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RAJ KUMAR BAIRWA
ENROLLMENT NO.- 13512026
M.TECH I YEAR
AHES (IIT ROORKEE)
WHAT IS HYDROPOWER?
CLASSIFICATION OF HYDROPOWER PLANTS.
SOME FACTS ABOUT HYDRO POWER PLANTS.
AGENCIES RELATED TO HYDROPOWER.
Hydropower transforms the potential energy of a mass of
water flowing in a river or stream with a certain vertical fall
(termed the “head”)
Hydroelectric power is the cheapest source of energy,
renewable and environmentally benign during running.
The potential annual power generation of a hydropower
project is proportional to the head and flow of water
CLASSIFICATION OF HYDROPOWER PLANTS :
Classification of hydropower plants
SMALL HYDRO POWER DEFINITIONS IN DIFFERENT COUNTRIES:COUNTRY NAME
Dominican Republic, Guatemala, Macedonia
Afghanistan, Burundi, Iran, Malaysia, Mali, Nepal, Norway, Sri Lanka, Tunisia, Kenya, Uganda, Zambia,
Madagascar, Armenia, Austria, Croatia, Montenegro, Nigeria, Turkey, Serbia, Slovenia, Switzerland,
Azerbaijan, Cambodia, Philippines, Indonesia, Senegal
Bangladesh, Laos, Lesotho, Thailand
El Salvador, Peru
Bhutan, India, Mozambique
Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, Benin, United States
Canada, China, Pakistan, New Zealand
Low head hydro power applications use river current or tidal flows of 30 meters or less to produce energy.
These applications do not need to dam or retain water to create hydraulic head, the head is only a few meters.
Using the current of a river or the naturally occurring tidal flow to create electricity may provide a renewable
energy source that will have a minimal impact on the environment.
Figure-sectional view of low head hydropower plant
A power station operating under heads from 30m to 300m.
Figure- sectional view of medium head hydropower plant
A power station operating under heads above about 300m.
A head of 200m/250m is considered as the limit between medium and high head power stations.
Figure- high head hydropower plant
SINGLE STAGE- When the run off from a
single hydropower plant is diverted back into river
or for any other purpose other than power
generation, the setup is known as Single Stage.
CASCADE SYSTEM- When two or more
hydropower plants are used in series such that the
runoff discharge of one hydro power plant is used
as the is a intake discharge of the second hydro
power plant such a system is known as CASCADE
Figure-(a) single stage hydropower development scheme
(b) cascade or multistage hydropower system
SINGLE PURPOSE: When the whole soul purpose of a project is
to produce electricity then such a project is known as a Single
Purpose Hydro Power Project.
MULTIPURPOSE : When the water used in hydropower project is
to be used for other purposes like irrigation, flood control or
fisheries then such a project is known as Multi Purpose Hydro
These are hydro power plants that utilize the stream flow as it comes , without any storage being provided.
Figure-Run-of-River hydropower plant
STORAGE (RESERVOIR) TYPE
Hydropower plants with storage are supplied with water from large storage reservoir that have been
developed by constructing dams across rivers.
Assured flow for hydro power generation is more certain for the storage schemes than the run-of-river schemes.
Figure-pumped storage hydropower plant
PUMPED STORAGE TYPE
Pumped storage type hydropower plants are those which utilize the flow of water from a reservoir at higher potential to
one at lower potential.
During off-peak hours, the reversible units are supplied with the excess electricity available in the power grid which
then pumps part of the water of the tail-water pond back into the head-water pond.
Figure-pumped storage hydropower plant
When the velocity of water i.e kinetic energy
flowing in the stream is used for conversion into
electrical power, then the system is known as Instream.
Photograph of In-stream hydro power system
ISOLATED: Whenever a hydropower plant is set up in a remote area in
order to meet the local demands then such a hydropower plant is known as
CONNECTED TO GRID: Whenever the hydropower plant is set up to
meet the demands of areas which are at a fair distance from the plant, then the
transmission of power takes through the grid system. Such a setup is referred
to as Connected to grid.
The two largest hydropower projects in the world are the 14 GW itaipu project in
brazil and the three gorges project in china with 22.4 GW. These two projects alone
produce 80 to 100 TWH/year (IPCC, 2011).
The three gorges dam in hubei,china has the world's largest instantaneous generating
capacity (22,500 MW).
Tehri dam in india on the Bhagirathi 2,400 MW(Current 1,000).
Photograph of Itaipu Dam (Paraná River) located on the border between
Brazil and Paraguay
Photograph of Three Gorges Dam (Yangtze River, china)
HYDRO RESEARCH CENTERS
• ALPS POWER TECHNOLOGIES (P) LIMITED
The company is manufacturing small turbines and genset up to 1000 KW, complete with microprocessor based static
excitor system,microprocessor based digital governor, remote operation and telemetry and telecontrol system, chartless
recorder for data etc. The company has its own manufacturing and testing facilities at its works, in ghunna industrial area,
• FLOVEL MECAMIDI
Flovel mecamidi energy private limited (FMEPL) is a joint venture between flovel MG holdings private limited, india
and mecamidi S.A., France. Promoters of flovel MG holdings private limited along with its core team have decades of
experience in marketing, design, manufacture, supply, erection, commissioning & servicing of hydro power projects of all
types both for local as well as export markets
HYDRO RESEARCH CENTERS
Karshni Intertech Pvt.Ltd
Karshni Intertech Pvt.Ltd is a manufacturer, wholesale supplier, exporter of hydro energy products. Their range of products
include hydro energy system components (small), hydroelectric turbines (small), solar charge controllers, water pumping
windmills, wind energy system components (large), backup power systems, 100% renewable energy farming , fully integrated
Multitek Consortium is a hydro energy based company located in Delhi, India. Their range of products hydro energy system
components (small), water pumps, turbine machines, gates and hoists, penstock etc.
Nagalaxmi Industries are manufacturers of industrial structures for thermal, hydel, nuclear power station, food industries,
pharmaceutical, chemical, cement etc.
SBA Hydro Systems Pvt. Ltd
SBA Hydro Systems Pvt. Ltd is a manufacturer, wholesale supplier, exporter of hydro energy products. Their range of products
include hydro energy system components (small), hydro energy system components (large), hydro energy systems (large), hydro
energy systems (small), hydroelectric turbines (small), hydroelectric turbines (large).
1) Indian national hydropower association - Faridabad (Haryana)
2) Alternate hydro energy centre- Roorkee (uttarakhand)
• RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES: COST ANALYSIS SERIES volume 1: power sector
,issue 3/5, JUNE 2012
NPTEL Module CE IIT Kharaghpur Chapter:5 Version 2.