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Donum vitae

  1. 1. Donum Vitae: Gift of Life (1987) lobo’s
  2. 2. Various procedures now make it possible to intervene not only in order to assist but also to dominate the processes of procreation. These techniques can enable man to "take in hand his own destiny", but they also expose him "to the temptation to go beyond the limits of a reasonable dominion over nature". They might constitute progress in the service of man, but they also involve serious risks. (I) 1.BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH AND THE TEACHING OF THE CHURCH lobo’s
  3. 3. ………………The rapid development of technological discoveries gives greater urgency to this need to respect the criteria just mentioned: science without conscience can only lead to man's ruin. "Our era needs such wisdom more than bygone ages if the discoveries made by man are to be further humanized. For the future of the world stands in peril unless wiser people are forthcoming". 2. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY AT THE SERVICE OF THE HUMAN PERSON lobo’s
  4. 4. Which moral criteria must be applied in order to clarify the problems posed today in the field of biomedicine? The answer to this question presupposes a proper idea of the nature of the human person in his bodily dimension. For it is only in keeping with his true nature that the human person can achieve self-realization as a "unified totality":and this nature is at the same time corporal and spiritual. 3. ANTHROPOLOGY ANDPROCEDURES IN THE BIOMEDICAL FIELD lobo’s
  5. 5. lobo’s Pope John Paul II forcefully reaffirmed this to the World Medical Association when he said: "Each human person, in his absolutely unique singularity, is constituted not only by his spirit, but by his body as well. Thus, in the body and through the body, one touches the person himself in his concrete reality. To respect the dignity of man consequently amounts to safeguarding this identity of the man 'corpore et anima unus', as the Second Vatican Council says (Gaudium et Spes, 14, par.1) 3. ANTHROPOLOGY ANDPROCEDURES IN THE BIOMEDICAL FIELD
  6. 6. 4. FUNDAMENTAL CRITERIA FOR A MORAL JUDGMENT The fundamental values connected with the techniques of artificial human procreation are two lobo’s
  7. 7. Two Fundamental Values 1. The life of the child called into existence • Implications for the parentage of the child • Treatment of embryo lobo’s
  8. 8. Two Fundamental Values 2. The special nature of the transmission of human life in marriage • Conception should be direct result of mutual self- giving • Spouses should become parents only by each other lobo’s
  9. 9. Artificial Reproductive Technologies (ART) lobo’s
  10. 10. Artificial Reproductive Technologies (ART) lobo’s
  11. 11. • Assisted reproductive technology (ART) is the technology used to achieve pregnancy in procedures such as fertility medication, artificial insemination, in vitro fertilization and surrogacy. • Fertility therapies where eggs and sperm are manipulated • Involve surgically removing eggs from women and combining them with sperm in the laboratory Artificial Reproductive Technologies (ART) lobo’s
  12. 12. General History of ARTs o 1790 ― First artificial insemination in humans o 1934 ― First animal IVF by Gregory Pincus o 1944 ― First human IVF by John Rock o 1978 ― First IVF baby born, result of abortionist Patrick Steptoe’s efforts with Roberts Edwards Both Pincus and Rock were OC pioneers lobo’s
  13. 13. CCC.2377 [Reproductive Technologies] dissociate the sexual act from the procreative act. The act which brings the child into existence is no longer an act by which two persons give themselves to one another, but one that entrusts the life and identity of the embryo into the power of doctors and biologists and establishes the domination of technology over the origin and destiny of the human person. Such a relationship of domination is in itself contrary to the dignity and equality that must be common to parents and children. Catechism lobo’s
  14. 14. lobo’s
  15. 15. Whose life matters? lobo’s
  16. 16. “I demand my rights!” lobo’s
  17. 17. Right to have a child? On the part of the spouses, the desire for a child is natural: it expresses the vocation to fatherhood and motherhood as inscribed in conjugal love. This desire can be even stronger if the couple is affected by sterility which appears incurable. Nevertheless, marriage does not confer upon the spouses the right to have a child, but only the right to perform those natural acts which are per se ordered to procreation. ( DV II:8) lobo’s
  18. 18. Children are Gifts A true and proper right to a child would be contrary to the child’s dignity and nature. The child is not an object to which one has a right, nor can he be considered as an object of ownership: rather, a child is a gift, “the supreme gift” and the most gratuitous gift of marriage…(II:8) lobo’s
  19. 19. Lives of Service …sterility is certainly a difficult trial …spouses who find themselves in this sad situation are called to find in it an opportunity for sharing in a particular way in the Lord’s cross, the source of spiritual fruitfulness. Sterile couples must not forget that “even when procreation is not possible, conjugal life does not for this reason lose its value.” (II:8) lobo’s
  20. 20. Rights of the child lobo’s
  21. 21. Rights of the child The child has the right to be conceived, carried in the womb, brought into the world and brought up within marriage; it is through the secure and recognized relationship to his own parents that the child can discover his own identity and achieve his own proper human development. The parents find in their child a confirmation and completion of their reciprocal self- giving: the child is the living image of their love, the permanent sign of their conjugal union, the living and indissoluble concrete expression of their paternity and maternity. (II:2) lobo’s
  22. 22. Human Life is Not Animal Life lobo’s
  23. 23. Human Life is Not Animal Life From the moment of conception, the life of every human being is to be respected in an absolute way because man is the only creature on earth that God has wished for himself and the spiritual soul of each man is "immediately created" by God; his whole being bears the image of the Creator. Human life is sacred because from its beginning it involves "the creative action of God" and it remains forever in a special relationship with the Creator, who is its sole end. God alone is the Lord of life from its beginning until its end: no one can, in any circumstance, claim for himself the right directly to destroy an innocent human being. (Intro, 5) lobo’s
  24. 24. Meaning of Marriage: Exclusivity The bond existing between husband and wife accords the spouses, in an objective and inalienable manner, the exclusive right to become father and mother solely through each other. (II:2) lobo’s
  25. 25. Wrong because artificial? These interventions are not to be rejected on the grounds that they are artificial. As such, they bear witness to the possibilities of the art of medicine. But they must be given a moral evaluation in reference to the dignity of the human person, who is called to realize his vocation from God to the gift of love and the gift of life. (Intro:3) lobo’s
  26. 26. Assisting Nature • Timing of intercourse • Nutrition: e.g., limit alcohol, smoking • Stop excessive exercise • Hormones • Fertility Drugs • Surgery • Wear loose-fitting boxer shorts lobo’s
  27. 27. Incidence of Infertility • In the US there are 60 million women of reproductive age • In 1995, about 1.2 million, or 2%, had had an infertility-related medical appointment within the previous year • An additional 13% had received infertility services at some time in their lives. • Additionally, 7% of married couples (2.1 million couples) reported that they had not used contraception for 12 months and the woman had not become pregnant. lobo’s
  28. 28. In Vitro Fertilization Ovum Sperm Gestator Wife’s Husband’s Wife Wife’s Husband’s Surrogate Donor’s Husband’s Wife Donor’s Husband’s Surrogate (donor?) Wife’s Donor’s Wife Wife’s Donor’s Surrogate lobo’s
  29. 29. 2002 ART DATA—OVERVIEW 428 ART clinics in the United States in 2002  391 ART clinics submitted data  115,392 cycles were reported  33,141 live-birth deliveries  45,751 live babies born lobo’s
  30. 30. Canadian IVF Researchers Admit 80-90% of IVF-Created Human Embryos Doomed to Die OTTAWA, November 26, 2003 ( - In announcing an In Vitro- Fertilization (IVF) breakthrough, researchers at the Ottawa Health Research Institute (OHRI) have admitted publicly that only 10-20% of human embryos created by the process survive to pregnancy. The percentage of embryos that actually make it to birth is significantly lower. lobo’s
  31. 31. Increased Incidence of Birth Defects • 200,000 infants have been born in the United States through artificial reproductive technology. • 101 babies of 1,138 were born after IVF with birth defects compared with 168 of the 4,000 naturally conceived babies -- 9.4 percent and 4.5 percent, respectively • The defects include clubfoot, shortened limbs, heart malformations and anomalies of the sex organs. • Minor birth defects that could be repaired by surgery, such as extra fingers and toes • Babies more likely to be underweight and premature at birth. lobo’s
  32. 32. Donum Vitae: Five Guidelines to Safeguard against Abuses (1) All assisted reproductive procedures should be performed upon married couples only, in order to provide the best environment for the child [II,A,2]. (2) The wife must contribute the egg and the husband must contribute the sperm, in order to avoid what is called “technological adultery” *II,A,2+. lobo’s
  33. 33. Donum Vitae: Five Guidelines to Safeguard against Abuses (3) Masturbation must not be required, since it is an abuse of the sexual faculty [II,B,6]. (4) Fertilization must take place inside the woman's body in order to preserve the unitive aspect of marriage [II,B,4,c]. (5) "Spare" embryos must not be discarded, frozen, or experimented upon, or killed [I,5]. lobo’s
  34. 34. “Selective Reduction” or “Enhanced Survival of Multifetal Pregnancies“ (ESMP) “Using ultra-sound to locate each fetus, the doctors insert a needle into the chest cavity of the most accessible fetus and place the needle tip directly into the heart of the baby. Potassium chloride is then injected into the heart and the heart is viewed on the ultrasound screen until it stops beating. Even at 9 weeks, 3 of the 12 fetuses selected for elimination presented problems. The heart continued to beat and the procedure had to be repeated” *NEJM, 1988]. lobo’s
  35. 35. What Price Perfection? “Doctors who participate in in-vitro fertilization should be present at the birth of all of their babies so that they may terminate the [newborn] baby's life should it come out grossly abnormal.” ― Nobel Prize winner James Watson. lobo’s
  36. 36. At this Rate, It Will Soon Take a Village to Conceive a Child! DS (donor sperm): 2 fathers and 1 mother DO (donor ovum): 2 mothers and 1 father DE (donor embryo): 2 fathers and 2 mothers SET (surrogate embryo transfer): 1 father and 2 mothers; or 2 fathers and 2 mothers; or 2 fathers and 3 mothers Parthenogenesis: 1 mother and no father. lobo’s
  37. 37. The Media Gets it Right on Surrogate Motherhood “If surrogacy ever becomes a widely practiced market transaction, it will probably make pregnancy into just another dirty task for the working class, with wages driven down and wealthy couples hiring the work out because it's such a hassle to be pregnant.” ― The Wall Street Journal. lobo’s
  38. 38. Morally Acceptable ARTs Start off charting cycles with NFP! Micro-surgery (70%-80% successful). Gamete (either sperm or sperm+egg) intra- fallopian transfer (SIFT and GIFT, no definitive ruling by the Church). Low tube ovum transfer (LTOT). Relocation of an egg past the damaged portion of the fallopian tube so that fertilization occurs naturally. lobo’s
  39. 39. lobo’s For More Presentations Log on to THANK YOU