinetics. This discipline has
had a marked development in base to establish molecular descriptors and
seeded or molecular prototypes, to develop new bioactive molecules and
establishing a correlation between the 3D molecular structure and bioactives
from each structure attributes, this science has allowed amazing discoveries
regarding the involvement of the chemistry of molecules in their
Pharmaceutical chemistry is focused on the qualitative aspects of the
Pharmaceutical chemistry is a highly interdisciplinary science combining
organic and inorganic chemistry with biochemistry, computational
chemistry, pharmacology, the Pharmacognosy, molecular biology, statistics,
and physical chemistry.
Undertakes study and apply all the traditional organic chemistry concepts to
the development of substances that could contribute in one way or another to
the pharmaceutical sciences regarding the biological effects that different
substances chemical, usually heterocyclic, could have on the human body.
1. The use of instruments; work performed with inst
2. a group of instruments used for a specific purpose
The application of specific rules to develop a measur
ement device or instrument in a research study.
6. Quantitative and Qualitative Properties
Analytical Chemistry deals with methods for determining the
chemical composition of samples.
• Qualitative Analysis (identification) provides information
about the identity of species or functional groups in the
sample (an analyte can be identified).
Determines the composition and/or properties of a substance
• Quantitative Analysis provides numerical information of
analyte (quantitate the exact amount or concentration).
Determines the amount or proportions of a substance
7. Analytical Methodology
1. Plan: Qualitative or quantitative or both; what
kind of information have; which technique is
2. Sampling: Accuracy depends on proper
sampling, characteristic of sample is very
important, required good representative
sample (from top, middle and bottom and mix
up and take average sample).
3. Sample preparation: depends on analytical
4. Analytical measurement:
5. Data Analysis: Whether the data make sense
8. Analytical Methods
• Classical Methods: Wet chemical methods
such as precipitation, extraction, distillation,
boiling or melting points, gravimetric and
• Instrumental Methods: Analytical
measurements (conductivity, electrode
potential, light absorption or emission, mass-
to-charge ratio, fluorescence etc.) are made
9. Types of Instrumental Methods
. Spectroscopic methods:
a. Atomic spectroscopy
b. Molecular spectroscopy etc
2. Chromatographic methods (separations):
Is a measurement of the hydrogen ion
concentration [H + ] of a solution that
indicates how acidic or basic a substance is.
pH below 7 are acidic above 7 are basic and 7
Is a measurement of potential created by the
ratio of reducing agents to oxidizing agents
present in the sample.
Where pH measurement is specific to
hydrogen ion concentration ORP
measurement is sensitive to free electron
14. pH Meter/ORP Meter
Measures the acidity and
the alkalinity of a solution
by measuring the hydrogen
Compares the hydrogen
ions to a buffered
Measures free electron
potential in the sample.
Are calibrated in
millivolts, positive mV
means the loss of
electrons and negative
mV indicates reduction
means the gain of
15. Gas Chromatograph (GC)
Provides a molecular separation of
one or more individual components
in a sample.
This method identifies the chemical
composition of the molecules within
the separated sample.
GC consists of an injection port that
vaporizes the sample, a column (a
hollow tube filled with a special
material called packing), a detector
that senses the separated gases, and
an output device that generates a
chromatogram (peaks on a graph)
16. Gas Chromatograph (GC)
The packing material is a finely ground, inert porous
The packing is called the stationary phase
The carrier gas pushes the vaporized sample gases is called
the mobile phase
All components of the sample enter the column
simultaneously and move through the length of the column
at different rates according to the coefficient of adsorption,
MW, vapor pressure, and molecular size.
17. Mass Spectrometer
Separates a gaseous stream into a spectrum
according to mass and charge
Generally a gas sample is converted into an
accelerated stream of highly charged ions. The
sample is then sent through a magnetic field and then
into a detector.
The more massive particles tend to go in a straight
line while the less massive particles tend to move
away from the center
The detector then registers these positions
Mass spectrometer provides wt. percent data and is
faster than a GC
Detects and quantifies chemical components in a process
sample by measuring variations in transmittance(or
absorption) of a spectrum of light passed through the sample.
It may use visible light (VIS), ultraviolet light (UV), or infrared (IR)
light as a source and detection measurement.
20. Applications of Instrumental Methods
1. Bioanalytical: biological molecules
and/or biological matrices (e.g., proteins,
amino acids, blood, urine)
2. Environmental: pesticides, pollution, air,
3. Material science: polymers,
characterization of new materials
4. Forensic science (application of science
to the law): body fluids, DNA, gun shot
residue, hair, fibers, elemental analysis,
drugs, alcohols, poisoning, fingerprints,