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Three cultures. toledo

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ART AND CULTURE OF TOLEDO. BY SANTIAGO RODRÍGUEZ

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Three cultures. toledo

  1. 1. MUSLIMS, JEWS AND CHRISTIANS IN TOLEDO
  2. 2. In the beginning of XVI century the city of Toledo had reached its highest splendour.In the beginning of XVI century the city of Toledo had reached its highest splendour. The look of the city is the same since then, with its characteristic appearance as a result ofThe look of the city is the same since then, with its characteristic appearance as a result of the coexistence of the three cultures along the Middle Agesthe coexistence of the three cultures along the Middle Ages..
  3. 3. The Convent of San Juan de los Reyes is on the riverbank of San Martin’s bridge, in the South of the city, in the middle of the Jewish quarter. The Convent of San Juan de los Reyes
  4. 4. The Catholic King and Queen ordered the construction of the convent toThe Catholic King and Queen ordered the construction of the convent to commemorate the victory in the battle of Toro against Alfonso and Juana Lacommemorate the victory in the battle of Toro against Alfonso and Juana La Beltraneja. The building was assigned to the French arquitect Juan de Guas.Beltraneja. The building was assigned to the French arquitect Juan de Guas.
  5. 5. The cloister is one of the most important works of Elizabethian Gothic architecture.
  6. 6. The ceiling of the cloister was made by Muslim crafstmen.
  7. 7. The church is full of symbols alluding to the power of the Catholic King and Queen.
  8. 8. The outside of the church is quite simple, interestingly it has long chains hanging from the walls. They belonged to the Christians who were liberated in the kingdom of Granada.
  9. 9. Finally the Catholic King and Queen decided to be buried in GranadaFinally the Catholic King and Queen decided to be buried in Granada and San Juan de los Reyes became a Franciscan convent.and San Juan de los Reyes became a Franciscan convent. During the War of Independence the walled enclosure was damaged and its restauration has lasted until recently, adding some new features, like gargoyles and outside statues.
  10. 10. THE SEPHARDIC JEWS OF TOLEDO
  11. 11. The Jews of Toledo lived in an area designated for them. The jewish quarter occupied 10% of the city. In the beginning it was placed in the suburb of San Martin, although later new areas were added.
  12. 12. The Jewish quarter
  13. 13. The Jewish quarter neighbourhoods SAN MARTÍN ASSUICA SANTO TOMÉ AL-AQABA
  14. 14. In the Jewish quarter the Transito Synagogue stands out, it was built in the second half of the XIV century. Today it hosts the Sephardic Museum of Toledo.
  15. 15. Its promoter was Samuel ha-Levi Abulafia who was the treasurer of the King Pedro I. He obtained permission from the Castillian King to build the synagogue of Transito in the Jewish quarter of Toledo.
  16. 16. THE TRANSITO SYNAGOGUE
  17. 17. It was built in Mudejar style. It has similar characteristics as other buildings of the time Santa Clara Monastery (Tordesillas, Valladolid)
  18. 18. Sevilla Royal Fortress
  19. 19. The Transito Synagogue is covered by a wooden ceiling with girders. .
  20. 20. The decorative details in Windows and friezes are also interesting.
  21. 21. The Sephardic Museum also contains objects and documents related to the Jewish faith in the synagogue. Candelabro de la fiesta de las luces o Hanuká Inscripción hebrea
  22. 22. Jewish medieval dress Case for the Torah
  23. 23. In addition to the Transito Synagogue there are also other medieval Jewish monuments. Synagogue DE SANTA MARÍA LA BLANCA
  24. 24. This synagogue, also called Yoshef Ben Shoshan was built before the Transito Synagogue.
  25. 25. The old Jewish castle The old Jewish castle is placed in the small garden located at the back of San Juan de los Reyes
  26. 26. El Cambrón Gate was on the border of the Jewish quarter.
  27. 27. The Toledo Jewish quarter was attacked a number of times during Middle Ages, like in 1391, nevertheless the final blow was given by the Catholic King and queen in 1492.
  28. 28. The edict of expulsión of the Jews Nos, en concejo e parecer de algunos prelados, e grandes e caballeros, e de otras personas de ciencia e de conciencia, habiendo habido sobre ello mucha deliberación, acordamos de mandar salir a todos los judíos de nuestros reinos, que jamás tornen; e sobre ello mandamos dar esta carta por la cual mandamos. . . que fasta el fin del mes de julio que viene salgan todos con sus hijos, de cualquier edad que sean, e non osen tornar. . . bajo pena de muerte. E mandamos que nadie de nuestros reinos sea osado de recibir, acoger o defender pública o secretamente a judío ni judía pasado el término de julio. . . so pena de confiscación de todos sus bienes. Y porque los judíos puedan actuar como más les convenga en este plazo, les ponemos bajo nuestra protección, para que puedan vender, enajenar o cambiar sus bienes. Les autorizamos a sacar sus bienes por tierra y mar, en tanto no sea oro ni plata, ni moneda ni las otras cosas vedadas. 31 de marzo de 1492
  29. 29. Map of the Jewish exile after the law of expulsión of the Catholic Queen and King. A partir de esta or As a result of this law on, about 100.000 Jews left the Iberian península known by them as Sepharad. den, aproximadamente unos 100.000 judíos debieron abandonar la Península Ibérica, que ellos conocían como “Sefarad”.
  30. 30. Those who remained ,converted to Christianity, and were known as “conversos”. Up to the middle of the XV century the Inquisition prosecuted them although some of them, or their descendants were very important for the culture of the country
  31. 31. Those who were exiled spread the Castillian language all over the Mediterranean area, keeping it until now in its original form, the Castillian of the XV century.
  32. 32. ALTA ALTA ES LA LUNA Kantiga de amor Alta alta es la luna Kuando empesa a sklareser Ija ermoza sin ventura Nunka yege a naser Los ojos ya me s'incheron De tanto mirar la mar Vaporikos van i vienen Letras para mi no ay Mama mia mi kerida Un suenyo me sonyi En mi suenyo me sonyava ke pasha turko me yevava Pasharikos chuchulean En los arvoles de flor Ay debasho se asentan Los ke sufren del amor TEXTOS SEFARDÍES
  33. 33. Some of them who left Spain brought with them the keys of their homes so that their descendants were able to come back to their houses in Sepharad (Sepharad is the Jewish name for Spain).
  34. 34. There are no more than a million and a half of Sephardies all over the world, although the state of their language is worrying, nevertheless we still have their music and their memories.
  35. 35. Muslim presence in Toledo Toledo surrendered to the Muslim army in 711 and it became the capital of the Middle Mark, facing the Christians in the North, it was named Tulaytulah.
  36. 36. In this way Toledo bécame a typical Muslim city with its fortress, mosques, markets, walls and bridges.
  37. 37. In 1085 it was conquered by Alfonso VI and the Christian army, with time the biggest mosque bécame the cathedral and the rest of the buildings were rebuilt to adapt to the new Christian times. . Aunque algunos restos aún perviven…..
  38. 38. The Mosque of Bib al Mardum or Cristo de la Luz.
  39. 39. This mosque is a small Muslim temple placed in the Zocodover and the Puerta del Sol, or Sun Gate. It was built in the X century. It is a good example of the Cordoban Califal art.
  40. 40. Cúpula del mihrab de la mezquita de Córdoba
  41. 41. After the Castillian conquest the mosque became a Catholic church and a Mudejar abside was added. There are remains of paintings from that time that hid the Arab decoration.
  42. 42. ÁBSIDE CRISTIANO SALA DE ORACIÓN O HARAM In this way the old mosque was able to survive for ten moreIn this way the old mosque was able to survive for ten more centuries.centuries.
  43. 43. VISITA A TOLEDO
  44. 44. TOLEDO OF THE THREE CULTURESTOLEDO OF THE THREE CULTURES 29 TH MARCH 201729 TH MARCH 2017

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