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Netmetric Solutions ( Meer Shahanawaz ) ( Abdullah ) ROUTING A device that forwards data packets along networks. A router is connected to at least two networks,commonly two LANs or WANs or a LAN and its ISP’s network. Routers are located at gateways, the places wheretwo or more networks connect.Routers use headers and forwarding tables to determine the best path for forwarding the packets, and they useprotocols such as ICMP to communicate with each other and configure the best route between any two hosts.Very little filtering of data is done through routers. Types of Routers Software Router (Windows ) Hardware Router (CISCO)1.Routing Scenarios Using Single Router Steps to Activate the System as a Router : Start - Programs - Administration Tools - Services- Select – Routing and Remote Access - Start the service2.Routing Scenarios using Double Router
Tpes of Routing1.Static Routing2.Default Routing3.Dynamic Routing1.Static RoutingStatic Routing, is the process in which the system network administrator would manually configure networkrouters with all the information necessary for successful packet forwarding. The administrator constructs the routingtable in every router by putting in the entries for every network that could be a destination. Static routes to networkdestinations are unchangeableSimple Scenario for Static Routing Table for Double Routing : Routng Table for Router 1 Routing Table For Router 2 Interface LAN2 Interface LAN3 Destination Network 184.108.40.206 Destination Network 10.0.0.0 De Destination Mask 255.0.0.0 Destination Mask 255.0.0.0 D Default Gateway 220.127.116.11 Default Gateway 18.104.22.168 Default Routing
A default route, also known as the gateway of last resort, is the network route used by arouter when no other known route exists for a given IP packets destination address. All thepackets for destinations not known by the routers routing table are sent to the default route. Thisroute generally leads to another router, which treats the packet the same way: If the route isknown, the packet will get forwarded to the known route. If not, the packet is forwarded to thedefault-route of that router which generally leads to another router. And so on. Each routertraversal adds a one-hop distance to the route.Once the router with a known route to an host destination is reached, the router determines whichroute is valid by finding the "most specific match". The network with the longest subnet maskthat matches the destination IP address wins.Simple Scenario for Default Routing Table for Double Routing : Routng Table for Router 1 Routing Table For Router 2 Interface LAN2 Interface LAN3 Destination Network 0.0.0.0 Destination Network 0.0.0.0 De Destination Mask 0.0.0.0 Destination Mask 0.0.0.0 D Default Gateway 22.214.171.124 Default Gateway 126.96.36.199 Dynamic RoutingDynamic routing performs the same function as static routing except it is more robust. Staticrouting allows routing tables in specific routers to be set up in a static manner so network routesfor packets are set. If a router on the route goes down the destination may become unreachable.Dynamic routing allows routing tables in routers to change as the possible routes change. Thereare several protocols used to support dynamic routing including RIP and OSPF