Se ha denunciado esta presentación.
Utilizamos tu perfil de LinkedIn y tus datos de actividad para personalizar los anuncios y mostrarte publicidad más relevante. Puedes cambiar tus preferencias de publicidad en cualquier momento.

Case studies

3.593 visualizaciones

Publicado el

  • Sé el primero en comentar

  • Sé el primero en recomendar esto

Case studies

  1. 1. ICT for DevelopmentContributing to theMillennium DevelopmentGoals Information for Development Program
  2. 2. Table of Contents Preface iii Acknowledgments iv Section I: infoDev Case Studies 1 Section II: Case Study Analysis 4 Functional Use of ICT in infoDev Projects 5 Contribution to the Millennium Development Goals 6 Projects by Sector 7 Section III: Lessons Learned and Recommendations 8 Lessons Learned 9 Recommended Guidelines for 12 ICT-for-Development Projects Conclusion 13© 2003 Annex 1: Case Study Methodology 14The World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, DC20433, USAFirst printed November 2003 Annex 2: Summary of infoDev Case Studies 15The World Bank enjoys copyright under protocol 2 ofthe Universal Copyright Convention. This material maynonetheless be copied for research, educational, orscholarly purposes only in the member countries of the Annex 3: Lessons Learned from OtherWorld Bank. The findings, interpretations, and conclu-sions expressed in this document are entirely those of ICT-for-Development Effortsthe authors and should not be attributed to the WorldBank, its affiliated organizations, or members of itsBoard of Executive Directors or the countries they rep-resent.This paper is distributed on the understanding that iflegal or other expert assistance is required in any par-ticular case, readers should not rely entirely on state-ments made in this paper, but should seek the servicesof a competent professional. Neither Gamos Ltd. northe World Bank accepts responsibility for the conse-quences of actions taken by the readers who do notseek necessary advice from competent professionals onlegal or other matters that require expert advice.ISBN
  3. 3. ICT for DevelopmentContributing to theMillennium Development Goals:Lessons Learned from SeventeeninfoDev ProjectsPrincipal authors:Simon BatchelorSoc EvangelistaSimon HearnMalcolm PeirceSusan SugdenMike Webb (Big World)of Gamos Ltd.November 2003 Information for Development Program
  4. 4. PrefaceWhen infoDev was created, in 1995, few regarded information technologies as a valid tool for development.Barely five years later, the international community had adopted a set of Millennium Development Goals, withinwhich this role was explicitly recognized. The development community is now readying itself to meet in Genevaand Tunis for a “World Summit on the Information Society.”Yet, analysts and decision makers are still struggling to make sense of the mixed experience of information tech-nologies in developing countries. Very often, such experiences seem to amount to little more that a heteroge-neous and unrelated set of anecdotes. However spectacular, successful, moving, or important some of those anec-dotes may be, they remain a precarious basis for justifying major policy or investment decisions.The possibility to replicate and scale up successful projects will not fully materialize until the knowledge accumu-lated from IT-for-development projects (successful and unsuccessful) is widely documented and shared. This“knowledge dissemination imperative” is at the core of infoDev’s new strategy.The aim of this paper is to create a publicly available resource that provides concise descriptions of selectedinfoDev ICT-for-development projects and their impact on poverty. The paper first presents case studies of across-section of projects funded by the infoDev Core Program, followed by an in-depth analysis of the impact andlimits of those projects.The main criterion for selecting projects for case study analysis was to be as representative as possible of the vari-ous environments (political, economic, social, geographic) in which infoDev has been operating since its inception.An attempt was also made to provide a balanced sample relative to the success rate of the projects. Rather thanselecting the “best projects,” the authors, in consultation with the task managers of the projects, gave priority tothose initiatives likely to offer the best lessons and knowledge about how to use ICT for development purposes.This paper also makes an attempt to include the experience gathered by other programs involved in ICT-for-devel-opment. And it makes a specific effort to link the ICT projects to the Millennium Development Goals. It isinfoDev’s hope that by sharing such practical experience in an open and candid fashion, it can stimulate the useof ICT as a tool to reach the MDGs in a timely, cost-effective, and imaginative fashion.Mohsen Khalil Bruno Lanvin Jacqueline DubowDirector Manager Project Task ManagerGlobal Information and Communication infoDev, GITC Program CoordinatorTechnologies (GITC) Department The World Bank Group infoDev, GITCThe World Bank Group The World Bank Group Lessons Learned from Seventeen infoDev Projects iii
  5. 5. AcknowledgmentsThe authors (Gamos Ltd. and Big World) would first like to gratefully acknowledge the support and assistance pro-vided by the following organizations in the preparation of these case studies: Abantu Kenya,,CDI, Cemina, Conexiones, Fantsuam, FOOD, HealthNet Kenya, Manobi, the Organization of American States,PEOPlink, Rits/, Satellife, the Siberian Development Net (SibDev), SITA, the Vishnevskaya-RostroprovichFoundation (VRF), Viva Rio, and Voxiva.The authors also gratefully acknowledge the following individuals for their contributions to the infoDev case stud-ies and case study analysis: Katherine Wagner (Gamos Ltd.), Susan Batchelor (Gamos Ltd.), Waithera Ndung’u(Abantu Kenya), Peter Kahara (Abantu Kenya), Edgardo Herbosa (, Ryk Ramos (Land Bank of thePhilippines), Conrado Navarro (Philippine Rural Reconstruction Movement, or PRRM), Irene Fernandez (PRRM),Gemma Martin (PRRM), Members of the El Gancho Cooperative, Naic, Cavite, Members of the Kooperatibang Likasng Neuva Ecija, Leandro Farias (CDI), Luis Claudio (CDI), Dona Ana (CDI), Fernandes Linia Denilson (CDI), CDIproject staff, Thais Corral (Cemina), Claudia Zea (Conexiones), John Dada (Fantsuam Foundation), Ivy Audu(Bayan Loco Community Learning Center), Norman Didam (Bayan Loco Community Learning Center), Julius Madaki(Bayan Loco Community Learning Center), Ahmodu Fujuno, Luka Ajiji and Markus Ahmadu (members of the BayanLoco CLC committee), Samuel Maichibi (Kagoma Community Learning Center), Loyola Joseph (FOOD), SantoshNarayanan (FOOD), Shiva Kumar (Inter-city Marketing Network), Tamilshelvi Udyakumar (Korattur ProductionGroup), Hemalatha Elumalai (Korattur Marketing Group), Rubem Cesar Fernandes (Viva Rio), Maria Helena Alves(Viva Rio), Marta Ramos (Viva Rio), Carlos Afonso (Rits), Mauricio Falavigna (, Project staff,Daniel Annerose (Manobi), David Boggio (Manobi), Adama Diop (Sénégalese fisherman), Iba Diouf (Sénégalesefisherman), Mar Mbaye (Sénégalese fisherman), Diene Ndiaye (Sénégal Ministry of Fisheries), Abdel Kader Mboub(Sénégal training consultant), Pape Mbaye (Sénégalese fishing union representative), Bassirou Mbaye, AbdoulayeDiouf (Sénégalese fishing union representative), Abdoulaye Diop (Sénégalese fishing union representative), SusanBenson (OAS), Dario Soto (OAS), Dan Salcedo (PEOPLink), Surendra Shahi (PEOPLink), Dr. V. Purushothaman(IFFAD), G. Ramesh (IFFAD), Panneer Selvam (Chitrayalam Trust), Leyoni Adolf (Chitrayalam Trust), Dr. PavelKorenev (VRF), Billy Amoss (VRF), Dr. Elena Frolova (VRF), Rebecca Riccio, (Satellife), Eliazer Karan (formerlyHealthNet Kenya), Silas Owiti Mudekhere (formerly HealthNet Kenya), Denis Bagaev (SibDev), Dr. Krishna Sane(SITA), Brajesh Verma (SITA), Kiran Arora (SITA), Anjali Puri (former SITA trainee), Pamela Johnson (Voxiva), andPaul Meyer (Voxiva).The assistance and input of the following infoDev staff members and task managers is also gratefully acknowl-edged: Jacqueline Dubow, John Garrison, Pamela Street, Rafael Fernandez, Brian Kurey, Daniel Crisafulli, MariaVanari, Paul Noumba-Um, Mikhail Bunchuk, Prita Chathoth, and Daniel Cotlear. Lessons Learned from Seventeen infoDev Projects v
  6. 6. infoDev Case Studies“To promote innovative projectsthat use information and communi-cation technologies for economicand social development, with aspecial emphasis on the needs ofthe poor in developing economies.”
  7. 7. Abantu (Kenya) organization’s East African office is based in Kenya and currently has four programs: Gender and Poverty, Gender and Governance, Gender and Conflict, and Gender and Information and CommunicationStrengthening the Electronic Communications Technologies. The specific ICT project, funded mainlyCapacities of Women’s Organizations in Africa by infoDev, began in 1999 in collaboration with a num- ber of other African organizations. Its first efforts were concentrated on Kenya.Abstract The aim of the Gender and ICT project was to improveAbantu for Development was established in 1991. In African women’s access to and use of the Internet. In1999, it began an Information and Communication addition, Abantu has been working with policy makersTechnology (ICT) component of its work, funded in part to try to ensure that gender perspectives are incorpo-by infoDev. This work has concentrated on Kenya and rated into all new ICT policies. To accomplish thesehas included 1) training various women’s groups in goals, the project developed a strong, focused corebasic software and Internet skills, and 2) bringing group of women across Africa to:together different sectors of the business communityto produce gender-sensitive ICT policy recommenda- define and guide African priorities on the develop-tions. infoDev funding also supported ICT conferences ment and use of electronic communicationsin Ghana and Tanzania. establish a cross-sectoral, interdisciplinary African women’s information networkWhile the ICT component was started as a distinct set up and maintain African list serves (electronicproject (“Gender and ICT”) Abantu found that it need- discussion groups) and information networks toed to incorporate ICT work into all of its program build information and databases on Africa in Africaareas. Abantu believes this strategy will have a greater stimulate dialogue and cross-fertilize ideas amongimpact on its other gender-related projects: Poverty, women in AfricaGovernance, and Conflict. By integrating ICT into its enable women to use the Internet as an advocacymainstream work, Abantu strengthened its partners and and information-sharing tool on international issuestheir communication of key gender issues. Abantu will develop strategies for influencing information andsoon expand its ICT advocacy work to Uganda, communication policies from a gender perspectiveTanzania, and Zambia. As part of its work, Abantu has strengthened the pres-Background ence of African women in cyberspace by developing theAbantu for Development is an international non-gov- Abantu web site.ernmental organization. It focuses on training and pro-viding information and advice on how to mobilize The idea for this project arose from a survey on theresources for sustainable development in Africa. The needs of women’s groups carried out in 1995. The proj-2 ICT for Development
  8. 8. ect also responded to demand generated by existing An internal evaluation of the Gender and ICT programAbantu ICT training workshops. In 1999, Abantu was carried out in June and July 2002. At the time,embarked on a number of ICT training workshops for the ICT component had already been increasingly inte-women’s groups, held seminars to raise awareness grated into the other gender projects of Abantu. Theamong policy makers, and developed a project web evaluation highlighted that ICT was the key to the effi-site. Today, the ICT project work falls into four cate- ciency and effectiveness of all Abantu programs andgories: Training and Capacity Building; Advocacy, recommended that ICT not be retained as a standalonePublic Awareness, and Networking; Research, project, but become part of all of Abantu’s gender work.Publications, and Information; and the InstitutionalDevelopment of Abantu itself. Electronic information is Impact/Resultsregularly exchanged between Abantu’s regional offices a certain number of financially independentand their network of NGOs, particularly with respect to women’s groups (some groups trained by Abantu nowork plan follow-up and requests for information on longer require support, as they have used theirNGO activism in Africa. newly acquired IT skills to increase their incomes) gender-sensitive ICT guides for African women’sUnder the Training and Capacity Building component, organizationsAbantu has trained organizations in one farming region critical framework for evaluating government ICT(Nyeri), one pastoral region (Kajiado), and two infor- policiesmal settlements of Nairobi. Nyeri is one of the major women’s groups in farming, pastoral, and slum com-coffee-producing regions of Kenya. The training there munities were trained in how to use the Internetfocused on both the Internet and software programs and basic software programsfor use in the factory. The results of the various train- lesson learned: ICT supports all gender-relatedings included increased use of the Internet and e-mail advocacy and program activities, prompting Abantu(particularly for personal use), although such use was to integrate ICT into its poverty, governance, andoften constrained by poor infrastructure (power and conflict projectstelecommunications). Abantu is currently proposing asmall telecenter project for each of the four groups. Key Issues Target groupsUnder the Publication, Research, and Information arm Abantu principally targets poor women and policy mak-of the project, Abantu produced gender-sensitive ICT ers. It works with existing women’s organizations inguides for use by African women’s organizations. These various communities to improve the ability of womenguides covered such topics as “Making the Most of the to use and access ICT. Abantu encourages and facili-World Wide Web” and “Advocacy and the Internet.” In tates opportunities for people from various sectors ofaddition, each quarterly issue of Abantu’s GAP Matters society and business to attend workshops and semi-magazine now carries a section on technology that nars. The results of these seminars are distilled intoinforms people about emerging ICT issues. policy recommendations for government.Finally, under the Advocacy, Public Awareness, and Capacity buildingNetworking component, Abantu held a number of pub- Abantu training helped community groups improvelic seminars. These included a 1999 seminar on forth- their management and organization, as well as theircoming telecommunication reforms in Kenya. People income-generating activities. To date, Abantu hasfrom all social and economic sectors of Kenyan society trained groups from pastoral, farming, and slumattended the seminar to express what they wanted in communities in Kenya.the new legislation. Abantu then looked at the roleplayed by gender in the discussion. The results of the Abantu found that it was important for its own staffseminar were sent as recommendations to the govern- to develop a basic working knowledge of ICT.ment. A more recent seminar produced a framework for Within Abantu, staff have the opportunity to teachcritiquing future government ICT policies. themselves various software packages using CD-ROMs. Lessons Learned from Seventeen infoDev Projects 3
  9. 9. This instruction constituted the institutional develop- tion with Abantu’s other three programs.ment component of the program. Abantu found self- Seminars and workshops were the most effectiveteaching CD-ROMs to be more cost-effective than send- tools for advocacy. Kenya is largely an oral society,ing people to courses. This type of learning created no so written work is seen as less disruptions, enabled learning at a self-taughtpace, and allowed everyone to learn at different levels. Challenges There is a need to collaborate and partner with like-Technology minded organizations in order to increase theStandard laptops and desktop personal computers impact of the program. The results of a recent eval-(PCs). Abantu staff bring three PCs to community train- uation show that overall, the project achieved itsings because participants are more familiar and relaxed objectives, and that its impact was appreciated bywith desktop computers than they are with laptops. target beneficiaries. The national policy development seminar, “MakingFinance Policies Gender-Sensitive” (December 2001), madeTotal Project Cost: US$ 500,000 Abantu aware of the need to publicize gender andinfoDev funding: US$ 250,000 ICT issues if ICT policies in Kenya were to become gender-sensitive.The remainder of project funding was covered by other A major project challenge was the current state ofAbantu programs. The infoDev funding has now fin- technology infrastructure in Kenya. Poor telephoneished. However, the aims of the project continue, as communications and unreliable electricity made itthis project now forms an integral part of all Abantu very difficult for people to access computers. Inactivities. With respect to the telecenters project (for response to this problem, Abantu hopes to createincreasing community income), external funding is cur- four telecenters in the areas in which it has beenrently being sought. working. A recent reduction of the computer tax in Kenya should also help expand the reach of ICT.Beneficiary Stories There was a significant difference between rural andIn Kajiado, a largely illiterate Masai women’s group urban project areas. The rural areas had a stableused the Internet and their software skills to success- community and the same people continued throughfully secure USAID funding for a bee project. The fund- several different training sessions. In the urbaning enabled the project to expand from honey collec- areas, however, there was often participant discon-tion to other income-generating activities using both tinuity between one training session and the next;wax and honey. it was also difficult to engage the community as a whole.Near Kisumu, a poor semi-literate woman used her The previous government ICT policy document wastraining to enable her to personally communicate based on a system similar to the national educationbimonthly with her son in America. Previous e-mails to system. That system places ICT among the sciences,the woman had been collected by a friend who, it was an area in which female education is not promoted.later discovered, kept the money sent to her through As the school curriculum is changed, it is hopedWestern Union. Today, the woman has the confidence that the ideas surrounding the “pedagogical loca-and ability to communicate with her son directly, free- tion” of ICT will also her from the need for an intermediary. She com-pares e-mail to a phone call. Key factors/issues which led to poverty reduction outcomesIssues and Lessons Evaluations from participants at policy seminars in The main lesson learned was that best practice calls Ghana and Kenya demonstrate that the work of for incorporating ICT into existing programs, rather Abantu in making ICT policies gender-sensitive is than maintaining it as a separate program. Much of both timely and relevant. In addition, some organi- the project was, therefore, carried out in coordina- zations that received reports on these activities4 ICT for Development
  10. 10. have requested to be included in future Abantu guidance on how to implement this training in activities. the regions. The integration of ICT into all aspects of Abantu’s Abantu hopes to set up four telecenters in Kenya. work increased the impact of these activities At present, they are looking to locate these centers on poverty, while fulfilling the aims of this particu- in areas that are culturally appropriate for women lar project. to visit, such as shopping centers. The mix of seminars, trainings, and booklets broad- Abantu is just beginning to mainstream ICT into ened the reach and impact of the project with their gender and advocacy work in Tanzania, respect to publicizing gender issues. Uganda, and Zambia. Lesson learned: an individual does not have to be fully literate to utilize ICT. This discovery Stakeholder consultation increased the impact of Abantu’s work with low- Abantu Grant Agreement with infoDev, June 1999 income women. Abantu Third Quarter Report 2002 for infoDev Abantu web site: www.abantu.orgFuture outlook Interview conducted by Dr. Batchelor with Waithera Continued integration of ICT in all areas of Abantu’s Ndung’u, Information and Communication Program work is needed. This objective will be achieved Officer, Abantu, Kenya, July 2003 through coordinated improvement of ICT infrastruc- Additional information received from Peter Kahara, ture and capacity building for Abantu staff in all July–September 2003 regions. ICT training will be offered to all Abantu infoDev Task Manager, Pamela Street staff and the Abantu Directorate will provide Lessons Learned from Seventeen infoDev Projects 5
  11. 11. Funding for training was obtained from infoDev. These partnerships enabled to provide free (Philippines) access to the site for cooperatives and other groups. The project objective is to “enable farmers to harness the benefits of information and communications tech- E-commerce for Farmers: Hands-on Training nologies to promote economic development and social Program well-being.” It is hoped that by providing transparent and timely market information to both buyers and sell- ers, the project will enhance efficiencies in the agricul- Abstract tural market. In addition, the ability of farmers to tap is an e-marketplace in the buyers and sellers directly and to obtain competitive Philippines that enables farmers, fishermen, and small prices for inputs and outputs should result in higher and medium enterprises to access market prices and incomes—a direct poverty alleviation impact. trade products. The marketplace can be accessed via web site or cell phone. The first phase of the project The rationale behind the project is that farmers in the involved obtaining content for the B2B web site from a Philippines, particularly those in rural areas, have long variety of agricultural and fishery cooperatives and suffered from lack of market price information and poor training them to access and post products on the site. access to buyers and sellers. Consequently, they have Because Unisys provides free technical support and been unable to get the best value for their produce hosting, is able to offer its services and have usually relied on traders to serve as interme- for free. The second phase of the project will focus on diaries. The interests of the traders, however, often getting target groups connected to the Internet and conflict with those of the farmers—putting into ques- conducting actual transactions online. tion the reliability of the market price information pro- vided by traders and the fairness of the purchase and Background sale prices negotiated by them with the farmers. This project is the brainchild of Mr. Edgardo Herbosa. The idea was to set up an e-commerce web site In the past, this problem was addressed by cooperatives through which Filipino cooperatives and groups could and government agencies, which collected samples of trade their produce. Mr. Herbosa created the site in prevailing market prices two to three times a week. 2001 with some of his own funds and received techni- These prices were then disseminated on demand a day cal support from Unisys in exchange for company or two later. By that time, however, the prices were out shares. The project was adopted by a number of gov- of date. The system was also unable to provide compre- ernment agencies, as well as the Land Bank of the hensive price information throughout the 7,100 islands Philippines and the NGO Philippine Rural of the Philippines. Moreover, no mechanism existed to Reconstruction Movement (PRRM). Both of the latter allow farmers and cooperatives to market their products organizations were then planning similar systems. and trade directly with distant buyers and sellers.6 ICT for Development
  12. 12. To address these marketing deficiencies, The initial number of trainees registered to provides a free electronic bulletin the five PRRM workshops was 248. However, theboard and marketplace designed to bring relevant mar- workshops attracted more than 2.5 times this num-ket information directly to farmers, primarily through ber of participants. Of the people who originallytheir cooperatives. As an electronic bulletin board, the registered, 42 percent were small entrepreneurs andweb site enables users to gain greater negotiating 20 percent were farmers or fishermen.leverage from awareness of prevailing market prices for An estimated 1,550 people attended the 31 train-their products. As an electronic marketplace, the web ings associated with the road aims to minimize intermediation (middlemen’s Seventy percent of the cooperatives of the Landfees), thereby enabling farmers to reap the gains of Bank have been informed of B2Bpricenow, and 42lower costs and broader market reach. percent (1,600) have been trained to use it.Project activities to date include establishment of the Key Issuesweb site, creation of web site content, and a Partnershiptraining/information road show presented in over 30 The primary partner institutions are the PRRM andcities. In addition, five two-day workshops were carried the Land Bank of the Philippines. Founded in 1952,out in conjunction with PRRM. The training program PRRM is the country’s oldest non-governmentalincluded computer training and online basics. Future organization. PRRM has 14 field offices nationwide,trainings will address, among other topics, how to a workforce of 300 men and women, and programsnegotiate online, how to canvass prices, and how to dedicated to sustainable local development. PRRMcontact buyers. Currently, project activities are focused and have been working togetheron getting cooperatives connected to the Internet in for a year, having forged an agreement in 20001,500 municipalities through the establishment of (see the project web site) whereby PRRMb2bcenters (business centers) on cooperative premises. committed to inform, educate, and, whereThe Land Bank attempted to conduct an initial evalua- available, provide Internet access to cooperativestion of project usage by cooperatives via questionnaire. from their field offices.Unfortunately, none of the questionnaires were The Land Bank is a government-owned universalreturned. However, B2Bpricenow is still in the forma- bank with a mandate to promote growth and devel-tive stage and monitoring of actual transactions should opment in the countryside. In addition to its finan-be easier once the online transaction gateway is cial assistance mandate, the Land Bank also pro-launched in Fall 2003. vides cooperatives with technical assistance on matters such as marketing, trading, and provision ofImpact/Results information on new technologies. Target groups gained access to additional marketing Through a partnership with the American-based windows for their commodities. technology company, Unisys, has believes that the Internet is the ultimate playing been able to reduce its high-cost technical expendi- field where farmers and fishermen can sell their tures, including programming, purchase of e-market- commodities at prices that are not controlled by place software, administration, maintenance, and middlemen. hosting, which are covered by Unisys. As a conse- Figures from August 2003 show that quence of this arrangement, can has 1,967 businesses connected provide the marketplace for free. to its web site. These businesses cover numerous sectors, including agriculture, manufacturing, civil Target groups society organizations, and government agencies. B2B mainly targets farmers, but also fishermen and There were 1,344 agricultural postings, 92 consumer small entrepreneurs. Users from these groups tend to manufacturing postings, and 104 industrial manu- belong to cooperatives or people’s organizations, facturing postings. No figures are available on the including advocacy groups. The PRRM partner groups number of transactions made to date. are mostly rice farmers, rice-based food processors, and Lessons Learned from Seventeen infoDev Projects 7
  13. 13. farm workers who are also micro-entrepreneurs. Land site via cell phone or conduct an online transaction. Bank-assisted cooperatives are also mostly agriculture- Other sources of income include funding from local based, but include some small manufacturers and congressmen, cooperative web sites, and online processors. One cooperative in Cavite is fishing-based. advertisements. The Land Bank and PRRM have no statistics on the age Beneficiary Stories and gender of their cooperative members. However, they report that most members are between the ages Ricardo Buenaventura, a rice farmer from Talavera, of 35 and 60. Regarding gender, farmer cooperative Nueva Ecija, describes how access to members are usually men, whereas women usually out- helped him and his cooperative, number men in small entrepreneur cooperatives. Nagkakaisang Magsasaka: “This trading venue enables us to monitor prices. We no longer have to Capacity building travel far, going to a marketplace or trading center By accessing information on prices, volumes, and the to do that.” (From “Electronic Market For Farmers,” identities of buyers and sellers, farmers are able to by Lala Rimando, negotiate and attain competitive prices for their prod- WhatIsB2B.htm.) ucts and purchases. intends to train Orientation training on led farmers to use information and communications tech- Maggie Monge of PRRM-CamSur to encourage fellow nologies in their day-to-day transactions by the end of co-op members to participate in the road show the project. training. In addition, she noticed that the web site showed demand for virgin coconut oil, but no pro- Technology ducer. This has prompted her to introduce the pro- Desktop computers and telephone connections for 14 duction of virgin coconut oil to the cooperatives. cooperative groups. In addition, Internet cafes are cur- Nine young people from El Gancho Cooperative fam- rently being set up with the Land Bank that will use ilies received computer training wireless technology to link to the Internet. The web and are now able to use the computer provided to site and server have been developed and hosted by the cooperative. In addition to helping their fami- Unisys. Cell phones can be used to access information lies monitor prices, they use the computers for their via the Short Messaging Service (SMS) application. school work. Finance Issues and Lessons Founder’s initial capital Challenges (pre-operating expenses) US$ 40,000 The main challenge was locating funds to cover Unisys site design, programming, education and technology costs. However, Unisys and maintenance $360,000 and infoDev eventually provided these funds. Ating Alamin Advertising - broadcasting $40,000 The main technical challenge has been poor-quality Land Bank promotion and training or non-existent telephone connections. For areas far (technical assistance) $132,000 from any telephone service, B2Bpricenow is currently infoDev training grant $118,000 in talks with satellite and wireless technology com- Total Project Funding US$ 690,000 panies. In contrast to most developing countries, electricity connection rates are also fairly expensive For the training events, the Land Bank paid for accom- in the Philippines. At present, B2Bpricenow plans to modations, the Philippine Department for Trade and expand its work only to areas with both electricity Industry paid for food and venues, the Philippine and telephone connections, which will limit it to Department for Agriculture lent the LCD projector, and municipal centers and large settlement areas. the Philippine Department of Science and Technology Another major challenge is to ensure that coopera- covered the airfares. Ongoing costs are met through tive members who attend the trainings keep up commissions paid to B2Bprice when people access the their skills.8 ICT for Development
  14. 14. While B2B has focused on the Internet, it has is now endorsed as the “Official e- become obvious that mobile phones offer a greater marketplace of the Philippines for the Agriculture opportunity for relevant and useable service. Mobile and Fisheries Sector” by COCAFM, a bicameral com- or cell phones are now common in the Philippines mittee composed of the Philippine Senate and and text messaging (SMS) is particularly popular. House of Representatives. It is also endorsed as the Co-ops already get price data from local traders by “Official e-marketplace of APRACA” (Asia Pacific phoning them. B2B offers part of its service Rural and Agricultural Association, which includes through SMS and is likely to expand this service to the 18 largest agriculture banks in Asia). match demand from user cooperatives. was even mentioned as a deliver- able in the 2003 State of the Nation Address ofKey factors/issues which led to poverty Philippine President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo onreduction outcomes “Modernized Agriculture to Ensure Food Security.” This project contributes to poverty reduction in four ways: 1) it helps farmers increase their revenues by Future outlook getting competitive prices for their produce, 2) it is currently setting up partnerships helps farmers lower costs by enabling them to com- with computer hardware companies, cell phone opera- municate electronically with other cooperatives that tors, and other service providers to expand the project have similar purchasing and marketing require- to more farmer cooperatives. In exchange, the compa- ments, 3) price and supply volume information aids nies will advertise their products on the B2B web site. farmers to make better crop and other investment Other plans include partnerships with the Philippine choices, and 4) the site enables farmers to broaden Trade and Industry Department to market the latter’s their customer base and to trade with one another. services to small enterprises, and with the National When conducting training, three participants per Food Authority (NFA) to harness the NFA’s warehous- computer proved more effective than one partici- ing, trucking, and logistical services. pant per computer. This is due to the fact that three participants complement one another in the Stakeholder consultation learning process, while one participant tends to get Development Marketplace 2001, Full Proposal Form lost during the lecture and has no one with whom for, to share his or her experience. The ability of partici- Third Quarter Report 2002 for infoDev pants to access the system themselves following the infoDev Project Details web page, trainings strengthened the long-term benefit of the Statistics Report, 7 August 2003 training modules. E. Herbosa, Final Project Report, 2003 Lesson learned: It is better to invite younger Interviews conducted by Soc Evangelista in August members from the cooperatives, as they are more 2003 with: inclined to continue to use the computer than Edgardo Herbosa, founder of older members. Ryk Ramos, Land Bank (Development Assistance Project timing and price (free) were key factors in Department) project success. The e-marketplace came into being Conrado Navarro, PRRM at a time when both PRRM and the Land Bank were Irene Fernandez, PRRM thinking of creating similar projects, to which they Gemma Martin, PRRM had already assigned budgets. By linking with the Members of the El Gancho Cooperative, Land Bank, B2Bpricenow is able to use an existing Naic, Cavite banking system for transactions. In return, the Land Members of the Kooperatibang Likas ng Bank increases its client base because all transact- Neuva Ecija ing parties must open an account with the bank. infoDev Task Manager, Jacqueline Dubow Lessons Learned from Seventeen infoDev Projects 9
  15. 15. CDI: Committee for and work pressure in the IT business forced him to give up volunteer work. In 1993, he realized that he could Democracy in use his IT knowledge and skills to help community development and formed CDI. The aim of CDI is to use Information Technology the Internet to create a communication channel (Brazil) between young people from different social groups. The following year saw the first computer donation cam- paign, and in 1995, the first Information Technology and Citizens Rights School (ITCRS) was established. The Information Technology and Citizens’ Rights school was seen as a chance to bring technology to Schools for Low-income Communities underprivileged and socially excluded communities while simultaneously using the technology to promote active citizenship. Abstract The Committee for Democracy in Information CDI has grown at a phenomenal rate since 1995. In Technology (CDI), is a non-profit, non-governmental 2003, more than 200,000 young people will receive organization. Since 1995, it has pioneered an initiative training in 830 schools. As more schools were established to promote the social inclusion of disadvantaged com- around the world, more regional CDI offices were created munities by using information and communication to maintain them. The final objective of each school and technology as a tool for citizens’ rights and develop- regional office is to stand on its own, enabling CDI to ment. CDI facilitates the operation of Information move into a supervisory and ongoing training role. Technology and Citizens’ Rights schools by providing equipment (hardware and software), training of local CDI regional offices and ITCRSs are, in effect, social educators, and local administrative and technical sup- franchises. CDI uses local community centers, churches, port. The schools are self-managed and self-sustaining, and other available institutions to create new schools. but supported and monitored by regional CDI offices. Local staff are then trained to run them, with CDI pro- The regional offices were initially set up by volunteers viding hardware, software, and technical support until interested in the mission of CDI. Today, they are also such support is no longer necessary. Educators receive self-sustaining and self-managed, with offices located a five-month initial training; their first class is super- in 20 Brazilian states, as well as Colombia, Uruguay, vised before they are deemed qualified. School staff are Chile, Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, Japan, Angola, also trained in network support. CDI headquarters in South Africa, and Argentina. Rio, which supervises regional offices across Brazil and abroad, is responsible for program monitoring and eval- Background uation. Each regional office sends detailed monthly CDI began as the personal vision of Rodrigo Baggio. reports to headquarters based on information they Rodrigo worked as a community volunteer, but success receive from individual ITCRSs.10 ICT for Development
  16. 16. CDI does not expand by seeking partners, but by existing buildings to establish the ITCRSs and trainawaiting invitations. It then uses an evaluation community organizations, as well as members ofcommittee to decide whether an invitee is a suit- the community itself. This approach eliminatesable partner. Due to its rapid growth and success, many overhead costs. Partnership with the localCDI is presently in the process of consolidating its community is the key to the model’s success. CDIwork and is not seeking to expand further until it provides the methodology, equipment, and train-can assure the quality of its current activities. ing, and the community uses these tools to address its specific needs.In June 2002, infoDev gave CDI a grant in order toincrease the number of ITCRSs in Latin America, CDI has received funding from an enormous varietyspecifically, Uruguay, Colombia, Chile, and Mexico. of sponsors. Usually, each sponsor contributes aThe grant was also used to strengthen the opera- specifically defined element or funds a new initia-tions of CDI regional offices in the region. tive. Sponsors include BNDES, Microsoft, Fundação Avina, Fundação W.K. Kellogg, BID, AMCHAM-SP,Impact/Results Fundação Vale do Rio Doce, Phillips, Accenture, CDI has successfully adapted its methodology Fundação Telefonica, UBS Financial Services Group, to reach a diverse range of disadvantaged World Bank Group, UNICEF, YMCA, ESSO, Xerox do individuals, including socially excluded street Brasil, Terra Network, and Fundação EDS. children, visually impaired youth, indigenous peoples, maximum-security prisoners, the Target groups physically and mentally disabled, and psychi- The majority of CDI target groups are children, atric patients. but target groups also include visually impaired As a result of the organization’s work, more youth, indigenous peoples, prisoners, the physi- than 483,000 students have attended over 830 cally and mentally disabled, and other disadvan- schools, learning to use ICT in community taged groups. development projects designed to promote active citizenship. In a recent evaluation car- In order to gather more detailed information about ried out by an external consulting group, 87 the individuals attending its schools, CDI request- percent of children attendees said that the ed the Institute of Social and Economic Research schools had a positive effect on their lives. (ISER)—a consultancy institute with proven Among the benefits of the schools are educa- expertise in evaluating social programs—to pre- tion, new friends, keeping children off drugs, pare an impact evaluation study. The study was and helping children return to normal schools. conducted in 2000 to determine the profile of CDI The information technology training provided students, as well as to measure the impact of the by the schools allows youth from low-income courses offered. It showed that: communities to learn to use the Internet as a 65 percent of the students were 10 to 18 years basis for professional development, thus old increasing their chances on the job market. 56 percent were women 65 percent were black or mulattoesKey Issues 77 percent had families of at least four membersPartnership 63 percent had no incomeIn the CDI model, the major partner is the local 29 percent received an income of between onecommunity. Volunteers, with help from CDI, set up or two minimum salariesthe regional offices, which in turn create the 87 percent considered that the courses con-schools in partnership with local community cen- tributed to a positive change in their livesters, neighborhood associations, and religious 90 percent believed that the courses fulfilledgroups, among others. Regional CDI offices use their expectations Lessons Learned from Seventeen infoDev Projects 11
  17. 17. Capacity building These funds help pay for maintenance costs and educa- CDI builds capacity in local communities in a number tor salaries (although some educators are volunteers). of ways. First, the regional CDI office provides the local Students that cannot pay fees help by contributing to communities with technical expertise, educational school chores and taking part in local fundraising methodology, educator training, and curriculum devel- activities. Part of the responsibilities of each regional opment for the different social groups involved. office is to coordinate partnerships with local organiza- Second, the non-didactic curricula of the schools foster tions to set up new schools, as well as to run fundrais- community building through debates on topics consid- ing and computer-donation campaigns. ered important to local groups. These topics are then researched and discussed by the groups within the Total Project Cost:* US$ 350,000 wider socio-political context. The schools teach com- infoDev funding: US$ 150,000 mon computer programs, such as Microsoft and open *Additional funding provided by CDI and other partners. source software, and offer Internet and hardware main- tenance training. It is the replication of the model, Beneficiary Stories from CDI headquarters to regional offices to local edu- Leandro Farias is a former student who is now an “edu- cators, that enables the model to grow and impact cator” at an ITCRS. He was the first student to register local communities. for the IT course when it was originally created. Another former student, Luis Claudio, is now responsi- Technology ble for the computer network within the Morro dos One of the responsibilities of the CDI regional offices is Macacos ITCRS. In fact, they were both trained in the to organize computer donation campaigns. These offices favela (Brazilian slum). Leandro went on to become are able to recycle machines as old as Pentium 486s. degree-qualified and then returned to work at the In Rio de Janeiro, for instance, they have a large, school because of his love for the work. He is seen as loaned warehouse in which large numbers of old com- a leader by the students. In other cases, educators puters, monitors, printers, etc., are stored. A team of leave to find better jobs and opportunities, which CDI locally recruited and trained people then strip and also considers a success. rebuild the machines for distribution to ITCRSs. Issues and Lessons CDI has developed a Linux-based system which uses Challenges one high-spec machine to service 15 to 20 slave units. With so many offices, duplication of work has The latter units have no hard drives, just a floppy disc, resulted and the communication of ideas has not 16 megabtyes of RAM, and video and network cards. A been maintained. bootable floppy disc in each drive runs software direct- Drug gangs control local areas and can prevent ly from the server, providing a remarkably fast user young people from crossing over a boundary to interface. Open source software is used alongside a attend a school. limited number of packages donated by Microsoft. Keeping up with technology is an ongoing problem, since it is a moving target. The goal is to train one person from each ITCRS to The Brazilian government is beginning to recognize maintain and repair their own machines, although due the importance of access to ICT for education (digi- to the simplicity of the system, the reliability rate is tal inclusion). However, funds to promote this type good. All computers are donated to the schools and of work are not yet readily available. most are second-hand, unless funding has been received for new computers in a specific case. Key factors/issues which led to poverty reduction outcomes Finance CDI commissioned an external agency with expertise The schools are self-sustainable, funded by monthly in evaluating social programs to prepare an impact student fees and donations by partner institutions. study. This ensured that the program was targeting12 ICT for Development
  18. 18. the people that it intended to benefit. The they can help themselves and improve the con-study confirmed that the CDI schools were ditions in which they live.reaching the poor and the marginalized and hadappropriate gender inclusion. Future outlookIt was important to link a practical skill that CDI is currently in a period of consolidation.potentially enhanced employment prospects Rather than increasing the number of schools itwith citizenship training. ICT opened an works with, CDI is currently trying to increaseopportunity for group work and peer-to-peer the standard of activities in existing The schools undertake a project that The self-sustainability of each school very muchencompasses local issues as well as technical depends on the community organizationlearning. The project is created using a process responsible for its administration. CDI encour-of reflection and action. The non-didactic con- ages each school to develop activities that willtent fosters community building through make self-sustainability possible.debates on topics such as human rights, sexeducation, non-violence, and ecology, using Stakeholder consultationdigital technology. The evaluation noted that CDI institutional profilethe benefits included keeping children off drugs. CDI Grant Proposal to infoDevOne of the keys to the success of the CDI model CDI Grant Agreement with infoDevis the network of relationships between CDI Interviews conducted in August 2003 byheadquarters, regional offices, and the schools. Malcom Peirce with:CDI trains the future educators of the schools Ricardo Schneider, CDIwho, in turn, train others in their communities. Leandro Farias, CDI EducatorThe fact that local staff are heavily involved in Luis Claudio, CDI Network Managerthe process means that the courses offered by Dona Ana, Community Center Founderthe schools are tailor-made and relevant to Fernandes Linia Denilson, CDI Maintenancecommunity needs. The driving factor is the Coordinatordesire to see underprivileged people given the E-mail communication with CDI, July–Sept 03tools (i.e., technology and education) by which infoDev Task Manager, Rafael Hernandez Lessons Learned from Seventeen infoDev Projects 13
  19. 19. CEMINA (Brazil) result would be increased capacity of Brazilian commu- nity radio, a media that operates on scare resources and relies predominantly on volunteers. The main aim of CEMINA was to improve education on gender by Strengthening Women’s Leadership in strengthening the use of community radio by low- Community Development through Internet income women in Brazil. Cyberella set out to integrate Radio in Brazil existing local radio stations across Brazil into a net- work that would share content by downloading content via broadband Internet links. They would transmit the programs over the Internet as well as on normal radio. Abstract Communication, Education, and Information on Gender The CEMINA project offers an alternative telecenter (CEMINA) is dedicated to strengthening women’s lead- model. The long-term sustainability and limited out- ership in community development through Internet reach of telecenters have put the latter model into radio in Brazil. The CEMINA project was the first initia- question. Obstacles to the success of dedicated tele- tive in Brazil to focus on promoting gender education centers include cost, language, local relevance of by connecting communities to the Internet via the content, distance, and limited access for poorer resi- radio. Radio program content is produced locally and dents—especially those in remote, rural communities. shared with other radio stations via broadband Internet Community radio, however, can be used to improve links (for uploads and downloads). Today, 11 community the efficiency of telecenter investments by expanding radio stations are successfully using information and outreach and increasing participation and value. communication technology (ICT) to produce radio con- tent and 1,500 women from all over Brazil have been One of the objectives of CEMINA is to break the isola- trained in radio production. tion of women and facilitate their social integration via new communication technologies. By connecting the Background Internet to a media that people are familiar with (radio CEMINA is a Brazilian NGO founded in 1988. Its mis- broadcasts), CEMINA expects to overcome some of the sion is to promote communication and information on resistance that new technologies tend to create, espe- gender issues through radio broadcasting. Today, cially among women. CEMINA broadcasts to a network of over 400 women’s radio programs stations throughout Brazil and is The main objectives of the project were to: nationally and regionally (in Latin America) recognized create a radio web site that featured profiles of as a media focal point for women’s radio networks. many Women Radio Network (WRN) stations provide hardware and train ten WRN stations The rationale behind the ICT community radio project located in sites with good Internet connectivity (Network Cyberella) was to use ICT to exchange audio (essential for the exchange of audio material on material and thus improve radio content. The end the Internet)14 ICT for Development
  20. 20. provide access, hardware, and training for three Impact/Results WRN stations located in remote areas with no A radio web site has been produced (www.radiofala- connectivity (these areas depend on satellite Thirteen community radio stations Internet connections) have been enabled to contribute content and down- load audio files that are broadcast locally. The pres-The first 13 WRN stations were selected through a pub- ent content of the site includes a daily programlic contest called “Cyberella.” The selection criteria that is streamed live from 3:00 p.m. to 4:00 p.m.required stations to: daily. The program is then replicated five times over be a member of the WRN the next 24 hours. In between, music and selected have access to a broadband Internet connection programs are provided by Radio Viva Favela, with provide a staff member to be the permanent link which CEMINA has a partnership for the exchange with CEMINA of audio content. once a week, to broadcast a radio program down- Two telecenters have been established. CEMINA is loaded from the web site also working with one community radio station provide content to located in an area known for child labor. In response to the needs of this area, a telecenter wasThirty radio stations submitted proposals. The final developed to provide ICT training to local youth.selection took into consideration each station’s region-al coverage and outreach. One such radio station was Key Issuesbased in a community center that featured a telecenter Partnershipsupported by the NGO Many of the CEMINA One of CEMINA’s strategies is to partner with otherprojects feature similar partnerships with other devel- organizations and networks that can contribute contentopment initiatives. to the web site. In return, CEMINA helps its partners to disseminate digital radio content and create a sustain-Launching the Internet radio project in the first 13 able network upon conclusion of infoDev funding. AtWRN stations constituted a pilot phase that allowed present, a partnership with Radio Viva Favela and a linknecessary adjustments to be made to the project. The with two digital radio stations have been created.three stations without an Internet connection becamethe basis for future installations of “Radio-Internet- Two other major partnerships are currently being putTelecenters” in communities where no Internet connec- in place. The first is a partnership with a large net-tivity exists. Historically, the major towns and cities of work of health organizations on tobacco prevention.Brazil—and thus, the communications infrastructure— The network will provide a weekly program to bedeveloped along the coast, leaving the interior of the streamed from Radiofalamulher, which in turn will pro-country underdeveloped. CEMINA plans to expand its vide coverage of any events held by the health organi-initiative to the poorest municipalities of Brazil, espe- zations in Brazil. This exchange will cover the costs ofcially in the North-Eastern region of the country. production services and hosting the program. CEMINA hopes to develop this partnership into a model thatInterestingly, CEMINA originally viewed community can be used to cover the fixed operating costs of theradio as an alternative to telecenters. However, since radio stations.the project supplied radio stations with broadbandInternet connections, the stations themselves are The second major partnership is with “Hip Hop” musicbecoming telecenters. youth groups. These groups tend to be independent music producers in search of new channels for the dis-CEMINA monitors its projects internally through monthly semination of their products. Most are very familiarreports. These reports are linked to a series of commit- with ICT and could potentially bring a large audiencements set out in individual project partnership agree- to the web site. This partnership could also lead toments. The articulation of project goals in partnership interesting radio programs that CEMINA could promoteagreements was crucial to the pilot phase of the project. in the area of youth education. Lessons Learned from Seventeen infoDev Projects 15
  21. 21. Other CEMINA partners fund the project through finan- installed on each computer. To cover the costs of cial or in-kind contributions and include the software broadband connectivity, CEMINA will be signing six- company Sound Foundry, the Kellogg Foundation, and month contracts with local providers selected by each the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural of the 10 stations with landline connections. The three Organization (UNESCO). radio stations with no landline Internet connectivity will be connected via satellite. Target groups The main target group of the project is the rural popu- In conjunction with the installation of this equipment, lation of low-income women in Brazil. These women a training program is planned to improve the ICT skill reside in the communities served by the 13 women’s level and management capacity of the project manager radio stations chosen to host the content made avail- of each radio station. Radio station staff come to able through Network Cyberella. CEMINA’s office in Rio for a ten-day training program at their computer suite, which consists of a dozen high- Capacity building specification AMD Athlon computers. It is estimated that the 400 existing community radio stations are listened to by millions of Brazilian citi- Finance zens. In theory, all of these stations could, in time, Total Project Cost: US$ 425,593 become part of one network. Theoretically, the Internet infoDev funding: US$ 245,593 makes it possible to extend the network to any Portuguese-speaking country in the world. The Kellogg Foundation and UNESCO recently concluded funding partnerships with CEMINA that allowed the At the start of the project, CEMINA identified four key NGO to expand the project. areas which needed to be addressed: hardware Two major factors will contribute to the eventual finan- capacity building cial sustainability of the project: broadband Internet connection commercial advertising (will generate revenue) content shared content (will minimize production costs of original content) With respect to hardware, each of the original 13 par- ticipating radio stations was provided with a computer, Future funding is also potentially available from a the software necessary to process digital radio pro- Brazilian government tax on IT companies (one percent grams, and staff training. Capacity building was of profits). However, NGOs are presently finding it diffi- addressed through CEMINA training programs. The cult to access these funds. availability of a broadband Internet connection was a prerequisite for joining the network. With respect to Issues and Lessons content, CEMINA had been producing the Fala Mulher Challenges (Women Speak Up) radio program for several years. It Project implementation presented few technical diffi- thus created the project web site, www.radiofalamul- culties. Madalena Guilhon, one of the producers of Fala, based on existing program scheduling. Mulher, explained that after the first programs were produced and distributed, CEMINA discovered that the Technology format needed to be changed to a number of short The thirteen radio stations were each equipped with a segments instead of one, 60-minute program. The Pentium IV-class computer with sufficient memory and shorter format allows local radio stations to use seg- CD-ROM drives to enable editing of sound files. Sound ments of the entire program in different time slots. Foundry provided licenses for professional sound edit- A major challenge has been the lack of broadband ing software. The open source software Open Office was connectivity in many areas. This reality required a16 ICT for Development
  22. 22. number of satellite digital connections, which are configuration needed for the project (i.e., number very expensive. of computers and software needed). A technical Another challenge is how to provide technical sup- meeting at Radio Favela’s studio was held to help port to partners. For example, working out the best the CEMINA team learn about Radio Favela’s experi- way to support partners when equipment fails or ence in implementing streaming radio. Among the starts to have problems due to viruses. To date, issues discussed were the lowest possible bandwidth such problems have been dealt via e-mail, phone, required to obtain a good quality stream; streaming and sometimes by arranging for local assistance. compatibility with media players running on all Indeed, a key project need is to build local assis- operating platforms; and obtaining open-source tance partnerships. workstations (Linux, etc.). In the near future, CEMINA and other ICT-based pro- As a result of this meeting, CEMINA decided to use grams in Brazil may face a funding problem brought the same server platform as Radio Viva Favela, after about by the cessation of government support. ensuring that the resulting media stream could be listened to on any user platform. The technicalKey factors/issues which led to poverty compatibility between the two projects will helpreduction outcomes both teams to exchange experience and technical Radiofalamulher shares content and presenters with expertise, leading to greater coverage. a number of local radio stations, notably Viva Rio Funding from the Kellogg Foundation and UNESCO and Radio Favela. There has also been a great deal enabled the project to expand the radio-telecenter of crossover between a number of other radio devel- model. CEMINA has begun selecting 16 new opment projects, where each has had something to “Cyberellas” (community radio stations) and will offer the others. organize training sessions in August 2004. In two cases, partners were able to set up their own It is hoped that CEMINA will be able to expand its telecenters and are now making the Internet acces- partnerships and connectivity in the near future. For sible to their respective communities. In the spe- example, there is a possibility of installing a pilot cific case of Retirolandia (in the interior of the project using the SatMex network, which would state of Bahia), the telecenter “Cybersolidario” is eliminate connectivity costs for some local partners. offering ICT training to young people aged 15–21 years old. (This area is known for child labor.) Stakeholder consultation With respect to the policy environment, CEMINA CEMINA Grant Agreement with infoDev has been able to determine its own constitution infoDev Project information sheet, and working practices. Community radio is an CEMINA Second Quarter Report 2003 for infoDev accepted part of Brazilian culture that is encour- CEMINA homepage, aged by the government. Interview of Thais Corral by Malcom Peirce, August 2003Future outlook Communication with Thais Corral, July– The experience of Radio Viva Favela has been help- September 2003 ful in enabling CEMINA to identify the technology infoDev Task Manager, John Garrison Lessons Learned from Seventeen infoDev Projects 17
  23. 23. El Proyecto Conexiones In addition, Conexiones has developed a multi-media graphical interface called La PachaMama, which inte- (Colombia) grates productivity tools, information technology utili- ties, and educational components. La PachaMama is used in the classroom by groups of students to help them solve specific problems. As part of the pedagogical and Integrating ICT into the School Curriculum technical support provided to the schools by Conexiones, one final-year university student is attached to each school. The project has provided teachers greater resources to use when planning classes, including the Abstract means to create interactive programs for children. Conexiones began in 1993 as a research project of EAFIT Opportunities for children to learn about technology University and the Pontificia Bolivariana University in outside of school are provided through technology Medellín, Colombia. The project intended to develop new clubs set up with the support of participating schools information and communication technology (ICT)-sup- and their respective local communities. ported learning environments to improve the quality and equity of education in Colombia. Since its initial In order to facilitate the use of ICT in Colombian research phase, Conexiones has targeted schools in both schools, Conexiones began a preliminary program in five rural and urban areas, without prejudice to their socio- elementary schools, based on the work of 15 economic level. To date, 75 primary and secondary researchers from different fields. On the basis of their schools in the provinces of Antioquia, Santander, research, a model was created to help schools utilize Bolívar, and Valle del Cauca belong to the Conexiones ICT within the existing school curriculum. Today, network, which encompasses more than 1,000 educators Conexiones introduces its program into schools over an and over 6,000 students between 7 and 16 years of age. 18-month period. During this time, the schools follow a four-step process of preparation, initiation, appropria- Background tion, and institutionalization. This process includes rais- El Proyecto Conexiones sought to create a model by ing awareness of the program among the educational which schools could use information technology to community, training school principals to manage the enhance the learning environment, as well as to project within their schools, training teachers in the improve the quality and accessibility of Colombian edu- Conexiones model, and assigning a university student to cation. To achieve these goals, Conexiones initially cre- the school as an “educational agent.” Once the training ated a dial-up computer network that linked schools is complete, each school determines the implementa- across Medellín to a central node/information center at tion strategy that it will continue to use for the project the EAFIT University. This network is now integrated in its school. This strategy may include working out with the national academic network (CETCOL) and pro- which students to involve, defining achievement indica- vides Internet access to schools. tors, and creating an information technology club.18 ICT for Development
  24. 24. Since the project began, follow-up evaluations have To date, the “educational agent” component of thebeen carried out at each participating institution. project has involved about 150 university students,These evaluations were then used to design an evalua- who provide voluntary service to the educationaltion model for the project as a whole. This model, community for one calendar year. The educationaldesigned by researchers from the Educational Computer agent component has now been extended to 30Science Area at EAFIT University, examines the municipalities of Colombia, 80 percent of which areachievements of the educational population (both rural. In addition, this initiative has prompted thestudents and teachers), together with impacts at the creation of several other programs in Colombia thatinstitutional level. support other national and regional projects.The most important results of the Conexiones project Key Issuesto date have been an improved institutional climate Partnershipwithin participating schools, changed roles and atti- EAFIT University directs the project and hosts the cen-tudes of both teachers and students, the participation tral network node. The Science and Technology Centerand recognition of all students, and the consequent provides financial support for the educational agentimproved self-esteem of students and teachers. As the component. In 1999, some 55 university students wereproject team declares in its summary report, “the chil- placed in schools. In addition, the Antioquiadren are very sensitive to their cultural surroundings— Secretariat of Education facilitated the participation ofin [Colombia’s] case, the conditions of poverty, intoler- four teachers to provide project support. Other partner-ance, violence, insecurity, and corruption affect them ships include financial help from the Colombianvery deeply. The conviction that collaborative construc- Institute for the Development of Science andtion and sharing of knowledge…are means to face such Technology (COLCIENCIAS, a government organization)problems turns ICT into an important opportunity to and Centro de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Antioquia (a pri-integrate school, community, and life.” vate sector organization). A partnership has also been formed with Fundación Corona COMFAMA.One of the most successful collaborative projectsundertaken by Conexiones is “Constructing an Target groupsIntegrated Ecological Farm.” This project seeks to School children under 15 years old and their school-strengthen the ecological, ethical, and cultural values teachers in the provinces of Antioquia, Santander,of students. As the project develops, students discover Bolívar, and Valle del Cauca in Colombia are the targetthe importance of land and small farmers in a country groups of the project. In designing the project,whose economy has been fundamentally agricultural, as Conexiones tried to involve all members of the commu-well as the importance of living harmoniously with nity, including children and teachers.nature. As students investigate the workings of anintegrated ecological farm, they develop proposals for The activities initially proposed by Conexiones werethe design and maintenance of different parts of the modified during implementation to respond to thefarm. At the end of the project, the students use dia- needs of user groups. For example, communitieslogue and consensus to integrate their proposals to expressed interest in combining cultural and recre-design a complete virtual (electronic) farm. ational activities with technological training activities. This ensures that the community takes ownership ofImpact/Results the technology clubs, participates in the entire Applying school curricula to everyday life with ICT process, and generates high levels of motivation has improved the institutional climate within and interest. Colombian schools and the self-esteem of teachers and students alike. Capacity building The integrated ecological farm project has given Conexiones offers 180 hours of training for teachers in students a deep understanding of the importance of participating schools. Training is offered in four install- farming and the land. ments over an 18-month period, with each installment Lessons Learned from Seventeen infoDev Projects 19
  25. 25. followed by a period of application in the classroom. change this situation. It was imperative for me to Topics include using ICT tools, working with Conexiones change my attitude. Now I spend less time deliver- learning materials, and teaching in a dynamic, partici- ing static lessons while I am more helpful, allowing patory manner. them to develop many more concepts and knowl- edge by themselves, which they apply immediately Technology to collaborative projects.” —Teacher Conexiones provides participating schools with a con- nection to its inter-school network and software inter- Issues and Lessons faces that require minimal computer training to use. Challenges At the center of the technology package is LaPacha- Introducing technology into the classroom affects Mama, a graphical interface that integrates Conexiones the current organization of the school (schedules, communication and collaboration tools with education- class location, furniture, etc.) and can initially al software. This interface can be installed on increase the workload of teachers. Therefore, it was intranets, which are established at low cost using imperative that the project gain the support, com- Windows and Linux operating systems. The Conexiones mitment, and involvement of school managers and project does not provide hardware; on the contrary, it teachers from the start. takes advantage of existing technology in each educa- One challenge has been to design a system that tional institution and promotes the management of can cater to the different needs of various schools. hardware and connectivity resources. Schools involved in the project include those located in small isolated towns and rural areas, Finance those in middle-class urban areas, as well as Staff US$ 142,708 schools in the poorest neighborhoods of the city Travel 19,372 of Medellín. An important lesson has been that Contractual services 23,338 quality education requires the participation of all Equipment (for management center 635,490 members of the community: students, parents, and schools) teachers, and administrators. Training 77,843 Miscellaneous 126,820 Key factors/issues which led to poverty reduction outcomes Total Project Cost: US$ 1,025,571 By improving the quality of education in primary infoDev Funding US$ 250,000 and secondary schools in Colombia, the project enhanced opportunities for poverty reduction. Quotes from Users The realization among project participants that “There has been a revolution: we have better facili- improving educational standards requires the ties to engage in dialogue and to solve problems involvement of all members of the local community. that emerge in the classroom, and also to create Conexiones spent a lot of time and effort making projects to address our local needs.” —Student the project applicable to the skills, needs, and “The classes were tedious, full of books and note- expectations of the target group. By meeting a books, working individually without integration of direct need, the project has been able to grow and materials. Now we work in groups, everyone values head towards becoming sustainable. the work of all members of the class, there is com- Raising awareness of the program and training munication with companions in other schools, and administrators and teachers began early. The result the teachers are more dynamic. Now the learning has been a high level of commitment to the project activities challenge your own creativity and it is on the part of participating schools. more fun to work in the classroom.” —Student Long-term backup and follow-up was included in “There was a barrier between my central role and the project framework. Over a two-year period, each the passive participation of students in the class- school is given access to one project staff person room, and I never thought of an effective way to and (after 120 hours of training) one university20 ICT for Development
  26. 26. student for support and training. Most support serv- Centers and the capacity-building programs will be ices are delivered via e-mail, a system that has designed to catalyze a firm integration between proven flexible and effective. the communities and their schools. Training and Leadership has been the key to implementing the services will be tailored to fulfill local needs and model. Conexiones promotes leadership within the to enhance the social and economic profile of schools by encouraging the most dedicated and the community—a key component of broader com- interested students to form “ICT Friends’ Clubs” or munity development. CATICIs, as they are known in Spanish. CATICIs The Autonoma Bucaramanga University began a receive guidance and special tutoring from similar project in eight schools in the Santander Conexiones support staff, and work informally to Region. This project reaches approximately 250 reg- promote the program within the school. ular users, who receive training and advice on tech- nical and pedagogical issues for use in schools.Future outlook In 2002, Conexiones began implementing additional Based on the experience of the Conexiones project, centers in Antioquia and, in the medium term, a pilot center (Conexiones II) and school network anticipates implementing an ICT center in each have been set up. The main goal of Conexiones II/ school that has successfully incorporated the Escuela Global is to demonstrate that shared low- Conexiones model. tech ICT facilities can provide a successful model for sustainable community development if they Stakeholder consultation incorporate strong community participation and Proyecto Conexiones Grant Agreement with infoDev customized educational modules that fulfill Project Abstracts, Rafael Hernandez, infoDev, assessed community needs. The project will estab- August 1998 lish Technology Centers for community development Final project report for infoDev, within participating schools for use by both schools Conexiones: Ambiente Tecnologico Escolar, Digital and local communities. Dividend, The new project has four axes: local productivity Communication with Claudia Zea, July– enhancement, governance, the relation between cul- September 2003 ture and education, and life-long education. The infoDev Task Manager, Rafael Hernandez Lessons Learned from Seventeen infoDev Projects 21
  27. 27. Fantsuam Foundation major factor in establishing a financially sustainable telecenter. Fantsuam hopes to become Nigeria’s first (Nigeria) rural ISP and is in the process of establishing a VSAT connection with support from the United States. Background Improving Healthcare and Education through Fantsuam Foundation is a Nigerian NGO located about Shared ICT Resources 600 miles from Lagos. The foundation was formed in 1996 by a group of Nigerian professionals who saw that rural community development through the empowerment Abstract of women was largely unrealized in Nigeria. Fantsuam The Fantsuam Foundation in Kafanchan, Nigeria, is Foundation was established to facilitate this process. working to give local rural communities in Nigeria access to health and educational resources via the The goal of the project is to increase access, particu- Internet. In the first phase of the project, Fantsuam larly for women, to information and communication worked with local committees to establish three technology (ICT) facilities in southern Nigeria. To Community Learning Centers (telecenters). One of achieve this goal, Fantsuam facilitated ICT training and these centers, at the Fantsuam office in Bayan Loco, is equipment upgrades in three Community Learning already financially self-supporting. Plans to set up a Centers (CLCs) and intended to create one Mobile mobile community telecenter, which would visit differ- Community Telecenter, all in rural communities in the ent communities and offer e-mail access via satellite, southern Kaduna area of Nigeria. These facilities were were abandoned due to prohibitive cost. primarily used by community health workers and nurses (most of whom are women), students and staff of There is strong local demand for basic computer skills health-training institutions, and local colleges. training, which has generated revenue for the Bayan Loco center. However, because the telecenters do not As part of the project, Fantsuam provided refurbished have working landline telephones, they have been computers and basic computer training. The project unable to date to offer e-mail or Internet access, as hoped to develop culturally relevant health content was originally hoped. using a variety of media: the Internet, community radio, and reference textbooks in libraries. Alternative The project, which began in January 2001 and ends in power sources (such as solar energy) have been pilot- December 2003, arranged for over 225 refurbished mul- ed, and rural communities are supported to set up their timedia personal computers to be shipped to own Community Learning Centers. Kafanchan from the United Kingdom by the charity ComputerAid. These computers were sold at cost to Specific activities undertaken include: local NGOs and community groups and have been wide- Basic IT training for frontline health workers, stu- ly appreciated. The low cost of these machines was a dents, and health trainers. This training has been22 ICT for Development