1. Child and adult food care &
At the end of the presentation the students will
• Difference between nutrients, nutrition, food.
• food pyramid ,food groups .
• The classification of foods ,nutrients .
• The daily calorie intake for adults ,children .
• The affect of inadequate food, nutrients intake
on our bodies .
• the nursing role in (children ,adult) food care .
4. Introduction to nutrition
• Nutrition is the intake of food, according to the body’s
dietary needs required by organisms and cells to stay
• Essential nutrients include protein, carbohydrate, fat,
vitamins, minerals and electrolytes,.
• Normally 85% of daily energy use is from fat and
carbohydrates and 15% from protein.
• Nutrition is essential for growth and development,
health and wellbeing. Eating a healthy diet
contributes to preventing future illness and improving
quality and length of life.
5. What's nutrition ?
• It is a Science which investigates the
metabolic &physiological responses of the
body to diet .
6. What's food
• is any substance consumed to provide
nutritional support for the body. It is usually
of plant or animal origin, and contains
essential nutrients , such as
(carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins,
7. Foods classification according to their general
primary • semisolid
• liquid foods
• starchy, oleaginous, crystalline,
and albuminous foods.
9. Foods classification according to their
Animal foods Vegetable foods
meats ,fish cereals, vegetables
Shellfish, proper , fruits,
crustaceans, eggs, sugars, vegetable
milk and its products, oils.
animal fats, gelatin.
12. Food classification according to their compositions
•the majority of the
animal substances belong
• carbon ,
• hydrogen ,
to the nitrogenous, and
• oxygen , the majority of vegetable
substances to the non-
Non -nitrogenous nitrogenous group.
13. What's nutrients
• a substance that provides nourishment
essential for the maintenance of life and for
for example :fish is a source of many
important nutrients, including protein,
vitamins, and minerals
15. Function of nutrients in food
• Provide energy (carbohydrate ,fat ,protein)
• Build tissue (proteins )
• Regulate metabolic processes ,(water is base
of all metabolic processes .
16. Difference between food ,nutrients, nutrition
Food Nutrition Nutrients
• is any substance • Is taking in and the • a substance that
consumed to provide utilization of food provides nourishment
nutritional support for substances by which essential for the
the body growth, repair and maintenance of life and
maintenance of the for growth .
body are accomplished .
• It is usually of plant •Food origin • food is a source of
or animal origin nutrients for e.g.. fish is a
source of many important
nutrients, including protein,
vitamins, and minerals
• contains nutrients for •Utilizing food nutrients •Are food components for
e.g. Carbohydrate through process of e.g. carbohydrate
17. Factors affecting food intake
• Emotional factors
• Sensory factors
• Personal Preference
• Social situations
• Income (poverty )
• Nutritional knowledge
• Intolerance & allergies
18. Food Security
The World Food Summit of 1996 defined food security as
• “when all people at all times have access to sufficient, safe,
nutritious food to maintain a healthy and active life”
Food security is built on three pillars:
• Food availability
• Food access
• Food use
19. What's food pyramid
• Is an outline of what to eat each day , It is
not a rigid prescription, but a general guide
that lets you choose a healthful diet that's
right for you, shows a range of serving for
each major group .
• The first food pyramid was published in
Sweden in 1974.
21. What's serving ?
• The amount of food that counts as a serving.
• For example If you eat one plate of rice, that
would be two servings. If you eat a smaller
portion, count it as part of a serving.
24. Daily Calorie Intake
• Recommended daily calorie intake varies from
person to person
• Calories also play a role in weight control
• Calories are a measure of energy and are
commonly used to describe the energy content
30. Factors affecting daily calories intake
• Gender .
• Body size (height and weight).
• Physical state (pregnancy ,lactation)
• Type of work (sedentary .moderate, heavy)
31. Lack of insufficient food intake
Poor nutrition can lead to:
• reduced immunity.
• increased susceptibility to disease.
• impaired physical and mental development
32. For examples
• Protein deficiency leads to Kwashiorkor..etc
• Calories deficiency leads to Starvation, marasmus..etc
• Vitamins deficiency leads to Pellagra ,Beri Beri,
scurvy, rickets ..etc.
• Minerals deficiency leads to
Osteoporosis, tetany, laryngospasm ,cardiac
intake of nutrients insufficient to meet daily energy requirements as
a result of inadequate food intake or improper digestion &
absorption of food.
• The most common symptom is a notable weight loss. For example,
those who have lost more than 10% of their body weight in the
course of three months and are not dieting could be
• Growth failure in children
• Muscle wasting and lack of strength in the muscles.
• Swelling of the abdomen and legs.
• Increased susceptibility to infections
• Skin and hair becomes dry.
35. Role of nurse
• Usual eating patterns & habits
• Allergies & intolerances
• Food frequency record
• Brief personal & family history
• Ideal body weight
• Body mass index ( weight in kilograms over height in meters
squared – Weight/height (in m)2) and mid arm circumference.
• Manifestations of malnutrition
• Social, economic, ethnic, religious factors
• Other risk factors for altered nutrition
36. Role of nurse
To stimulate appetite
• Relieve illness symptoms that depress appetite prior
• Select small portions
• Avoid unpleasant or uncomfortable treatments or
activity immediately before/after meals
• Provide tidy, clean environment
• Encourage or provide oral hygiene before mealtime
• Reduce psychological stress
37. Role of nurse
Assisting with Meals
• Help client feed self when possible
• Assist client to sit on side of bed or chair if possible
• Check tray for client’s name, type of diet, & completeness
• “which order would you like to eat?”
• Do not rush client; allow ample time
• Offer fluids every 3 or 4 mouthfuls of food if client unable
• Use adaptive feeding aids as needed
• For blind person, identify placement of food as you would
describe time on a clock