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SSTRM - - Workshop 1: Visioning and Future Capabilities Workshop, Report

Soldier Systems Technology Roadmap
              Workshop 1:
    Visioning and Future Capabilities

           Gatineau, J...
Table of Contents
Executive Summary .........................................................................................
5. The End of the Beginning .......................................................................... 57
     5.1 Next St...

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SSTRM - - Workshop 1: Visioning and Future Capabilities Workshop, Report

  1. 1. Soldier Systems Technology Roadmap Workshop 1: Visioning and Future Capabilities Gatineau, June 16-17 2009 Department of National Defence Defence Research and Development Canada Industry Canada August 28, 2009
  2. 2. Table of Contents Executive Summary ........................................................................................... iv 1. Technology and the Soldier of the Future: A Roadmap ............................ 5 1.1 What is the Soldier Systems Technology Roadmap? ....................................... 5 1.2 A Collaborative Effort – Industry, Government, and Academia ......................... 6 1.3 How to Get Involved ......................................................................................... 7 2. The Dismounted Soldier and the Soldier System ...................................... 8 2.1 The Dismounted Soldier ................................................................................... 8 2.2 The Dismounted Soldier’s System.................................................................... 9 2.3 Future Soldier Systems .................................................................................. 11 2.4 Structuring the Soldier Systems Technology Roadmap Discussion ................ 14 3. Setting the Scene: A Vision of the Future Soldier System ..................... 15 3.1 Visioning Workshop Welcome ........................................................................ 16 3.2 Soldier Systems Technology Roadmap Overview .......................................... 18 3.3 Visioning Workshop Logistics ......................................................................... 21 3.4 The Canadian Soldier Modernization Effort .................................................... 23 3.5 Technology Mindmap and Technology Readiness Levels .............................. 25 3.6 Human Systems Integration ........................................................................... 27 3.7 Micro Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (Luncheon Conference).............................. 29 3.8 The Future Security Environment ................................................................... 31 3.9 The Army of Tomorrow and the Future ........................................................... 33 4. Focusing the Vision: Key Areas of the Soldier System .......................... 35 4.1 Power/Energy and Sustainability .................................................................... 37 4.2 C4I/Sensors ................................................................................................... 41 4.3 Survivability and Personal Protective Equipment ............................................ 47 4.4 Lethal and Non-Lethal Weapons .................................................................... 52 4.5 Parking Lot Issues .......................................................................................... 56 ii
  3. 3. 5. The End of the Beginning .......................................................................... 57 5.1 Next Steps in the Roadmapping Project ......................................................... 57 5.2 Schedule of Upcoming Workshops................................................................. 58 Appendices A. Soldier Systems Technology Roadmap Governance .............................. 59 B. List of Visioning and Future Capabilities Workshop Participants ......... 60 C. Facilitators .................................................................................................. 68 iii
  4. 4. Executive Summary This report summarizes the results of the first workshop associated with the Soldier Systems Technology Roadmap project – the Visioning and Future Capabilities Workshop held in Gatineau, Québec, June 16-17, 2009. Chapter 1, Technology and the Soldier of the Future: A Roadmap, defines technology roadmapping in general and in the context of the Soldier System. It provides links for those interested in becoming involved in this project. Chapter 2, The Dismounted Soldier and the Soldier System, provides background information for those not familiar with soldier systems. It introduces the focal point of the Soldier Systems Technology Roadmap – the soldier, and the system that supports the soldier – and explains the structure chosen for the workshop discussions. Chapter 3, Setting the Scene: A Vision of the Future Soldier, summarizes nine workshop presentations made by members of the Department of National Defence (DND), Industry Canada, and others. These provided workshop participants with an understanding of DND's current vision of the future soldier system, the capabilities it will require, and the challenges that must be overcome to realize those capabilities. It includes information about the workshop's goals and logistics. Chapter 4, Focusing the Vision: Key Areas of the Soldier System, summarizes the remaining workshop presentations. These focus on the four key areas identified for discussion in the workshop's breakout sessions: Power/Energy and Sustainability, C4I/Sensors, Survivability and Personal Protective Equipment, and Lethal and Non- Lethal Weapons. The chapter includes summaries of the participant input made during the breakout sessions following each of the focused presentations. Chapter 5, The End of the Beginning, describes the next steps in the Soldier Systems Technology Roadmap project. It includes a schedule of seven upcoming workshops to be held at locations across Canada. Appendixes to the report describe the governance structure of the Soldier Systems Technology Roadmap project, and provide a list of the Visioning and Future Capabilities Workshop attendees and facilitators. iv
  5. 5. 1. Technology and the Soldier of the Future: A Roadmap This report summarizes the results of the first workshop associated with the Soldier Systems Technology Roadmap project – the Visioning and Future Capabilities Workshop held in Gatineau, Québec, June 16-17, 2009. 1.1 What is the Soldier Systems Technology Roadmap? A technology roadmap is a proven system of planning well into the future. It defines a set of requirements and performance targets associated with meeting projected demands, and brings together stakeholders to work collectively to determine how technology might best be used to meet those needs. The Soldier Systems Technology Roadmap Not a Procurement Activity (TRM) project is a unique industry- The Soldier Systems TRM project is not part government collaboration. It is designed to of DND or other government department apply roadmapping principles and procurement processes. It a knowledge- sharing exercise whose goal is to generate a processes to develop a comprehensive vision of the soldier of the future and the knowledge-sharing platform, and to identify ways in which technology can help realize technology opportunities, in support of the that vision. Canadian Forces Soldier Modernization Effort. Technology and the Soldier System The focus of the Soldier Systems TRM – the soldier system – is defined within NATO as the integration of everything the soldier wears, carries and consumes for enhanced individual and collective (small unit) capability within the national command and control structure. The overarching goal of the Soldier Systems TRM is to understand how today's technology – and tomorrow's – might contribute to a superior soldier system that increases operational effectiveness for the individual soldier in the five NATO capability areas of Command and Control (C4I), Survivability, Mobility, Lethality, and Sustainability. Page 5 of 68
  6. 6. 1.2 A Collaborative Effort – Industry, Government, and Academia The Soldier Systems TRM project is a collaborative effort. To succeed, it depends on the involvement of industry, government, and academia. Federal Partners The following federal government departments are co-sponsoring the Soldier Systems TRM Governance development of the Soldier Systems TRM: The Soldier Systems TRM is governed by  Industry Canada (IC)  A Technology Roadmap Senior Review Committee (SRC)  Department of National Defence  An Executive Steering Committee (DND) (ESC)  Defence Research and Development  Technical Subcommittees in these Canada (DRDC) areas:  Power/Energy Industry Partners  Weapons: Lethal and Non-Lethal Participation in the roadmap is open to  C4I (Control, Command, Communications, Computers, Canadian and international companies of all Intelligence) sizes.  Sensors These companies may be positioned in the  Survivability/Personal Protection/ defence and security industries, or active in Clothing and Footwear  Roadmap Integration other sectors that produce goods or technologies that can support the soldier-of-  A Facilitator (The Strategic Review the-future concept. Group Inc.) For details, see Appendix A, Soldier Researchers and other experts from Systems TRM Governance. academia, government, and not-for-profit institutions are also encouraged to participate. The following industry associations are supporting the Soldier Systems TRM:  Canadian Association of Defence and Security Industries (CADSI)  Technopôle Defence and Security (TDS) Page 6 of 68
  7. 7. 1.3 How to Get Involved The Soldier Systems TRM is an open, inclusive, and collaborative exercise. Participation is free and voluntary. No membership in any organization is required. Participation in the Soldier Systems TRM is open to:  Canadian and international manufacturing, services, and technology-based companies of all sizes  Researchers and other experts from academia, government, and not-for-profit research organizations from Canada and around the world There are several ways to contribute to the Soldier Systems Technology Roadmap. For example:  Join one of the visioning and technical workshops held at locations across the country  View and contribute to the knowledge base in our soon-to-be-available Industry Collaboration and Exchange Environment (ICEE), an online Wiki Want More Information? To contact us, or for free registration for a workshop, email the Soldier Systems Technology Roadmap Working Group To learn about the Soldier Systems Technology Roadmap project, visit our web site: For an introduction to technology roadmapping in general, visit Industry Canada at: Page 7 of 68
  8. 8. 2. The Dismounted Soldier and the Soldier System The Soldier Systems Technology Roadmap focuses on the needs of the dismounted soldier. To maintain this focus, before getting into the content of the Visioning and Future Capabilities Workshop it is important to set out a broad, simple description of the dismounted soldier and his1 capability requirements. 2.1 The Dismounted Soldier The dismounted soldier is often away from the supply network, and must be self- sufficient in terms of carrying out his assigned combat or non-combat mission. Although away from the supply network, the soldier likely remains connected in some way to the battle space information network; for example, through a portable radio. As discussed later in this section, it is expected that the soldier of the future will be even more connected to the information network, as new electronic capabilities become available. In discussing the dismounted soldier, the characteristics and capability requirements typically have a time horizon of up to 72 hours. During that time, the soldier must carry everything needed to fulfill his assigned mission. This includes his own power sources, appropriate clothing, communications equipment, food, water, and whatever lethal or non-lethal weapons are called for by the mission. It is recognized that the dismounted soldier, even though self-sufficient, is part of a larger force structure. He is part of a team, which is part of a ―team of teams.‖ Also, every aspect of what the dismounted soldier has and does is influenced, and sometimes constrained by, other forces and factors, such as doctrine; organizational structure; tactics, techniques, and procedures; technologies; personnel; and training. Figure 1. The Discounted Soldier Model, depicts the effects of these many variables on the individual soldier. 1 The description of the dismounted soldier is presented in the masculine to improve readability. However, wherever the text refers to ―he‖ or ―his‖, the reference applies equally to dismounted soldiers who are women. Page 8 of 68
  9. 9. Figure 1 The Dismounted Soldier Model2 2.2 The Dismounted Soldier’s System Soldier systems are generally defined using five capability areas described by NATO:  Survivability. This includes a range of protective equipment – e.g., clothing, headwear, footwear, hand wear, and non-protective clothing and footwear – that enables survival and protects against ballistic, blast, and other threats while improving camouflage and concealment.  Sustainability. This involves balancing the soldier load among weapons, power, sensors, and equipment to enable the soldier to be self-sustaining for a defined time period and to successfully carry out the assigned mission. 2 HumanSystems® Incorporated; Soldier Systems Technology Road Map: Internal Visioning Workshop, March 2009 Page 9 of 68
  10. 10.  Mobility. This is affected by load carriage configuration and weight in different terrains, climates, and other mission-specific variables, and includes navigation aids.  C4I. (Command, Control, Communications, Computers, and Intelligence), which supports command execution, situation awareness, and interoperability.  Lethality. This involves the equipment needed for selecting and engaging targets to deliver a defined lethal or non-lethal effect. Many countries are involved in the continuous improvement and modernization of soldier systems. The Soldier Systems TRM is a component of Canada’s effort in this area. As such, the TRM will strive to build on the developments already underway in Canada, as well as those in other countries. Two principal factors affect the dismounted soldier’s individual choice of equipment:  Core equipment. The dismounted soldier will carry core equipment, such as clothing, protective equipment, water, weapons, ammunition, and other basic items. This core equipment will be defined by the role of the individual soldier within a team, for example for a communications, medical, or other role.  Additional equipment. Within certain parameters, the soldier or his commander will make choices in what additional equipment to carry. These choices involve trade-offs between equipment in the five capability areas described above, and are based on what the soldier and his commander believe is most important based on utility assessments. For example, some level of choice will be made between carrying more ammunition (lethality), more protective equipment (survivability), more batteries or water (sustainability), and more electronic capabilities (C4I) – all of which affect mobility and operational performance. The amount of ―optional‖ equipment carried by the dismounted soldier is usually limited by the load weight and volume, as decided by the individual soldier. One soldier might choose to carry more or less weight load than another. The equipment must also be designed in an integrated/modular way, to ensure compatibility and usability. There is an on-going debate within soldier modernization efforts as to whether the future soldier will carry less weight load, or whether any weight savings in some equipment will simply allow the soldier to carry other equipment up to the same weight load he would carry anyway. Page 10 of 68
  11. 11. 2.3 Future Soldier Systems Efforts to improve and modernize soldier systems in virtually every country are influenced by similar new capability requirements. These requirements provide the foundation principles for developing technology solutions through the Soldier Systems TRM. The soldier’s capabilities in all five areas of survivability, sustainability, mobility, C4I, and lethality are constantly being improved to meet evolving needs. For example:  Improvements related to survivability include signature reduction and improvements in protection in/from/against weather/climate, sharp edges, insect and animal bites, noise, ballistics, blasts, blunt trauma, and natural and manmade hazards  Improvements related to lethality increase the soldier’s effectiveness against armoured and unarmoured personnel, information systems, vehicles, animals, and so on, while containing collateral effects. Soldier Systems Design Principles Future soldier systems can be described using overall design principles and new capability requirements. As changes are made to soldier systems, they are guided by four design parameters: weight reduction, integration, modularity, and power optimization. A more detailed discussion of some of these principles is included in later sections of this report. Reducing Weight To add any new capabilities to the dismounted soldier – even if they don’t weigh very much – will demand that the weight of a soldier’s current equipment decrease. As a result, there is a continued impetus in all soldier modernization efforts to decrease the weight load of the dismounted soldier, both to increase his mobility and to allow for new equipment. Figure 2 illustrates the concept of adding new capabilities and, at the same time, decreasing the soldier’s weight load. Page 11 of 68
  12. 12. Figure 2. Reducing weight is the design feature that underpins any improvement to soldier equipment New Necessary Equipment weight New reduction in Equipment current New equipment Soldier Weight Load Equipment The dismounted soldier’s weight Even less target weight to improve soldier mobility Integration The soldier’s current equipment consists of different components attached individually to the soldier, leading to what is termed the ―Christmas tree effect.‖ As equipment is redesigned and improved, there will be a strong emphasis on integrating components into a common system. This includes integrating different systems, such as clothing, electronics, weapons, PPE, and others. Equipment must also be designed in a way that reduces load volume, and is readily accessible for use in an urgent situation. The design principles and architecture of this integrated system need to be developed and embedded into soldier system technology development. Modularity Modularity is closely linked to the principle of integration. Given that the soldier will become involved in a range of operations, either combat or non-combat, it could be expected that integrated equipment will be available in modules that address different operational requirements. The characteristics and interactions of different modules need to be designed. Page 12 of 68
  13. 13. Optimizing Power The discussion of power is generally associated with electrical power.3 Optimizing power is considered as a design principle because consumed power is expensive, and because future soldier equipment is expected to require considerable electrical power. Given the diversity of equipment using electrical power (e.g., communications, sights, sensors, etc.) there is a strong need to optimize the consumption of power. As a result, any discussion of new soldier systems that are light, integrated, and modular, must include the optimization of power storage, transmission, and consumption. The Soldier systems TRM discussion on power will include several dimensions, including storage, transmission, harvesting, recapture, control, and so on. Soldier Capability Requirements In addition to ongoing improvements in all equipment areas, there are three distinct areas of increased capability that require specific development for the Army of Today, the Army of Tomorrow, and the Army of the Future (2020) 4. In no particular order, they are:  Increased C4I and sensor capabilities. It is expected that the dismounted soldier of the future will have considerable C4I equipment that will enable voice and data handling for better navigation, target acquisition, communications and connectivity with other soldiers/teams/sensors/vehicles, monitoring, intelligence, tactics, logistics, and supply operations. These new capabilities will in turn improve every operational aspect of the soldier’s team and team of teams. Better C4I at the soldier level helps the soldier and the entire battle force answer key questions, such as ―Where am I?‖, ―Where are you?‖, ―Where is the enemy?‖, and ―How are we doing?‖5 Improved C4I capabilities will also enable interoperability with counterparts. 3 Power could involve a discussion of ―energy‖, which would include the soldier’s own energy requirements and other forms of energy, such as thermal energy. However, for the purposes of the Soldier Systems TRM, the discussion will begin with a focus on electrical power. 4 The concept of Army of Today, Tomorrow, and the Future is expanded on later in the report. 5 This discussion includes new sensor and sight capabilities for the soldier within the new C4I capabilities. Page 13 of 68
  14. 14.  Increased lethal and non-lethal capabilities. Non-lethal activities of the dismounted soldier, such as crowd control, are growing. As a result, the soldier needs capabilities to fulfill non-lethal roles, including weaponry to assist in situations that require a non-lethal deterrent effect.  Improved survivability, personal and protective equipment (PPE). There is a continued effort to understand and provide the best equipment to protect soldiers. New developments in this area include improved materials and improved shielding. This is included as an ―increased‖ requirement because ―improved‖ PPE typically involves ―more‖ PPE. For this reason, it is being considered as a distinct increment to existing equipment. All four design characteristics of weight reduction, integration, modularity, and power optimization are important in these three specific areas of capability development. In addition, they bear directly on the mobility of the dismounted soldier, and on his ability to sustain himself throughout an operation. 2.4 Structuring the Soldier Systems Technology Roadmap Discussion The above description of the dismounted soldier illustrates the diversity and complexity of his capability requirements. To enable the Soldier Systems TRM to pursue an orderly and useful discussion of technology solutions, it was decided to structure the TRM workshop presentations and discussions according to the following four sequential topic areas:  Energy, Power, and Sustainability  C4I/Sensors/Mobility  Survivability/Clothing/Footwear  Lethal and Non-Lethal Weapons Discussion in each of these areas was to be guided by the design principles presented in 2.1 The Dismounted Soldier. Page 14 of 68
  15. 15. 3. Setting the Scene: A Vision of the Future Soldier System For purposes of description, the Visioning and Future Capabilities Workshop can be divided into two parts:  General, introductory presentations. These were designed to welcome participants, define the workshop goals and process, and set the scene for the focused presentations and breakout sessions that would follow.  Focused presentations and breakout sessions. These dealt with the workshop's four areas of focus: Power/Energy and Sustainability, C4I/Sensors, Survivability and Personal Protective Equipment, and Lethal and Non-Lethal Weapons. Presentations in each area were followed by breakout sessions and participant debriefing. This chapter summarizes the introductory presentations. The focused presentations and breakout session results are summarized in chapter 4. Focusing the Vision: Key Areas of the Soldier System. The Introductory Presentations Participants brought extensive knowledge Introductory "Setting the Scene" in a wide variety of areas to the Visioning Presentations and Future Capabilities Workshop. To  Welcome  What is a Technology Roadmap? augment this knowledge with soldier-  The Workshop – How it Works system-specific information that would build  Soldier Modernization a foundation for the visioning sessions and  Technology Mind Mapping and act as a catalyst for discussion, the Technology Readiness LevelsHuman workshop began with introductory Systems Integration Future Security presentations that provided an overview of Environment  Army of Tomorrow & Future Army the workshop's purpose and process, and an introduction to current thinking at DND The workshop presentations are available and elsewhere regarding the future soldier at: system vision. This report provides summaries of these presentations, including a few key slides only. The presentations are available in their entirety at Page 15 of 68
  16. 16. 3.1 Visioning Workshop Welcome Based on Soldier Systems Technology Roadmap: Vision and Future Capabilities Workshop Welcome, LCol. M. Bodner and DND Senior Representative. The Soldier of Today, Tomorrow, and the Future The focus of the Visioning and Future Capabilities Workshop is the soldier of today, tomorrow, and the future, and the systems needed to enable the soldier to perform optimally in the five NATO capability areas of Survivability, Sustainability, Lethality, Mobility, and C4I. These capabilities are enhanced by a number of components integrated as a system of systems or sub-systems, with the Human dimension being an integral part of each area. The Dismounted Soldier System (DSS) is defined as everything (items or equipment) the soldier wears, carries and consumes to fulfill the soldier's tasks as an individual, as the member of a fighting team, and as part of higher-level operational units on the battlefield and in a tactical environment. The Integrated Soldier – a "System of Systems" The dismounted soldier is integrated with other components of the Canadian Forces, so that the soldier and the soldier system are part of a "system of systems" that, as a team, acts as a force multiplier. The system architecture consists of: Capability Area Sub-systems Lethality (non- Weapon sub-system lethality) Mobility Mobility sub-system Survivability Protection sub-system C4I C4I sub-system Head-borne sub-system Training sub-system Page 16 of 68
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  18. 18. 3.2 Soldier Systems Technology Roadmap Overview Based on Soldier Systems Technology Roadmap: Rationale and Governance, Geoff Nimmo, Manager TRM Secretariat, Industry Canada What is Technology Roadmapping? A technology roadmap is a collaborative process for developing innovative products and processes to meet future demands. The Soldier Systems Technology Roadmap applies roadmapping principles to the Soldier System. Canada – and Industry Canada in particular – has considerable experience in roadmapping. Since roadmapping was initiated in 1995, over 35 technology roadmaps have been completed. Industry Canada currently has four technology roadmaps under development. Visioning Workshop Goals The opening exercise associated with any technology roadmap is typically a visioning The Visioning Goal: To foster a session. It brings together stakeholders to discussion on the linkages between future "think outside the box" and explore ways in Soldier Systems capabilities and the which they can work together to define and technology development interests of a wide range of interested organizations. achieve specific goals. The stakeholders attempt to develop a vision of the goal – in To provide feedback on DND’s future this case, the soldier system of the future, capabilities. which is part of the Army of Tomorrow (AoT) – and to explore ideas about how technology might help meet the goal and what must be done to ensure that it does. Page 18 of 68
  19. 19. Technology Roadmap Phases and Foci A technology roadmap has three phases:  Definition. Focusing on organization, governance, and collaboration-tool development  Development. Consisting of workshops to validate the vision, identify gaps and niches, establish links between technology and capability needs and timing, and recommend future R&D projects to address these gaps and niches  Implementation. In the context of the Soldier System, this consists of an annual soldier systems conference, continued dialog with collaboration tools, sponsored and unsolicited R&D projects, and ongoing revision of the roadmap plan to adapt to a changing vision or changing external drivers. The Soldier Systems Technology Roadmap has entered the second phase – Development. The Visioning and Future Capabilities Workshop was the first of several workshops planned for this phase. Page 19 of 68
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  21. 21. 3.3 Visioning Workshop Logistics Based on "Soldier Systems Technology Roadmap: Workshop Opening, Phil Carr, The Strategic Review Group Inc. Workshop Objective, Process, and Product The opening exercise for any technology roadmap is typically a visioning session. It brings together stakeholders to "think outside the box" and explore ways to work together to define and achieve specific goals – in this case, related to the soldier system of the future, part of the Army of Tomorrow (AoT) – and to explore ideas about how technology might help meet the goals and what must be done to ensure that it does. In the case of the Soldier Systems TRM workshop, close to 200 people representing industry, government, and academia met for two days to contribute to the development of a vision of the future soldier system. For a list of attendees, see Appendix B, List of Visioning Workshop Participants. Page 21 of 68
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  23. 23. 3.4 The Canadian Soldier Modernization Effort Based on Canadian Soldier Modernization Effort, Global market, and NATO Vision, LCol M.A. Bodner, DLR5 A Soldier-Centric Solution The Canadian Soldier Modernization Effort takes a soldier-centric perspective of future capabilities. The objective is the continuous improvement of the capability to meet Canadian and Canadian Forces defence requirements, so that the Army remains strategically relevant and tactically decisive over time. The development process by which land capabilities are conceived, designed, and developed, has four phases:  Conceive. Operating concepts are conceived and translated into capability requirements  Design. Selected capability requirements are translated into validated designs for force employment  Build. The components are integrated to realize the capability of the Army  Manage. The process is continually managed to ensure continuous effective capability development The Interoperability Challenge One of the major challenges associated with the modernization effort is ensuring that all of the many components that make up the soldier system are interoperable. Canada, as part of NATO, is involved in defining and adhering to levels of standardization to help ensure interoperability. Page 23 of 68
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  25. 25. 3.5 Technology Mindmap and Technology Readiness Levels Based on Soldier Systems Technology Mindmap & Readiness/Maturity Levels, David Tack, Humansystems Inc. Mind Mapping Key Technologies Mind mapping has been used by DND to identify and organize a wide range of soldier- systems-relevant technologies and developments that could help address soldier system capability requirements up to the year 2020. DND has broken down the highest-level mind map into lower-level maps that focus on the individuals soldier system mind map, team tactical systems mind maps, and team of team operational and strategic mind maps. The components are many and complex – more than 900 technology items have been identified – and the soldier system mind map alone can be broken down into a number of lower-level mind maps. Technology Readiness Levels When planning future systems, a key consideration is the ability to measure the maturity level of a technology, in order to assess when it might become operational. With different industries, perspectives, terminologies, processes, and cultures involved in the various projects associated with each technology, this is not an easy task. There are many models for measuring technology maturity, including technology readiness levels (TRL), integration maturity levels (IML), system readiness levels (SRL), design maturity levels (DML), and manufacturing readiness levels (MRL). DND's solution to the many approaches is to develop a common measurement that includes technology readiness, integration maturity, design maturity, system maturity, and manufacturability. This Technology Readiness Level scale is the baseline against which technology maturity levels are measured. Understanding and tracking technology readiness levels will be one of the success factors of the Soldier Systems Technology Roadmapping project. Industry is encouraged to contribute to this using the Industry Collaboration and Exchange Environment (ICEE), a database and online Wiki. For more information, visit http://soldiersystems- Page 25 of 68
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  27. 27. 3.6 Human Systems Integration Based on Human Systems Integration: Soldier system Challenges & Trade-Offs, Major Linda Bossi, Human Factors Engineer, Integrated Soldier Systems Project The Soldier System and Human Factors Engineering Human factors engineering must be taken into consideration when examining any aspect of soldier system technology. This means applying knowledge of human characteristics, capabilities, limitations, and needs to the specification, design, development, testing, and acquisition of equipment and systems. It is a multi-disciplinary field that combines psychology, physiology, and engineering, and the challenges are many and complex. Page 27 of 68
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  29. 29. 3.7 Micro Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (Luncheon Conference) Based on Flapping Wing Aerodynamics for Insect-Size Drones, Mr. F. Lesage, DRDC – a luncheon conference Insect-Size Drones – Nano Air Vehicles (NAV) NAVs are a new class of military system that offer the possibility of being able to gather critical information in urban operations. Their benefits include low visibility, precision, low cost and weight, little or no logistical footprint, and mission versatility. They are able to hover, perch, and perform other high agility manoeuvres, and offer a potential technology for indoor reconnaissance. Page 29 of 68
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  31. 31. 3.8 The Future Security Environment Based on The Future Security Environment, Mr. Peter Gizewski, Defence Scientist/Strategic Analyst, LCORT/DLCD-Land Futures What's Ahead? Globalization, power shifts in the international system, resource scarcities, state weakness and collapse, identity and distributional issues, rapid scientific and technological innovation, demographic shifts, disease, the rising significance of non- state actors – these trends and more must be factored into an assessment of the future environment in which the soldier, and the soldier system, will be required to operate. The battle-space can be expected to become increasingly complex, multi-dimensional, non-linear, uncertain, and lethal. Conflict will occur on a variety of fronts – moral, socio- political, economic, military, abroad and at home – often simultaneously. Enemies can be expected to have a greater capacity to rapidly adapt to Western thinking and strategy. Governments will face multiple challenges, including multi-tasking, bureaucratic turf wars, and ministerial agendas. International organizations will likely confer legitimacy, but operational problems will continue. Regional organizations and alliances will increase in credibility, and NGOs and IGOs can be expected to gain power and credibility. Implications for the Army and Soldier of the Future As a result of these expected developments, the Army must become even more adaptive, networked, agile, combat effective, sustainable. The focus must increasingly be on joint, interagency, multinational and public-focused operations. To meet the challenges ahead, the Canadian Forces must exploit new technologies, particularly enhanced decision-making aids and robotics whenever possible. And it must optimize its use and management of energy and seek alternative energy sources. Page 31 of 68
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  33. 33. 3.9 The Army of Tomorrow and the Future Based on Land Concept and Capability Development: "Army of Tomorrow" and "Future Army 2040, LtCol Ron Bell, Directorate of Land Concepts and Designs The Soldier of Today, Tomorrow, and Beyond The soldier system is evolving. And it must continue to evolve if it is to be capable of fulfilling its role in the anticipated future security environment. The soldier system must be capable of operating in diverse environments, facing diverse threats, and performing diverse tasks. Operations can be expected to include peacetime military engagement, peace support, stability and defensive operations, as well as offensive operations that include counter-insurgency and major combat. Operational Functions To address the expected environment and tasks, the Army of the future must excel in five areas of operation:  Command. The operational function that integrates all the operational functions into a single comprehensive strategic, operational or tactical level concept  Sense. The operational function that provides the commander with knowledge  Act. The operational function that integrates manoeuver, firepower and offensive information operations to achieve desired effects  Shield. The operational function that provides for the protection of a force's survivability and freedom of action  Sustain. The operational function that integrates strategic, operational, and tactical levels of support to generate and maintain force capability The overarching goal of the Soldier Systems Technology Roadmap is to help put in place the superior planning processes needed to ensure that the Army of Tomorrow and the Army of the Future can meet these challenges and achieve its goals. Page 33 of 68
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  35. 35. 4. Focusing the Vision: Key Areas of the Soldier System The introductory presentations described in chapter 3. Setting the Scene: A Vision of the Future Soldier System, were followed by presentations in the four key focus areas – Power/Energy & Sustainability, C4I/Sensors, Survivability and Personal Protective Equipment, and Lethal and Non-Lethal Weapons. A breakout session followed the presentation in each area. This chapter describes the breakout session process, and summarizes the focused presentations and breakout session results. Focused Presentations and Sessions  Power / Energy & Sustainability Breakout Session 1: Power/Energy & Sustainability  C4ISR (Command, Control, Communication, Computers, Surveillance, Reconnaissance) & Sensors Breakout Session 2: C4I/Sensors  Clothing, Footwear & Load Carriage  Personal Protective Equipment & Survivability  Smart Textiles (Lunch Conference)  Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear (CBRN) Breakout Session 3: Survivability and Personal Protective Equipment  Lethal Weapons/Non-Lethal Weapons Breakout Session 4: Lethal/Non-Lethal Weapons The workshop presentations are available at: Page 35 of 68
  36. 36. How the Breakout Sessions Worked During the breakout sessions – one of which followed each of the focused The Visioning Drivers presentations – participants at about a In each of four breakout sessions, participants dozen tables brought their expertise to addressed these questions: bear on each area of focus. Each table 1. How does your specific industry segment had a leader who chaired the relate to this technology area (e.g., soldier- discussion, and a recorder who level power/energy/ sustainability)? summarized the results of the 2. Based on DND's vision for 15 years out for discussion on a flip chart. that technology area, what does this technology need to be able to do in 10 years, To ensure that multiple perspectives then in 5 years? (Or, perhaps in the other were brought to the discussions, direction: short, medium, longer-term.). Always facilitators ensured that each table maintain the soldier-level perspective: "why" included a mix of participants from the soldier needs this technology. industry, government, and academia. 3. If a technical discussion is going to be held on this technology area (e.g., power/energy/ Each table was given the same sustainability), is there a fundamental question visioning questions to address (see that definitely needs to be considered by sidebar). They focused on developing DND/CF/DRDC? a vision for a soldier system 5, 10, and Optional, if time permits 15 years into the future. 4. What categories does this area break down Topics that did not relate to the into, to ensure a holistic/integrated discussion visioning exercise goals – for example, about technologies? the government procurement process 5. What has to be considered when discussing or DND policies or processes – were how this technology area links to other soldier- level technology areas placed in a "parking lot" for (connectivity/integration)? consideration at another time in another setting. (For a list, see Parking Lot Issues, on page 56.) Following each breakout session, selected tables reported the results of their discussions to all the participants. In addition, the flip chart notes generated at each table were collected, compiled, and analyzed. The results were used to generate the visioning breakout summaries in this chapter, and will serve as a base for each of the coming Soldier Systems TRM workshops. Page 36 of 68
  37. 37. 4.1 Power/Energy and Sustainability Based on Power/Energy & Sustainability: Vision & Future Capability Requirements, Ed Andrukaitis, Defence R&D Canada, and Claude Lemelin, DSSPM The Requirements and the Challenges Energy supply has always been a critical component of combat. It is fundamental to the soldier, and everything the soldier carries has an impact on energy consumption and sustainability. The power consumed by a soldier in the course of operations requires a source and a method of distribution and management. Soldiers need to minimize energy demand, optimize energy use, and manage peak power. The focus must be on generation, transportation, and distribution of power. Although typically thought of as electrical power, sustainability of power as a combat supply involves many variables, including food energy, water, clothing, ammunition, medical support, load carriage, focused logistics, and more. Power can be derived from an energy source, such as batteries, or potentially harvested and scavenged from a range of sources, such as the soldier's heel strike, weapons discharge, and other activities. At present, soldiers carry many batteries, including spares, and there is no "one size fits all" solution. When discussing power generation, affordability must be taken into account. Future energy solutions being considered at present include fuel cells, batteries, thermoelectric generators, and a variety of energy harvesting techniques and technologies. As with all of the areas of focus of the Soldier Systems TRM, power and energy must be viewed as something to be integrated with every aspect of a soldier's equipment or activity. For example, integration of power and data transmission in textiles would enable higher efficiency, less weight, and a better form factor. It would also address the need for an integrated architecture for the soldier system, by transporting data and energy on the same medium. Page 37 of 68
  38. 38. When it comes to power, optimization is key, and the following considerations should be kept in mind:  Power-aware doesn't necessarily imply minimization of power or energy  Decreasing average power does not imply decreasing maximum power  Power and energy efficiency should be viewed as separate design goals  Power-constrained applications are distinct from energy-constrained ones  Energy-constrained systems do not always target energy minimization In summary, energy is fundamental to the soldier. Everything a soldier carries has an impact on energy consumption/sustainability. Energy is expensive. Power demand must be kept acceptable in terms of cost and load. Each component of the soldier system is a trade-off when it comes to energy consumption and carrying load. The goal is to leverage existing and future technologies to provide a superior power generation and consumption model for the soldier system. Page 38 of 68
  39. 39. Power/Energy Sustainability Breakout Session Visioning Sample responses to Visioning Question 2: To realize the soldier system vision, what does technology need to be able to do 5, 10 and 15 years into the future?  Miniaturization  Weight Reduction  System Interoperability 5 yr 10 yr 15 yr  Hardware/Software Integration  Rechargeable Power Sources  Self-Generating Power Sources 5 yr 10 yr 15 yr  Dynamic Power Management (DPM)  Power and Equipment Fully Integrated  Alternative Power Sources (bio fuel) 5 yr 10 yr 15 yr Page 39 of 68
  40. 40. Summary of Participant Visioning Input – Power/Energy Sustainability 5 Years 10 Years 15 Years  Miniaturization  Integrate software features with  Fully integrated personal protective  Graceful degradation equipment equipment for CBRN (chemical,  Smart armour biological, radiological, nuclear)  Standardize batteries – one size fits all  Transmit information from sight to  Dynamic Power Management (DPM)  Lighter personal protection/armour visor  Reasonable cost  High-efficiency LEDs  No more throw-away batteries  Integrated human factors at design  Power weapon rail  Reduced fuel consumption stage  Greater reliability and re-  Robot soldiers  Light-weight, secure, authenticated mobile communications system configurability of components  New energy generation capabilities  Interoperability, with improved  Increased power monitoring and  Fuel cell/battery hybrid system rechargeable capability harvesting/scavenging  Harvest energy from ammo  Explore power harvesting  Solar panels on equipment  Improved power density capabilities from ongoing activities  Harvest energy from weapons  Alternative power sources (bio fuel) (e.g., weapon firing, boot heel discharge (mechanical, kinetic, light,  Wearable power sources and strike, body movement) acoustic, thermal) supplies that can be recharged once  More efficient power generation  Battery integration into textiles inside a vehicle and distribution while lightening the  Engineering perspective to focus on  Integrated power and data network load reduced consumption  Power generation in uniform  Solar uniform for trickle charge  Nano fibres for lightness and power  Increased power harvesting in all  Better management of power transmission areas consumed in C4ISR components  Rechargeable power sources  Enable transfer of power among  Increased power awareness  Self-generating power sources individuals in the group  Rechargeable power source to  Caseless ammo for reduced weight  Power generation from solar and replace current disposable  Mission-specific batteries textiles batteries  Integrate battery into garment textile  Improved energy storage  User-selected power degradation If a technical discussion is going to be held on this technology area, is there a fundamental question that definitely needs to be considered by DND/CF/DRDC? 1. Focus on good architecture as a starting point – modular design, standard interfaces. 2. Environmental issues must be taken into account; increase sophistication, but decrease complexity; manage power as a group. 3. Need some clarity on the role/conops for the soldier in order to determine the technologies he/she will need, and then examine the power question. 4. Consider the group as a system: does everyone need everything? Page 40 of 68
  41. 41. 4.2 C4I/Sensors Based on:  C4I, Sensors and Navigation, Major B Turmel and P. Comtois  Land Force C4ISR Strategy, LCol Walter Wood, DLR4 The Requirements and the Challenges In the Soldier Systems context, C4I/Sensors focuses on all aspects of command, control, communications, intelligence, surveillance, target acquisition, and friend-vs.-foe identification for the dismounted soldier6. C4I technology currently in use by the dismounted soldier includes radio communications systems, unmanned and manned aerial surveillance vehicles, unattended ground sensors, robotic surveillance vehicles – essentially all aspects of human intelligence and electronic warfare. Additional components of the solution include night-vision goggles, laser-aiming systems, thermal binoculars and weapon sights, and handheld Global Positioning Systems. The goal for the army of tomorrow is to be ―network enabled.‖ Networked sensors, weapon systems, and soldiers must be able to leverage the military advantages that the effective integration of information systems – both human and technological – can produce through the creation and exploitation of information. The future army's vision is for a multi-dimensional seamless system driven by revolutionary developments in artificial intelligence, robotics, and sensor systems. These include neural man-machine interfaces, rapid prototyping, and alternative power sources. The end goal is to provide a fully integrated, interoperable, network-enabled, command-centric C4ISR system for land operations that meet overall Canadian Forces program objectives. 6 The area is also known as C4ISR (Command, Control, Communication, Computers, Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance) or ISTAR C2 (Intelligence, Surveillance, Target Acquisition, and Reconnaissance – Command and Control). Page 41 of 68
  42. 42. As with all aspects of the soldier system, integration is key, and weight is an issue. More devices mean more batteries and more weight. Integrating and standardizing components is a major goal – for example, developing modular head-borne systems that adjust to the type of threat, have built-in BCID (battlefield combat identification) capabilities, increase visual and audition capabilities, and include a personal weapon sight. Other factors include the need to function both night and day in all kinds of operational conditions, to control multiple sensors at the same time, to develop line of sight weapons, and to coordinate the activities of individual soldiers with air and artillery components. There is also the question of how to overcome information overload and focus on what matters, as well as on security aspects of communications. The following table summarizes constraints and limitations, as well as capability requirements and challenges related to C4ISR. Page 42 of 68
  43. 43. C4ISR Vision and Future Capability Requirements Constraints and Limitations  Weight (miniaturization of C4ISR-related technology)  Volume (miniaturization of C4ISR-related technology  Power consumption  Information overload  Policy (frequency spectrum allocation, security policies)  Programmatic realities – Integration issues highly depend on coordination between many capital projects  Absence of ―commercial infrastructure‖  $$$ Vision and Future Capability Requirements (Geo-location capability)  Improved performance of geo-location capability o Friendly forces and assets (moving sensors) o Enemy forces  Where are my buddies now?  Where is the enemy now?  Current limitation  Integrated Blue Force Tracking (BFT) and Battlefield Combat Identification (BCDI)? Vision and Future Capability Requirements (Communication Capability)  High throughput for rich services  Coverage in different environment  Operation in Canada and abroad (licensing)  Adaptable waveform (Performance optimized for environment and mission)  Connectivity with higher echelon services and sensors  RF unfriendly environment – new communication technologies such as magnetic induction Wireless Soldier  PDA  Event-driven info NEC network  Body area network  Weapon (RFID tag, IR camera)  Helmet (GPS, Camera, Visor display)  Wireless earplugs  Watch (ID, GPS, Time, Telephone …)  Ammo cartridge with RFID Page 43 of 68
  44. 44. C4ISR Vision and Future Capability Requirements (cont’d) Sensors  ―Soldier feed‖ from the network  Threat detection  Physiological sensors?  Disposable micro/nano UGS and UAVs  Look through wall sensors  Precise human target detection, recognition, identification and tracking capability  Sensors and effectors Integration o Sensor remote control and interrogation o Weapon Remote control o Soldier as a sensor Integration with Higher Infrastructure and Platforms  Soldier’s C4ISR capability between mounted state and dismounted state should be almost transparent and transition should be ―smooth‖  Voice and data services should be provided and controlled from the same input and output devices  Security solution transparent to user  Fully enabled JIMP (Joint, Inter-agency, Multi-national and Public) Capability  Sensors and effectors Integration – target handoff Information Management  Appropriate information presented to dismounted soldier and commander o What information he needs to do his job o ―Context-based‖ information (mission based/task based) o Avoid information overload o Pre-processed/‖Fused‖ information  Decision aid tools in order to o Support situation analysis o Achieve situation awareness faster o Provide options to do better informed decision Page 44 of 68
  45. 45. C4I/Sensors Visioning Breakout Session Visioning Sample responses to Visioning Question 2: To realize the soldier system vision, what does technology need to be able to do 5, 10 and 15 years into the future?  Sensors Integrated into Materials  Miniaturization  Wireless Soldier Network 5 yr 10 yr 15 yr  Large-scale deployment of Integrated System  Wireless Voice, Data, and Video  Device Integration and Reduced Power Needs 5 yr 10 yr 15 yr  Cross-functional Integration with Body Armour  Fully integrated Future Army  Micro UAVs 5 yr 10 yr 15 yr Page 45 of 68
  46. 46. Summary of Participant Visioning Input – C4I/Sensors 5 Years 10 Years 15 Years  Sensor integration into materials  Large-scale deployment of integrated  Cross-functional integrations system between C4ISR materials and  Textiles with biometric sensors electronics and body armour and  Standard device/platform  Wiring power and data through weapons fabrics  Information exchange standards  Full integration of future army  Funding of immediate capabilities  Decide on display method/input  Dynamic symbology method/platform  Convergence of silo developments  Horizontal/vertical integration and  Wireless voice, data, and video  Early goal setting essential for universal interoperability delivery of an integrated solution  Access to persistent surveillance  Shared video (frequency allocation (e.g., UAV feed)  Increase bandwidth for soldiers does not allow improved (voice and data)  Biometrics security system for bandwidth) personnel/material in hands of enemy  "Solve" power problem  Parallel networks or one common  Ability to upload to intelligence network  Investigate use of symbols for visual database communications (more effective  Micro UAVs internationally)  10 watts for soldier – miniaturization  Remote disable/biometric disable  50% less power for same capability  Encryption/encoding of voice/data  Training standard device to device  Miniaturization  Miniaturization and decreased power  Sunglasses that gather, organize, usage  Wireless network between soldiers transmit, present data  Vertical and horizontal info flows and  On-soldier display  Cultural shift means new decision making perspectives  Usable, intuitive, user-friendly  Fusion of devices and decreased components  Faster time to deploy power usage  Goggles with visual display  Wearable power sources and  New sensor capabilities supplies that can be recharged  All-weather-enabled sensors  Common secure wireless once inside the vehicle and power  Nanotechnology in garments to communications all C4I/Sensor components recognize allies  Increased bandwidth  Miniaturization and increased  Wireless push-to-talk in weapon power usage  Profiles for different users –  Build "tiger team" of industry to authentication  All sensors controlled by one item identify integration possibilities (e.g., sunglasses) If a technical discussion is going to be held on this technology area, is there a fundamental question that definitely needs to be considered by DND/CF/DRDC? 1. Security personnel must have agreed-upon policies and standards. 2. Need to keep in mind generational differences in attitudes and ways of interacting with technology. 3. Important for army to have a comprehensive C4SI strategy and manage technology development. Page 46 of 68
  47. 47. 4.3 Survivability and Personal Protective Equipment Based on:  Clothing Footwear Load Carriage Equipment, Major L.A. Coghill DLR-5-10  Shield/Survivability & Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), Capt. R.T. Montague, DLR-5-10-2  Smart Textile Applications for the Soldier of the Future, Jean Dumas, DRDC Valcartier  Joint CBRN Physical Protection, Major Kevin Caldwell D CBRN D 2-5 The Requirements and the Challenges Survivability and personal protective equipment for the dismounted soldier includes clothing, footwear, and load carriage equipment. When clothing and equipping the soldier, a wide range of potential threats must be taken into account, including:  environmental hazards, such as weather, bacteria and disease, temperature extremes, wind, water (rain and immersion ), dust, insects and animals  attack from individuals,  improvised explosive devices  occupational hazards, such as fratricide, crime, and enemy sympathizers  ballistic and non-ballistic hazards  fragmentation, flame, flash and heat, blast, laser, noise  chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) threats Technology that addresses the issue of survivability and protection tends to focus on layering of lightweight breathable materials with moisture-wicking and other capabilities. Also included are climate-specific boots and clothing, goggles, hats, pads, body armour, mosquito nets, and anti-bug coatings. The focus is increasingly on lightweight multifunctional materials in combined layers, and a range of nanotechnologies for health monitoring, insulation, and ventilation. As with all other aspects of the soldier system, weight must be taken into account, and integration with all other aspects of the system must be considered. For example, nano- fibers capable of transferring energy and data would address both weight and integration issues. Page 47 of 68
  48. 48. Other aspects of survivability include signature management for identification of friendly combatants; multispectral camouflage for a variety of environments; a load carriage system that is light, modular, flexible, and provides universal attachments for integration of all gear; and improved shields to protect both the soldier and non-combatants. Because almost three-quarters of what a soldier touches or uses is in the form of flexible or textile materials, one hope is that smart textile technologies can be used to address many of these requirements and greatly increase operational efficiency. Once again, the key to success is viewed as convergence and integration. And the overall goal remains to increase protection against all hazards over all parts of the body while lowering weight, stiffness, and cost. Solutions must be acceptable to the soldier, capable of adapting to different situations, and durable. Page 48 of 68
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  50. 50. Survivability and Personal Protective Equipment Breakout Session Results Sample responses to Visioning Question 2: To realize the soldier system vision, what does technology need to be able to do 5, 10 and 15 years into the future?  Lighter, More Efficient Clothing  Integration With Other Components of Soldier System  Greater Functionality (durable, anti-microbial, etc.) 5 yr 10 yr 15 yr  Smart Fibers  Automatic Environment Control/First Aid  Embedded Microsensors 5 yr 10 yr 15 yr  Phase-changing materials  Multi-function System (ballistic, biological, etc.)  Exo-mechanical Load Assist 5 yr 10 yr 15 yr Page 50 of 68
  51. 51. Summary of Participant Input – Survivability and Personal Protective Equipment 5 Years 10 Years 15 Years  Investigate thermal, wet, durability,  Introduction of smart fibres for  Light, flexible displays on the arm disposable uniforms (situation protection, wicking, fire connections through textiles dependent)  Increased durability (washing, service  Innovative input devices to  Maintain IR reduction capabilities life) withstand environment (even in zippers)  "Automatic" first aid  Layers of textiles for protection,  Continue human factors  Re-usable, recycled fibres with wicking, comfort considerations recoverable base components  Adopt technology used by people  Integration with other soldier  CBRN integration and create applications and plug- systems components (armour)  EM/P shield ins to use in military setting  Other solder system components  Exoskeleton  Phase-changing materials should always consider integration  Clothes that gadgets plug into  Chameleon (visual, thermal, IR) into clothing  Multi-function system (bio, ballistic,  Self adjusting solution – e.g., self-  Cooling system, lighter interim chemical etc.) adapting to temperature garment  Active material that reacts  CBRN protection (short term)  Define an architecture philosophy automatically to threats  Insect repellent in tissue  Decontamination system  Task/environment specific  More flexible armour  Interface between helmet and frag protection  Self-adapting tissue (thermal) vest  Directed energy  Integration of head-mounted  Energy harvested from movement  More adaptable, integrated, sensors etc. with helmet  Robotic assisted carriage modular, practical, lighter  Physiological sensors in first layer  Biometric energy, weight reduction integrated solution  Multiple layers, multiple materials,  Embedded micro sensors and IM  CBRN protection each layer tailored to type of components  Adaptive armour, with help of activity/mission  Physiological sensors integrated into intelligent tissues or shear  Backwards and frontwards clothing thickening liquid compatibility  Integrated environmental sensors  Energy storage system in helmet or  Self-wicking, non-melting (CBRN, heat) armour  Better anti-microbial in fibre  Task and environment-specific  Completely adaptive camouflage  Better cooling fibre protection, with compatible  Communications in uniform technologies  Better armour with same weight  Thermo-textile energy conversion  Enhanced durability  Adaptive visual masking textiles  More adjustable carriage  Exo-mechanical load assist  Nano-material ballistic protection If a technical discussion is going to be held on this technology area, is there a fundamental question that definitely needs to be considered by DND/CF/DRDC? 1. Must address the trade-off between comfort and protection (e.g., CBRN suit). 2. Address heat buildup in uniform as equipment is added. 3. Need to consider protection from failure of equipment. 4. Modularity could cause soldier customization, which could decrease protection. Page 51 of 68
  52. 52. 4.4 Lethal and Non-Lethal Weapons Based on:  Canadian Army Portable Weapons Future Needs & Capabilities, Major Bruce Gilchrist, NATO LCG 1 Weapons and Sensors Team  Canadian Army Non-Lethal Requirements, Major Stéphane Dufour, NATO TG3 Vice-Chairman / NATO DAT 11 Team Project Director The Requirements and the Challenges The soldier system includes both lethal weapons for combat roles, and non-lethal weapons for crowd control and similar situations. Lethal Weapons Rifles, sniper systems, anti-armour weapons, close-area suppression and multiple- effects weapons are all vital components of the soldier system. These weapons include sensors and electronic devices to help the soldier locate targets and improve accuracy. Current capability deficiencies in the area of lethal weapons include inadequate lethality because weapons do not defeat increased personal protection, a lack of multi-effect ammunition, the need for greater firing accuracy, the need for better sighting capabilities in all conditions, and noise and flash management. In addition, ergonomic improvements are needed to optimize weight, compactness, and operating capabilities. The Canadian Forces have ongoing weapons upgrades and research projects designed to improve the quality of their lethal weapons. A systems approach aims to select component technologies based on Analytical Hierarchy Procedure and Human Systems Integration. Operational analysis is used to predict and assess weapon systems options. As a NATO member, Canada's choice of weapons aims for compliance with standardized agreements (STANAGs) to ensure that common operational capabilities are supported by all alliance members. NATO is conducting research into lethal weapons, with groups looking at technical interfaces, power, and human factors expected to report in December 2009. Canada's SARP 2 (Small Arms Replacement Project 2) is an ongoing project to replace the forces small arms capabilities. Issues facing the project include the need to coordinate with the Integrated Soldier System Project (ISSP), the U.S. Army, and NATO. Page 52 of 68
  53. 53. Non-Lethal Weapons With the Canadian Forces increasingly deployed in population centres and situations where combatants are not clearly identifiable, there is a greater need for non-lethal weapons that control populations without resulting in undesired casualties. The goal of non-lethal weapons is to apply force appropriately, with scalable effects for different types of threats. A non-lethal capability is required to warn, confirm intent, discriminate, and ensure compliance from local populations of an undetermined combat status, within a range ensuring force protection and capability overmatch. Non-lethal weapons that are available now, or soon will be, include a laser dazzler; pepper spray; traditional crowd confrontation equipment, such as shields, personal protective equipment, and batons; 12 gauge bean bag and 40 mm sponge rounds; and distraction devices ( aka Flash Bang grenades). Both NATO and the Canadian Forces have ongoing research and development projects aimed at efficiently and reliably measuring effects, and building better non-lethal weapons with improved range, accuracy, scalability of effect, reliability, and reversibility of effects. Page 53 of 68
  54. 54. Lethal and Non-Lethal Weapons Breakout Session Visioning Sample responses to Visioning Question 2: To realize the soldier system vision, what must technology be able to do 5, 10 and 15 years into the future?  Power Rail  Improved Accuracy  Integrated Lethal and Non-Lethal Capabilities 5 yr 10 yr 15 yr  Robust Soldier-to-Soldier Network  Removable Sights  Variable-Power Laser 5 yr 10 yr 15 yr  Smart Targeting  Caseless Ammunition  Less Weight, Better Integrated Target Acquisition 5 yr 10 yr 15 yr Page 54 of 68
  55. 55. Summary of Participant Visioning Input – Lethal and Non-Lethal Weapons 5 Years 10 Years 15 Years  Powered rail essential  Create robust soldier-to-soldier  Smart targeting using sensor network network – marking, targeting, identification  Calibre/lethality selectability  Better distance/accuracy non-lethal  Adaptive lethal/non-lethal personal  Video sighting weapons wan  Non-lethal high-voltage, self-  Removable sight  Adjustable (auto) kinetics/variable generated lightning bolt mussle velocity  Non-projectile weapons  Acoustic and disorientation devices  Smart projectile  Warning technology  Vehicle engine jammer  Automated target  Laser with variable power  Power standard detection/identification and  EMP to stop vehicle engagement  Progression of robotic support  Technology built into clothing  Fire control system – integrates  Investigate long-distance and displaced point of aim based upon better accuracy NL weapons  Unique pattern recognition to fact-embedded TRG friends  Test methodology standards  "Netted" capability at section/platoon  Long-range detection of threat  EMP round to disable vehicles  "Smart" ammo with scalable effects  Weapon connected with power  FN 303 round – 85 m range vs. supply on kit or uniform  Case-less ammo 40m  Magazine feed direct from uniform –  Enhanced resolution OLED  Accuracy, precision management no reloading necessary  Cost-effective range finding  Combine aim and dazzler sights  Non-lethal (sedative air burst)  Use recoil for energy/power  Variable velocity bullet  Get rid of cartridge  Vented propellant chamber  Decrease weight  Projectile doing both lethal and non-lethal rose  Better target acquisition If a technical discussion is going to be held on this technology area, is there a fundamental question that definitely needs to be considered by DND/CF/DRDC?  Must maintain focus on training and skill. Must be able to revert to marksmanship should all else fail. Page 55 of 68
  56. 56. 4.5 Parking Lot Issues Topics that arose during the discussions, but that did not focus directly on technology and the soldier system, were placed in a "parking lot." For example, discussion of command and control vs. the soldier's freedom to choose, the importance of training to the soldier system, intellectual property concerns, regulatory policies, and funding issues, were all considered "parking lot" material. Parking lot issues that arose included the following: 1. R&D budgets in Industry must be addressed. There is a need for greater budgets. 2. Need Canadian industry support and protection to achieve these goals. 3. Access to government funding needed. 4. Generational differences will have to be addressed (e.g., the baby boomer soldier vs. the Gen X soldier). How to bridge the gap? 5. Better processes are needed for smoother interaction between industry and DND. 6. Industry can provide improvements, but seems unable to get them to the military. Or, the military is unable to capitalize on improvements. 7. Must have better communication between DND and industry. Page 56 of 68
  57. 57. 5. The End of the Beginning The Visioning and Future Capabilities Workshop was designed to stimulate a discussion among a wide range of stakeholders in government, industry, and academia about future soldier system capabilities and the technologies that could be involved in building them. It also focused on what must be done to ensure that the necessary research and development is carried out to make the technology and capabilities a reality. The thoughtful and enthusiastic input of the presenters and workshop participants – as indicated by the presentation overviews and breakout session summaries in this report – is a clear indication that this discussion got well underway during the workshop. 5.1 Next Steps in the Roadmapping Project The Soldier Systems Technology Roadmap Visioning and Future Capabilities Workshop was just the beginning of the Development phase of the roadmap journey. A technology roadmap changes constantly over time, as communication among stakeholders continues, new stakeholders join the process, technologies evolve, new technologies emerge, and more information and ideas become available – often because of the synergy resulting from the range of participants and their interactions during and after the visioning exercise. If the number of business cards exchanged at the Visioning and Future Capabilities Workshop is any indication, the discussion among representatives of the industries and organizations attending the workshop has just begun – ideas will continue to be generated, and the vision of the Soldier System of the future will evolve and sharpen. Future Workshops The Visioning and Future Capabilities Workshop is just the first of several workshops planned as part of the Soldier Systems Technology Roadmap. (For a schedule, see page 58.) Future workshops will focus in greater detail on each of the four areas addressed in the Visioning workshop – Power, C4I, Survivability, and Lethality/Non-Lethality. Each workshop will result in its own summary report. Following all of the workshops, a Cap Stone report will summarize the results of the Soldier Systems Technology Roadmap up to that time, and outline the next steps in the ongoing roadmapping process. Page 57 of 68
  58. 58. 5.2 Schedule of Upcoming Workshops Upcoming Soldier Systems Technology Roadmap Workshops Subject to change. For the latest schedule, see: crtss.nsf/eng/h_00018.html Workshop Date Location Sheraton Vancouver Wall Power/Energy/Sustainability September 21–23, 2009 Centre Vancouver, B.C. Weapons: Lethal and Non-Lethal November 24-26, 2009 Toronto, Ontario C4I (Command, Control, Communications, Computers, January 27-28, 2010 Calgary, Alberta Intelligence) Quebéc City, Sensors March, 2010 Québec Survivability/Personal Protective Equipment/Footwear/Clothing/Load May/June, 2010 Ottawa, Ontario Carriage Halifax, Nova Enabling Technologies/Future Projects September, 2010 Scotia Roadmap Integration November, 2010 Ottawa, Ontario Page 58 of 68
  59. 59. A. Soldier Systems Technology Roadmap Governance The Soldier Systems TRM is guided by the following:  Technology Roadmap Senior Review Board (TRMSRB) An independent Technology Roadmap Senior Review Board (TRMSRB) oversees the Soldier Systems TRM.  Executive Steering Committee (ESC) An Executive Steering Committee (ESC) provides general guidance on the operational development of the Soldier Systems TRM. Led by two co-chairs — the Canadian Forces sponsor and the Industry Representative — the ESC is composed of industry (50%) and government senior representatives (50%).  Technical Subcommittees Technical Subcommittees (TSCs) guide the development of the technical workshops and review the information captured in the ICee collaborative tool. Each subcommittee has two co-chairs — one from industry, one from government — and is composed of technical experts from industry and government. The TSCs focus on the following sub-components of the roadmap:  Power/Energy/Sustainability  Weapons: Lethal and Non-Lethal  C4I (Control, Command, Communications, Computers, Intelligence)  Sensors  Survivability/Personal Protective Equipment/Footwear/Clothing/Load Carriage  Enabling Technologies/Future Projects  Roadmap Integration Note: All non-government members of the Executive Steering Committee and Technical Committees are selected through joint industry-government consultation. They are expected to sign and follow an ethics code.  Facilitator The Strategic review Group Inc. — hired as a facilitator through a competitive process — organizes the workshops and committee meetings, prepares minutes of the sessions, and develops Technology Roadmap reports. Page 59 of 68
  60. 60. B. List of Visioning and Future Capabilities Workshop Participants Visioning Workshop Participants Last Name First Name Organization Addison Tim CGI Information & Management Consultants Inc. Anctil Benoit Biokinetics and Associates Ltd. Andrukaitis, Dr. E. DRDC Arden Dale Defence R&D Canada Balma Robert Department of National Defence Beckett Richard Gabae Development Beland Paul DRDC Bell, Lcol R. DND Benaddi, Dr. Hamid Stedfast Inc. Berlinger Mathias Bermatex Innovation Bernier Andre General Dynamics Ordnance and Tactical Systems- Canada Inc. Betts, Peng K. Ross Shipley Canada Corp. Bisson Michel STC Footwear Inc. Blackburn Robert Longbow Product Development Bleriot Risselin Boisvert Jonathan NRC Bonaventure Jacques Bossi, Maj. Linda DND Bourget Daniel DRDC Bowes Rick DRS technologies Page 60 of 68
  61. 61. Visioning Workshop Participants Last Name First Name Organization Boyne, Maj. Stephen DRDC Brouillette Lysanne G.A. Boulet Inc. Brown David DND Buchanan Starlene National Research Council Buchanan Kevin DND Budico Victoria The Fashion Technology Transfer Center Bujold Alain Mawashi Protective Clothing Inc. Campbell Ross Industry Canada Carrick Dawn Department of National Defence Charlebois Scott DND Cloutier Renelle Industry Canada Coghill, Maj. Craig DND Colbert Heather CAE Professional Services Cole Richard NRC Colorane Terry DND Comtois P. DND Connolly Peter Fidus Copeman Mike RNicholls Distributors Couture Nathalie ADRB Cracknell Carol Croker Gary Colt Canada Crossman Danny Pacific Safety Products (PSP) Inc. Darling Marie E. Rockwell Collins Government Systems Davidson Jack ELCAN Optical Technologies Page 61 of 68
  62. 62. Visioning Workshop Participants Last Name First Name Organization Dexter Deborah Gladstone Aerospace Consulting Diefenderfer James L-3 Communication Systems-West DiNardo George Larus Technologies Corporation Dionne JP Allen Vanguard Dixon Anthony Peerless Garments LP. Donais, P.Eng Len Panacis Dufour, Maj. S. DND Du Maresq Mike Sp 1ke Inc.l Dumas Jean DRDC Dupont Gilles Technopole Defence and Security Dupuis Madeleine Industry Canada Edwards Eric Xiphos technologies Inc. Elfeki Yasmine Department of National Defence (Gatineau) Ells William A. Quabaug Corp El-Salfiti Kamal DND Emond Bruno NRC Fast Douglas Spectrum Signal Processing Fletcher Robert Fletcher System Safety Inc. Frim, Ph.D John DRDC Gauthier Charles-Antoine NRC Georgaras Konstantinos Industry Canada Gisewski, Dr. P. DND Gray Mark Industry Canada Gray Todd AIMS Limited Page 62 of 68