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Prepared by :                Nada Ibrahim
Occur   in all Eukaryotic cells.Involved   in energy production.contain   enzymes for citric-acid cycleOxidative   pho...
shape       Very   small organelles(0.5 *1-2 µm). Higher plants Rod shape with hemispheroidal ends, Some                ...
Distribution Cells with active processes, Near            wall ingrowths or chloroplast.            Free   in the cytopl...
Numbers       Depends   on what the cell needs to do.   Examples   Flagellated   protozoa or sperm, they are found      ...
Double   membrane organelle.            The   double-membrane described as a large            wrinkled bag packed inside...
The   matrix which fills the space of innermitochondrial membrane.The   cristae space (formed by infoldings ofthe inner ...
Forming   channels allow molecules of about10 kilodaltons or less to freely diffuse.The   amount of phospholipids is hig...
The    inner membrane has infoldings calledthe cristae.   The cristae greatly increase the totalsurface area of the inne...
Inner membraneHighly   complex structure, including theelectron transport system, the ATPsynthetase complex, and transpor...
Mitochondrial MatrixContains    dissolved o2, h2o, co2, therecyclable intermediates that serve asenergy shuttles.   Diff...
Mitochondrial MatrixContain   enzymes for the synthesis of ATP,ribosomes, tRNAs and the mitochondrialDNA.Matrix   compon...
Mitochondrial developmentHuman    mitochondrial DNA sequence revealed16,569 base pairs encoding 37 total genes:22 tRNA, 2...
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Mitochondrial structure

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talk about shape size and mitochondrial structure

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Mitochondrial structure

  1. 1. Prepared by : Nada Ibrahim
  2. 2. Occur in all Eukaryotic cells.Involved in energy production.contain enzymes for citric-acid cycleOxidative phosphoryation.Production of ATP from ADP.
  3. 3. shape Very small organelles(0.5 *1-2 µm). Higher plants Rod shape with hemispheroidal ends, Some are cup or filamentous shape. Vary from globular to threadlike or branched Animals Long filaments , not spatial in arrangement.
  4. 4. Distribution Cells with active processes, Near wall ingrowths or chloroplast. Free in the cytoplasm.  Packed in rigid structures, such among the myofibrils of cardiac muscle tissue.
  5. 5. Numbers Depends on what the cell needs to do. Examples Flagellated protozoa or sperm, they are found around the base of the flagellum. Cardiac muscle, they surround the contractile parts. Hummingbird flight muscle is the richest sources of mitochondria. Surviving When energy is not enough, more mitochondria are created ,they grow, move, and combine with other mitochondria.
  6. 6. Double membrane organelle. The double-membrane described as a large wrinkled bag packed inside of a smaller, unwrinkled bag. The two membranes create 3 compartments within the organelle differ in structure and function.Compartments The space between two membranes is called inter-membrane space.
  7. 7. The matrix which fills the space of innermitochondrial membrane.The cristae space (formed by infoldings ofthe inner membrane). Is a smooth simple phospholipid bilayer membrane. Ions,nutrient molecules, ATP, etc pass through outer membrane with ease.
  8. 8. Forming channels allow molecules of about10 kilodaltons or less to freely diffuse.The amount of phospholipids is higher thanintegral proteins called porins.The mitochondrial outer membrane canassociate with the (ER) membrane.The ER-mitochondria calcium signaling andthe transfer of lipids between the ER andmitochondria.
  9. 9. The inner membrane has infoldings calledthe cristae. The cristae greatly increase the totalsurface area of the inner membrane for thecomplexes and proteins.Is freely permeable only to O2,CO2,H2O.Regulating transfer of metabolites acrossthe membrane.It is made up of a large number of proteinsthan phospholipids that control producingATP.
  10. 10. Inner membraneHighly complex structure, including theelectron transport system, the ATPsynthetase complex, and transportproteins.NADH dehydrogenase which acceptprotons carried by NADH fromtricarboxylic acid cycle.Transmembrane proton channelsimportant in ATP synthesis.
  11. 11. Mitochondrial MatrixContains dissolved o2, h2o, co2, therecyclable intermediates that serve asenergy shuttles. Diffusion is very slow due to folds cristae.Citric acid cycle reactions occurrence.
  12. 12. Mitochondrial MatrixContain enzymes for the synthesis of ATP,ribosomes, tRNAs and the mitochondrialDNA.Matrix components can diffuse to innermembrane complexes and transportproteins within short time.
  13. 13. Mitochondrial developmentHuman mitochondrial DNA sequence revealed16,569 base pairs encoding 37 total genes:22 tRNA, 2rRNA, and 13 peptide genes.Has its own independent DNA which is similar tobacterial DNA. Posses the machinery to manufacture their ownRNAs and proteins.Reproduce by fission like bacteria do. due to theirindependence from the nuclear DNA and similaritieswith bacteria.

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