Today the Internet has become ubiquitous, has
touched almost every corner of the globe, and is
affecting human life in unimaginable ways.
However, the journey is far from over. We are now
entering an era of even more pervasive connectivity
where a very wide variety of appliances will be
connected to the web. We are entering an era of
the “Internet of Things” (abbreviated as IoT).
4. ORIGIN OF IOT
1926 – Nikola Tesla in his interview talked about
things like Smart Planet : when wireless will be
1999 – Term IoT was coined by Kevin Ashton,
expert in technologist and digital transformation
Smart Refrigerator known as Internet Digital DIOS
by LG with LCD Screen was first such example of
IoT which showed inside temperature , freshness of
stored food , nutrition info and recipes
5. WHAT IS IOT ?
IoT is a system of interrelated computing devices, mechanical
and digital machines, objects, animals or people that are
provided with unique identifiers (UIDs) and the ability to
transfer data over a network without requiring human-to-
human or human-to-computer interaction.
It is a network of physical devices,vehicles,home appliances
and other items embedded with electronics, software,
sensors, actuators and connectivity which enables these
things to connect and exchange data.
6. ARCHITECTURE OF IOT
There is no single consensus on architecture for IoT, which is agreed
universally. Different architectures have been proposed by different
Three- and Five-Layer Architectures
The most basic architecture is a three-layer architecture. It was introduced in
the early stages of research in this area. It has three layers, namely, the
perception, network, and application layers.
The perception layer is the physical layer, which has sensors for sensing and
gathering information about the environment. It senses some physical
parameters or identifies other smart objects in the environment.
The network layer is responsible for connecting to other smart things,
network devices, and servers. Its features are also used for transmitting and
processing sensor data.
The application layer is responsible for delivering application specific
services to the user. It defines various applications in which the Internet of
Things can be deployed, for example, smart homes, smart cities, and smart
8. ADDITIONAL LAYERS IN 5 LAYER
The three-layer architecture defines the main idea of the Internet of
Things, but it is not sufficient for research on IoT because research
often focuses on finer aspects of the Internet of Things.
The five layers are perception, transport, processing, application,
and business layers .The role of the perception and application
layers is the same as the architecture with three layers.
The transport layer transfers the sensor data from the perception
layer to the processing layer and vice versa through networks such
as wireless, 3G, LAN, Bluetooth, RFID, and NFC.
The processing layer is also known as the middleware layer. It
stores, analyzes, and processes huge amounts of data that comes
from the transport layer. It can manage and provide a diverse set of
services to the lower layers. It employs many technologies such as
databases, cloud computing, and big data processing modules.
The business layer manages the whole IoT system, including
applications, business and profit models, and users’ privacy.
13. APPLICATIONS OF IOT
Building and home automation
Metropolitan scale deployments -There are several planned or
ongoing large-scale deployments of the IoT, to enable better
management of cities and systems. For example, Songdo , South
Korea, the first of its kind fully equipped and wired smart city, is
gradually being built, with approximately 70 percent of the business
district completed as of June 2018. Much of the city is planned to be
wired and automated, with little or no human intervention.
Platform fragmentation - IoT suffers from platform
fragmentation and lack of technical standards a situation where the
variety of IoT devices, in terms of both hardware variations and
differences in the software running on them, makes the task of
developing applications that work consistently between different
inconsistent technology ecosystems hard
Privacy, autonomy, and control - Internet of things offers immense
potential for empowering citizens, making government transparent, and
broadening information access. Privacy threats are enormous, as is the
potential for social control and political manipulation.
Data storage - A challenge for producers of IoT applications is to clean,
process and interpret the vast amount of data which is gathered by the
Security - Concerns have been raised that the Internet of things is
being developed rapidly without appropriate consideration of the
profound security challenges involved and the regulatory changes that
might be necessary. Most of the technical security concerns are similar to
those of conventional servers, workstations and smartphones, but
security challenges unique to the IoT continue to develop, including
industrial security controls, hybrid systems, IoT-specific business
processes, and end nodes.