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What is Planning?
Planning is assessing the future and making provision
It bridges the gap between where we are and where we
want to go.
In organizations, planning is a management process,
concerned with defining goals for company's future
direction and determining on the missions and
resources to achieve those targets. To meet the
goals, managers may develop plans such as a
business plan or a marketing plan.
There are even a couple of tests to measure someone’s capability of planning
well. As such, planning is a fundamental property of intelligent behavior.
Also, planning has a specific process and is necessary for multiple occupations
(particularly in fields such as management,business, etc.). In each field there
are different types of plans that help companies achieve efficiency and
effectiveness. An important, albeit often ignored aspect of planning, is the
relationship it holds to forecasting. Forecasting can be described as predicting
what the future will look like, whereas planning predicts what the future
should look like for multiple scenarios. Planning combines forecasting
with preparation of scenarios and how to react to them. Planning is one of the
most important project management and time management techniques.
Planning is preparing a sequence of action steps to achieve some specific goal.
If a person does it effectively, he can reduce much the necessary time and effort
of achieving the goal. A plan is like a map. When following a plan, he can
always see how much he have progressed towards his project goal and how far
he is from his destination.
Features of Planning
(1) Planning Focuses on Achieving Objectives:
Management begins with planning and planning begins
with the determining of objectives. In the absence of
objectives no organisation can ever be thought about. With
the determining of objective, the way to achieve the
objective is decided in the planning.
(2) Planning is Primary Function of Management:
Planning is the first important function of management.
The other functions, e.g., organising, staffing, directing and
controlling come later. In the absence of planning no other
function of management can be performed.
(3) Planning is Pervasive:
Since the job of planning is performed by the managers at
different levels working in the enterprise, it is appropriate
to call it all-pervasive. Planning is an important function of
every manager; he may be a managing director of the
organisation or a foreman in a factory.
(4) Planning is Continuous:
Planning is a continuous process for the following reasons:
(a) Plans are prepared for a particular period. Hence, there
is need for a new plan after the expiry of that period.
(b) In case of any discrepancy plans are to be revised.
(c) In case of rapid changes in the business environment
plans are to be revised.
(5) Planning is Futuristic:
Planning decides the plan of action what is to be done, how
is it to be done, when it to be done, by whom is it to be
done all these questions are related to future. Under
planning, answers to these questions are found out.
(6) Planning Involves Decision Making:
Planning becomes a necessity when there are many
alternatives to do a job. A planner chooses the most
appropriate alternative. Therefore, it can be asserted that
planning is a process of selecting the best and rejecting the
inappropriate. It is, therefore, observed that planning
involves decision making.
1. Planning provides Direction:
Planning is concerned with predetermined course of action. It provides the
directions to the efforts of employees. Planning makes clear what employees
have to do, how to do, etc. By stating in advance how work has to be done,
planning provides direction for action. Employees know in advance in which
direction they have to work. This leads to Unity of Direction also. If there were
no planning, employees would be working in different directions and
organisation would not be able to achieve its desired goal.
2. Planning Reduces the risk of uncertainties:
Organisations have to face many uncertainties and unexpected situations every
day. Planning helps the manager to face the uncertainty because planners try to
foresee the future by making some assumptions regarding future keeping in
mind their past experiences and scanning of business environments. The plans
are made to overcome such uncertainties. The plans also include unexpected
risks such as fire or some other calamities in the organisation. The resources are
kept aside in the plan to meet such uncertainties.
Importance Of Planning
3. Planning reduces over lapping and wasteful activities:
The organisational plans are made keeping in mind the
requirements of all the departments. The departmental plans are
derived from main organisational plan. As a result there will be
co-ordination in different departments. On the other hand, if
the managers, non-managers and all the employees are following
course of action according to plan then there will be integration
in the activities. Plans ensure clarity of thoughts and action and
work can be carried out smoothly.
4. Planning Promotes innovative ideas:
Planning requires high thinking and it is an intellectual process.
So, there is a great scope of finding better ideas, better methods
and procedures to perform a particular job. Planning process
forces managers to think differently and assume the future
conditions. So, it makes the managers innovative and creative.
5. Planning Facilitates Decision Making:
Planning helps the managers to take various decisions. As
in planning goals are set in advance and predictions are
made for future. These predictions and goals help the
manager to take fast decisions.
6. Planning establishes standard for controlling:
Controlling means comparison between planned and
actual output and if there is variation between both then
find out the reasons for such deviations and taking
measures to match the actual output with the planned. But
in case there is no planned output then controlling
manager will have no base to compare whether the actual
output is adequate or not.
Limitations Of Planning
1. Planning leads to rigidity:
Once plans are made to decide the future course of action
the manager may not be in a position to change them.
Following predefined plan when circumstances are
changed may not bring positive results for organisation.
This kind of rigidity in plan may create difficulty.
2. Planning may not work in dynamic environment:
Business environment is very dynamic as there are
continuously changes taking place in economic, political
and legal environment. It becomes very difficult to forecast
these future changes. Plans may fail if the changes are very
3. It reduces creativity:
With the planning the managers of the organisation start working
rigidly and they become the blind followers of the plan only. The
managers do not take any initiative to make changes in the plan
according to the changes prevailing in the business environment. They
stop giving suggestions and new ideas to bring improvement in
working because the guidelines for working are given in planning only.
4. Planning involves huge Cost:
Planning process involves lot of cost because it is an intellectual
process and companies need to hire the professional experts to carry on
this process. Along with the salary of these experts the company has to
spend lot of time and money to collect accurate facts and figures. So, it
is a cost-consuming process. If the benefits of planning are not more
than its cost then it should not be carried on.
5. It is a time consuming process:
Planning process is a time-consuming process because it takes
long time to evaluate the alternatives and select the best one. Lot
of time is needed in developing planning premises. So, because
of this, the action gets delayed. And whenever there is a need for
prompt and immediate decision then we have to avoid planning.
6. Planning does not guarantee success:
Sometimes managers have false sense of security that plans have
worked successfully in past so these will be working in future
also. There is a tendency in managers to rely on pretested plans.
1. Setting up of the objectives:
In planning function manager begins with setting up of objectives because all
the policies, procedures and methods are framed for achieving objectives only.
The managers set up very clearly the objectives of the company keeping in
mind the goals of the company and the physical and financial resources of the
company. Managers prefer to set up goals which can be achieved quickly and in
specific limit of time. After setting up the goals, the clearly defined goals are
communicated to all the employees.
2. Developing premises:
Premises refer to making assumptions regarding future. Premises are the base
on which plans are made. It is a kind of forecast made keeping in view existing
plans and any past information about various policies. There should be total
agreement on all the assumptions. The assumptions are made on the basis of
forecasting. Forecast is the technique of gathering information. Common
forecast are made to find out the demand for a product, change in government
or competitor policy, tax rate, etc.
3. Listing the various alternatives for achieving the objectives:
After setting up of objectives the managers make a list of alternatives through which the
organisation can achieve its objectives as there can be many ways to achieve the objective
and managers must know all the ways to reach the objectives.
For example, if the objective is to increase in sale by 10% then the sale can be increased:
(a) By adding more line of products;
(b) By offering discount;
(c) By increasing expenditure on advertisements;
(d) By increasing the share in the market;
(e) By appointing salesmen for door-to-door sale etc.
So, managers list out all the alternatives.
4. Evaluation of different alternatives:
After making the list of various alternatives along with the assumptions supporting them,
the manager starts evaluating each and every alternative and notes down the positive and
negative aspects of every alternative. After this the manager starts eliminating the
alternatives with more of negative aspect and the one with the maximum positive aspect
and with most feasible assumption is selected as best alternative. Alternatives are
evaluated in the light of their feasibility.
5. Selecting an alternative:
The best alternative is selected but as such there is no mathematical
formula to select the best alternative. Sometimes instead of selecting
one alternative, a combination of different alternatives can also be
selected. The most ideal plan is most feasible, profitable and with least
6. Implement the plan:
The managers prepare or draft the main and supportive plans on paper
but there is no use of these plans unless and until these are put in
action. For implementing the plans or putting the plans into action, the
managers start communicating the plans to all the employees very
clearly because the employees actually have to carry on the activities
according to specification of plans. After communicating the plan to
employees and taking their support the managers start allocating the
resources according to the specification of the plans.
Planning is a continuous process so the manager’s job
does not get over simply by putting the plan into
action. The managers monitor the plan carefully while
it is implemented. The monitoring of plan is very
important because it helps to verify whether the
conditions and predictions assumed in plan are
holding true in present situation or not. If these are
not coming true then immediately changes are made
in the plan.
Planning and Controlling-
Planning and controlling are two separate fuctions of
management, yet they are closely related. The scope of
activities if both are overlapping to each other.
Without the basis of planning, controlling activities
becomes baseless and without controlling, planning
becomes a meaningless exercise. In absense of
controlling, no purpose can be served by. Therefore,
planning and controlling reinforce each other.
According to Billy Goetz, " Relationship between the
two can be summarized in the following points
Planning preceeds controlling and controlling succeeds planning.
Planning and controlling are inseperable functions of management.
Activities are put on rails by planning and they are kept at right place through
The process of planning and controlling works on Systems Approach which is
as follows :Planning → Results → Corrective Action
Planning and controlling are integral parts of an organization as both are
important for smooth running of an enterprise.
Planning and controlling reinforce each other. Each drives the other function of
In the present dynamic environment which affects the organization, the strong
relationship between the two is very critical and important. In the present day
environment, it is quite likely that planning fails due to some unforeseen
events. There controlling comes to the rescue. Once controlling is done
effectively, it give us stimulus to make better plans. Therfore, planning and
controlling are inseperate functions of a business enterprise.