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Pest control measures

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Pest control measures

  1. 1. PEST CONTROL MEASURES By D.Praveenkumar.,M.Sc.,B.Ed.,
  2. 2. What is a Pest? any organism that is detrimental to humans destroys crops & structures poses threats to human health and livestock reduces aesthetic and recreational value Pests include insects, mites, plant pathogens, weeds, mollusks, fish, birds, and mammals
  3. 3. History Lesson: Bubonic Plague  14th Century Europe: mysterious scourge kills millions  Centuries later it was found that rat fleas became infected with disease- causing bacteria  Fleas sought other warm-blooded hosts (humans) when rat numbers declined  Plague is currently managed monitoring for plague and reducing the number of rodent-hosts for fleas
  4. 4. History Lesson: Potato Famine  Late blight, a fungal disease, decimated Ireland’s potato crops  Thousands starved; over a million migrated to U.S.  Today, late blight is still a major problem, but is managed by:  resistant cultivars  proper sanitation  fungicide applications
  5. 5. History Lesson: Pest Control  Primitive: pulling weeds, clubbing rats, plucking insects from foliage  Sulfur burning for mites/insects: 2500 B.C.  Lead arsenate in orchards - 1892  Lime and copper sulfate – Bordeaux mixture  Early pesticides – plant extracts or inorganics  World War II: DDT and low cost synthetic chemistry
  6. 6. Concerns with Pesticide Dependence  Pest resistance  Environmental persistence  Bioaccumulation: when a chemical accumulates in animal fat (historical fact)  Biomagnification: when an organism accumulates residues at higher concentrations than the organisms they consume Colorado Potato Beetle
  7. 7. Pest Management  Is the pest really causing the problem?  1st Step: Always identify the pest before taking any action!  Become familiar with its life cycle and habits  Use the information to design a pest management plan  Misidentification results in lack of knowledge = ineffective control of the real pest
  8. 8. Four Major Pest Categories #1 - Weeds: undesirable plants
  9. 9. #2 - Invertebrates, such as:  Insects  Spiders and mites  Sowbugs, pillbugs  Snails, slugs, and mussels Four Major Pest Categories
  10. 10. Four Major Pest Categories #3 – Vertebrates, such as: Birds Snakes Fish Rodents and other mammals
  11. 11. Four Major Pest Categories #4 - Plant Diseases  Pathogens – living agents Fungi Bacteria Viruses Nematodes Phytoplasmas  Non-living agents: cold, heat, pollutants, dog urine C.R. Foss R.S. Byther
  12. 12. Natural Controls  Wind  Temperature  Humidity, rain  Rivers, lakes, mountains  Pathogens, predators  Food supply of the pest
  13. 13. Human-applied Controls  Biological  Mechanical  Cultural  Physical  Genetic  Chemical  Regulatory
  14. 14. What is Biological Control?  Usually, pests are not native to area  Locate pest’s native homeland and find natural enemies  Before releasing natural enemy, evaluate if suitable  Rear, release, redistribute C. Soder Montana Collection D. Palmer
  15. 15. Biological Control Results  Release natural enemies may become established and reduce infestation levels  May not require any additional releases BEWARE: The cane toad was introduced in Australia in 1935 to control two pests of sugar cane, but later emerged as an invasive species itself!
  16. 16. Using Biological Control  Periodic mass release from cultures Natural areas, greenhouses, orchards  Recognize naturally-occurring organisms  Manage to conserve native beneficials  Avoid broad-spectrum insecticides  Use non-chemical strategies Ken Grey Nabid eating a lygus bug.
  17. 17. Use of devices, machines, and other physical methods to reduce pest populations or to alter the environment Applied Control: Mechanical
  18. 18. Mechanical: Cultivation  Disrupt soil conditions for weeds and insects Hoes Plows Disks  Control growth or destroy plants Mowers
  19. 19. Mechanical: Exclusion  Prevent pests from entering or traveling Nets, screens, air curtains Caulking, steel wool Metal tree collars Sticky materials Sharp objects Nixalite (for repelling birds)
  20. 20. Mechanical: Trapping  Use of mechanical or sticky device  Captures pests in a holding device Restrains the pest Kills the pest
  21. 21. Mowing Irrigation Aeration Fertilization Mulching Applied Control: Cultural Alter conditions or pest behaviors Tolerant crop varieties Planting timing Crop rotation Trap crops
  22. 22. Applied Control: Cultural  Sanitation: eliminate food, water, and shelter destroy infected crop residues or infected ornamental plant materials weed to reduce pest harborage manage manure seal garbage cans remove soil near siding
  23. 23. Applied Control: Physical Alter physical environment humidity temperature air movement water light Refresh birdbath water weekly to manage for mosquitoes T. Murray
  24. 24.  Add or modify genetic material in crops and ornamental plants Applied Control: Genetics or Host Resistance Breed or select plants for resistance
  25. 25. Applied Control: Chemical  Pesticide: any material that is applied to kill, attract, repel, or regulate pests  Disinfectants, fungicides, herbicides, insecticides, repellents, defoliants, piscicides, etc.  Advantages: effective, fast, easy
  26. 26. Pesticides vary by…  Mode of action: how they work to control the pest Systemic pesticides are absorbed through tissues and transported elsewhere where the pest encounters it through feeding Used on plants or livestock Contact pesticides must come in direct contact with the target pest
  27. 27. Pesticides vary by…  Selectivity: what range of pests they affect Non-selective – kills all related pests – for example some herbicides kill all green plant that gets a sufficient dose Selective – kills only certain weeds, insects, plant pathogens – for example other herbicides only kill broadleaf weeds not grasses
  28. 28. Pesticides vary by…  Persistence: how long they remain active in the environment Residual pesticides – remain active for weeks, months, years – for example herbicides used around road guard rails Non-residual – inactivated immediately or within a few days – for example – some herbicides do not remain active in the soil once applied
  29. 29. Regulatory Pest Control  Quarantine prevents pests from entry to an area or movement from infested areas.  Monitor airports, ocean ports, borders  Nursery stocks and other plant materials  Eradication programs eliminate a pest from a defined area  Mosquito Abatement used for public health
  30. 30. THANK YOU