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Migration – permanent or semi permanent change in the residence of an individual or group of people
Migration can be further subdivided into – internal migration – people move within international boundaries e.g. from one
province to another
- international migration – people move across international boundaries from one
country to another
The movement of people internationally is classified under different terms
- immigration – people moving into a country i.e. moving from their HOME country to their HOST country
- Emigration - people moving out of a country i.e. moving out of their home country
PEOPLE EMIGRATE OUT OF THEIR HOME COUNTRY AND IMMIGRATE INTO THEIR HOST COUNTRY
The movement of people internally is also classified under the different terms
- In –migration – refers to a person moving into a region within a country
- Out-migration – refers to a person moving out of a region within a country
NET MIGRATION – difference between immigration and emigration i.e. immigration –emigration
If the total. Number of people entering is greater than the total number of people entering – POSITIVE NET MIGRATION
If the reverse is true then there is a NEGATIVE NET MIGRATION
CASE STUDY – SEASONAL MIGRATION TO
• Raj a DVD sales man lives in Hampi in Karnataka in India
• 8 months of the year he sells DVD’s in Goa India
• 4 months of the monsoon season he is back in his hometown where he works as a farm laborer
• His income is dependent on the number of tourist in Goa
• While he works in GOA, he sends money back home to Karnataka (remittances) to support his family
WHY DO PEOPLE MIGRATE?
Perceived by the
CASE STUDY – PUSH AND PULL FACTORS IN
According to a recent census, approximately 28% of Turkey’s
population live in a different province to the one they were
Istanbul is a major province that has attracted migrants
from different parts of Turkey
• Low rural income
• Lack of job opportunities
• Inadequate infrastructure in rural areas
• Poor facilities in villages
• Lack of services in villages
• Improving levels of education
• Improve transport and communication
• Skills development
• Chain migration
In the mid twentieth century rural urban migration in Turkey started to give
• Urban – urban migration
• Urban – rural migration
Reasons for this include
• Job seeking
• Education beyond secondary level
• Level of socio economic development in a province
• Being located in a coastal area
• Development in terms of industry and tourism
• Having development provinces as neighbors.
Watch the video on urban migration in China and answer the questions that follow
1. What is the dilemma faced by China’s generation Y?
2. Explain the system in China that makes it difficult for young people in the rural areas to assimilate to life in
the urban areas?
3. What are the emotional problems experienced by young migrants who move to the urban areas in China?
4. What are the factors that prevents these young migrants from getting girlfriends/boyfriends or marrying?
5. One of the solutions to urban migration in China is to give young migrants urban rights… What do you understand by
VOLUNTARY OR FORCED MIGRATION
VOLUNTARY MIGRATION – migrant choses to move
Of their own free will – these are generally economic
FORCED MIGRATION – migrant is forced to leave/flee/
runaway for various reasons e.g. war, natural disasters,
Watch the videos forced migration and answer the following questions
1. Explain the difference between a refugee and an asylum seeker
2. In which year did refugees gain rights that protected them from persecution in the host country
3. What would happen to the host country of the rights of the refugee were violated?
4. How many refugees were there globally in 2017?
5. How many refugees are there currently? (2019-2020)
6. What are some of the reasons for forced migration (displacement)
7. Forced migration leads to human trafficking ….. Explain
8. What are the impacts of forced migration?
9. What was the solution to forced migration that was suggested by this video?
CASE STUDY – MEDITERRANEAN’S DEADLY
According to the IOM most of the migrants crossing the Mediterranean sea are headed to Greece, Italy and Spain
The vast majority of migrants that die crossing the Mediterranean began their journey in Sub-Saharan Africa
TADARO’S COST EFFECTIVE APPROACH
About how an individual’s income changes as they migrate from rural to urban
areas in LEDCs
An American economist called Michael Todaro suggested a common pattern for
the income that a migrant will experience if they move from a rural area to an
urban area in an LEDC.
He suggested that not only would they experience this pattern but that they
would be aware of it, from previous friends or family that had migrated before
them. They therefore would weigh up the costs and benefits of moving
They were well aware that would have to spend money to get to the urban area
and would maybe not make money there for a while , but the long term benefits
would be better than staying in the rural area
The graph below shows the Todaro Model. A typical net income stream.
1. With the aid of examples, explain why forced (involuntary) international migration occurs.
2. Outline how push factors and pull factors cause rural-urban migration
3. Compare the characteristics of voluntary and forced (involuntary) international movements of people.
4. Describe the process of chain migration.
5. Explain two consequences of the process of chain migration.
6. With the aid of examples, assess the extent to which push factors are 15 more important than pull factors in causing
forced where there is no choice/voluntary there is a choice
age/sex profile of the migrants
contrasting pushes (and pulls)
journey length/direction – mode of travel
volume of movement with time
timing of movement – and time taken
differences in constraints and obstacles to their movement
Generally, push factors (from an area) outweigh pull factors (to an area or back to the original area as in Lee’s model of
migration) when a migrant leaves a place, especially in forced or economic migration. Pull factors tend to work as a
secondary factor in determining the destination between alternatives once the migrant is determined to migrate.
OBSTACLES AND BARRIERS TO MIGRATION
1.Legal obstacles to migration e.g. HUKOU SYSTEM IN CHINA
2. Distance and costs – e.g. it is easier to migrate from Mexico to America as compared from Mexico to Spain because of the
3. One of the major constraints to migration is immigration laws imposed by individual countries
• Previously the movement of people into the USA was totally unrestricted – USA was called the ”land of immigrants
• However changes in immigration policies, cultural beliefs, racisms, xenophobia, islamophobia has restricted immigration from
certain countries into the USA
• Between 1788 and 1940 Australia’s immigration policy was to restrict anyone that was not of European descent.
• Australia now allows immigration of skilled labor regardless of where the person comes from
• Australia encourages immigration from immigrants who speak English and who have similar cultures and beliefs so that they
can be quickly integrated into the Australian Society.
4. Physical Barriers - mountains, rivers, deserts etc. might limit migration. E.g. nomadic herders moving from one area to
another might be hindered by mountains, rivers or deserts in their way
5. Health – when people migrate from one area to other for a job. The recruiting company might require them to have a
health check and if this check indicates that they sick then they are prevented from migrating.
e.g. Many Chinese people were restricted in moving from one area to another due to the Corona virus
6. Inertia – people are comfortable where they are and they chose not to migrate
7. Economic costs – some times migrants cannot afford to migrate because of the cost of transportation. Many people would
like to migrate to another country but the air flights and the cost of relocation is to high so they are prevented from
Outline the main constraints and obstacles that limit migration.
Migration may be of limited effect due to constraints and obstacles that the migrant faces. Constraints and obstacles are very
different in their nature but candidates may not recognize this. These could include:
Cost of moving
A lack of accurate knowledge – pushes may be imagined
The pull back of friends and family in the area
Lack of suitable transport
Physical barriers such as rivers, mountains, deserts in the way
Government restrictions on movement
3 factors with development can gain full marks or 5 more basic points.
INTERNAL MIGRATION (WITHIN A COUNTRY)
TYPES OF INTERNAL MIGRATION
• RURAL – RURAL - as previously unexploited rural areas are discovered, people are
encouraged to move from one rural area to another e.g. as new agricultural areas are
discovered in the Amazon jungle, the Brazilian government is encouraging people to move
from one rural area to another
• RURAL – URBAN – most common type of movement that occurs as a result of push and pull
• URBAN – URBAN – Usually takes the form of step migration
• URBAN – RURAL – urban dwellers return back to the rural areas often due to a deterioration
in living conditions in the urban areas. Another name for this is counter urbanization e.g. due
to the global recession many Chinese workers who were working in urban areas returned
back to their rural areas to work on the farms
• Distance may have filtering effects on migration – Distance Decay – the greater the distance, the less the
interaction with the place.
• Direction: Migration’s direction usually follows the push-pull factor – usually by rural-urban movement or periphery
to core movements
• Intra-national (within a country)
• Intra-district/ inter-district (Within district/ between districts)
• Intra-provincial/ Inter-provincial (Within a province/ between provinces)
• Intra-regional/ Inter regional (Within regions/ between regions)
Walsh studied urbanization in Fiji
He tried to explain why islanders were migrating to the capital and other towns around the coast
Push factors/pull factors
• Indian plantation workers are not allowed to own land so they move to the towns
• After independence locals went in search of jobs in the bigger cities ‘
• Low wages in rural areas
• High wages in urban areas
• Move to escape the social structures of communalism in rural areas to gain individual wealth in urban areas
Impacts of rural urban migration
• Rural depopulation
• Rural families are dependent on remittance
• Disruption to family life, children are left to care for the elderly
• Housing shortages in the big cities
• Development of squatter settlements
• Pressure on health and educational services in the bigger islands
• Large number of migrants lack skills so they end up working in the informal sector.
URBAN – URBAN MIGRATION
• Migration takes place in steps
• This type of movement can also take place within a city e.g. moving from one residential area to another
• Improvement in income levels means people can afford larger properties in better areas
• Increase in the size of the family means that people will move from smaller properties to large properties
• Improvements in the city center means that people move back into the city
• Movement within cities – usually in the form of family life cycle
• Available housing stocks are important determining factors
• There are contrasts between the spatial life cycle of rich and poor
• Life cycle/ incomes influence directions, distance and patterns
• ALSO – the government’s planning of the housing areas/ associated organization
• Wealthy = high mobility
• Hence, the more well-off sector of the population tend to have higher mobility
• For the lower income groups – choices are more restricted
• In MEDCs lower income groups may be concentrated in inner urban areas
Movement of people from industrial core areas into the peripheral areas , from urban to rural areas or from larger towns to
REASONS FOR THIS TYPE OF MOVEMENT
Push factors – reasons for people to leave the core areas and move to the periphery
• Increase in crime
• Traffic congestion
• Poor quality of life
Pull factors – reasons for people to move into the periphery
• Better quality of life
• Aesthetic appeal – beautiful surroundings in the periphery
• Less crime
• Less traffic congestion
• Cleaner environment
• Better housing
WHAT MAKES COUNTER-URBANIZATION POSSIBLE?
• Development of new towns in the periphery areas – In the UK new towns e.g. Harlow and Crawley were built to house
people from the inner city
• Development of new industrial estates in the periphery i.e. Greenfield sites – creates employment opportunities in
• Improvements in transport systems i.e. road and rail links makes it possible for
people to live in the periphery and commute to the core areas for their jobs
• Increased car ownership also makes it possible to commute from periphery to
core areas an vice versa
• High speed broadband was developed in periphery areas has allowed people to
move from core areas to the more beautiful peripheral areas.
• Retirement – people buy second homes in rural areas where they will retire to.
This has increased counter urbanization.
CHANGES TO INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION
• Growth in labor migration
• Growth in student migration
• Gender roles – increase in the number of females that
migrate to different countries
• Movement is generally from weak economies to rich
• Globalization increases the awareness of different
opportunities in different countries
• Increase in control measures in different countries to
decrease illegal migration
FORCED MIGRATION – REFUGEE SITUATION IN THE WORLD
In recent years, there has been a huge increase in the number of people fleeing their
country of birth due to
• Natural disasters
• Political unrest
• Ethnic cleansing
A REFUGEE IS A PERSON WHO HAS A DEEP FEAR OF BEING PERSECUTED FOR REASONS OF
RACE, RELIGION,NATIONALITY, MEMBERSHIP TO A PARTICULAR GROUP OR POLITICAL
AN ASYLUM SEEKER IS A PERSON WHO HAS APPLIED FOR ASYLUM AND IS WAITING FOR A
DECISION AS TO WHETHER OR NOT THEY ARE TO REGARDED AS REFUGEES
IMPACTS OF INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION
Internal migration can benefit both the host country and the source country.
Watch the video and list the social and economic benefits of international migration.