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Obesity in Pregnancy

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Healthy Mothers Healthy Babies
2014 Annual Meeting & Conference
October 7th, 2014
Presented by: Nicole S. Carlson, CNM, PhD Candidate
NIH NINR Grant # 1F31NR0114061-01A1, March of Dimes

Publicado en: Atención sanitaria
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Obesity in Pregnancy

  1. 1. Obesity in Pregnancy Healthy Mothers, Healthy Babies Coalition Conference October 7, 2015 Nicole S. Carlson, CNM, PhD Candidate NIH NINR Grant # March of Dimes
  2. 2. Objectives • Review scope of obesity epidemic in U.S. • Review the influence of obesity on outcomes for both mother and baby in pregnancy. • Review the incidence and sequelae of unplanned cesarean among obese women. • Review the influence of increased BMI on patterns of labor progress. • Provide discussion of the use of common intrapartal interventions with obese women. • Review evidence-based recommendations for pre-conceptual, antepartal, and postpartum care of obese woman.
  3. 3. Obesity Epidemic in U.S. • Obesity epidemic – Dramatic increase from 1990-2010 • Obesity disproportionate among racial/ethnic minorities in U.S.1 199 0 2000 2010 • Cesarean delivery among obese women associated with poor outcomes – Post-op infection, clotting disorder, hemorrhage, prolonged hospitalization – 1/3 of maternal deaths associated with obesity complications, many following cesarean delivery2 1Flegal et al, 2012 2Grundy et al, 2008 33.4% obese (95% CI 30.3-36.6) 40.7% obese (95% CI 36.7-44.8) 58.6% obese (95% CI 52.5-64.5) CDC No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%–24% 25%–29% ≥30%
  4. 4. Trends in Obesity across developed world, OECD.org
  5. 5. Obesity in Women 2/3 of U.S. women of childbearing age are obese or overweight1 1Flegal, et al (2012). Prevalence of obesity and trends in the distribution of body mass index among US adults, 1999-2010. JAMA, 307(5), 491-497.
  6. 6. Racial Disproportions of Obesity • Obesity disproportionate among racial/ethnic minorities in U.S.1 • Cesarean delivery among obese women associated with poor outcomes – Post-op infection, clotting disorder, hemorrhage, prolonged hospitalization – 1/3 of maternal deaths associated with obesity complications, many following cesarean delivery2 1Flegal et al, 2012 2Grundy et al, 2008 33.4% obese (95% CI 30.3-36.6) 40.7% obese (95% CI 36.7-44.8) 58.6% obese (95% CI 52.5-64.5) Flegal et al, 2012
  7. 7. Maternal Obesity: Multiple Risks for Mom & Baby in Pregnancy Risks to Obese Woman1 • depression & anxiety4 – depression pregnancy OR 1.43 (1.27-1.61) – PPD OR 1.30 (1.20-1.42) – Anxiety OR 1.41 (1.10-1.80) • GDM – increase by 0.82% with each 1kg/m2 increase BMI (3.76X increase on avg) • gestational HTN – 2.5-3.2 OR • pre-eclampsia – Double risk with each increase 5-7 kg/m2 in BMI • prolonged pregnancy – Double risk (>41wk) Risks to Baby •  risk congenital anomalies, neural tube defects especially2 • 2-to 3-fold increase macrosomia1 •  lifetime risk of DM, heart disease, obesity2 • 2 fold risk IUFD in late 3rd trimester1 • 1.5-2 fold increase in risk of spontaneous extremely preterm delivery (22-27wks), dose-dependent by BMI3 • 1.5-2.7 fold increased risk of induced preterm delivery, dose-dependent by BMI3 1Mission, J. F., et al (2013). Obesity in pregnancy: a big problem and getting bigger. Obstet Gynecol Surv, 68(5), 389-399. 2O'Reilly, J. R., & Reynolds, R. M. (2013). The risk of maternal obesity to the long-term health of the offspring. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf), 78(1), 9-16. 3Cnattingius, et al (2013). Maternal obesity and risk of preterm delivery. JAMA, 309(22), 2362-2370. 4Molyneaux et al, 2014. Obesity and mental disorders during pregnancy and postpartum: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Obstet & Gynec 123(4), 857-867.
  8. 8. PRECONCEPTION CARE FOR THE OBESE WOMAN
  9. 9. Preconception • Contraception US Medical Eligibility Criteria: Categories 1 No restriction for the use of the contraceptive method for a woman with that medical condition 2 Advantages of using the method generally outweigh the theoretical or proven risks 3 Theoretical or proven risks of the method usually outweigh the advantages – or that there are no other methods that are available or acceptable to the women with that medical condition 4 Unacceptable health risk if the contraceptive method is used by a woman with that medical condition http://www.cdc.gov/mmw r/pdf/rr/rr5904.pdf
  10. 10. Bariatric Surgery • Most effective weight loss treatment for morbid obesity • Incidence increased 800% from 1998-2005 • Women account for 83% of procedures among reproductive age • Generally available to women with BMI >40 or BMI >35 with comorbidities • Types of Surgery – • Restrictive Procedures (i.e., lap band/sleeve) • Decreases stomach capacity • Malabsorptive Procedures (i.e., Roux-en-Y gastric bypass) • Decreases absorption of calories & nutrients by shortening functional length of small intestine • Bariatric Surgery and Pregnancy. ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 105. American College of Obstetricsians and Gynecologists. Obstet Gynecol 2009;113:1405- 13.
  11. 11. Effect of Surgery on Fertility • Rapid weight loss follows bariatric surgery • Improves PCOS, anovulation, irregular menses • Results in higher fertility rates • Avoid pregnancy for 12-24 months after surgery • Patient allowed to achieve full weight loss • Fetus not exposed to rapid maternal weight loss environment – Paulen, ME et al. Contraceptive use among women with a history of bariatric surgery: a systematic review. Contraception 82 (2010) 86-94.
  12. 12. ANTEPARTUM CARE FOR THE OBESE WOMAN
  13. 13. IOM Guidelines (2009) Balance risks of having LGA infants, SGA infants, preterm births, and postpartum weight retention Pre-pregnancy weight category BMI Recommended total weight gain Recommended rate of weight gain in the 2nd/3rd trimesters Underweight < 18.5 28-40 lbs 1 lb (1-1.3) Normal 18.5 – 24.9 25-35 lbs 1 lb (0.8-1) Overweight 25 – 29.9 15-25 lbs 0.6 lbs (0.5- 0.7) Obese (includes all classes) Class I: BMI 30-34.9 Class II: BMI 35-39.9 Class III: BMI >40 > 30 11-20 lbs 0.5 lbs (0.4- 0.6)
  14. 14. Gestational Weight Gain gestational weight gain associated with risk of C-section, HTN, GDM
  15. 15. Early Pregnancy • Height/weight and calculate BMI at 1st visit • Ultrasound in 1st tri to confirm dates (ovulatory dysfxn common in obese women) • Aneuploidy Screening  1st trimester options (sequential screen, NT US, NIPT) • Depression & Anxiety screeningNOB, 28 weeks, and in 3rd trimester • Risk factor identification • Risk HTN d/o’s  Baseline PET labs before 20 wks • Risk GDM  A1c to screen for pre-existing DM and 2hr GTT at 24 wks • Nutritional counseling & explicit weight gain recommendations* • Exercise encouragement & recommendations* • Detailed fetal anatomy scan 16-20wks (earlier GA if class III obesity) with explanation of limitations • Frequent visits in 3rd trimester for assessment of fetal growth + maternal heath (BP measurements, weight gain, OSA sx’s, orthopedic difficulties) • Strong evidence does not exist for timing of delivery and/or antenatal surveillance
  16. 16. Nutrition & Exercise • Offer nutrition consultation • Consider having patients plot their own weight on charts • Additional folic acid for all obese women (4mg/day starting 2 mo prior conception thru 1st trimester) • Nutritional considerations for women who have had a bariatric procedure • Risk for protein, iron, vit B12, folate, vit D, calcium deficiencies • Supplement if deficient • Monitor CBC, iron, ferritin, calcium, vit D q trimester • Treatment of Obese Pregnant Women (TOP) Study Renault KM, Norgaard K, Nilas L et al. The Treatment of Obese Pregnant Women (TOP) Study: a randomized controlled trial of the effect of physical activity intervention assessed by pedometer with or without dietary intervention in obese pregnant women. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2014;210:134.e1-9. • RCT 425 obese pregnant women in Denmark • Goal < 5kg TWG • physical activity (pedometer – daily step count 11,000) • physical activity + diet (1200-1575kcal Mediterranean-style, nutrition f/u q 2 weeks) • control group w/ standard care • Gestational weight gain lower in 2 intervention groups • No difference in neo birthweights among 3 groups (TWG < 5kg did not result in SGA infants) • Lower rate of emergency Cesarean delivery in physical activity + diet group
  17. 17. INTRAPARTUM CARE FOR THE OBESE WOMAN
  18. 18. Obesity & Cesarean Delivery Several meta-analysis examining link between maternal BMI & cesarean delivery. • Chu et al, 2007. Maternal obesity and risk of cesarean delivery: a meta-analysis. Obesity Reviews, 8(5), 385-394. – N=33 cohort studies, include all parities, include co-morbidities. • Poobolan et al, 2008. Obesity as an independent risk factor for elective and emergency caesarean delivery in nulliparous women – systematic review and meta‐analysis of cohort studies. Obesity Reviews, 10(1), 28-35. – N=11 cohort studies, only nulliparous women, no co-morbidities, unplanned cesarean delivery. Odds Ratios for Cesarean Delivery (95% Confidence Intervals) Study Normal weight BMI 20-25 Overweight BMI 25-29 Obese BMI 30-35 Very Obese (BMI >35) Chu 07 1 1.46(1.34-1.60) 2.05 (1.86-2.27) 2.89 (2.28- 3.79) Poobolan 08 1 1.64 (1.55-1.73) 2.23 (2.07-2.42)
  19. 19. Dose-Dependent Association Obesity & Cesarean Delivery Kominiarek, et al 2011 • N=118,978 women, multi-site U.S. • Consortium of Safe Labor 5% increase in risk of unplanned cesarean with each increase in BMI of 1 kg/m2 1Kominiarek et al, 2010. The maternal body mass index: a strong association with delivery route. Am J Obstet Gynecol, 203(3), 264 e261-267.
  20. 20. So What…Outcomes of Cesarean Delivery Among Obese Women Cesarean delivery among obese women associated with poor outcomes: • Wound infection/breakdown • clotting disorder (VTE) • hemorrhage • prolonged hospitalization • Endometritis • Respiratory/airway complications o 2-4X increased risk of post-op complications in women with BMI>45 o Primary infectious outcome o Would infection o Emergency department visit o 1/3 of maternal deaths associated with obesity complications, many following cesarean delivery2 Flegal et al, 2012 Obesity in Pregnancy. Committee Opinion No. 549. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Obstet Gynecol 2013:121;213-7.
  21. 21. Obesity & Cesarean Delivery Dose-dependent association with unplanned cesarean delivery Primarily linked to Kominiarek et al, 2011. Contemporary labor patterns: the impact of maternal body mass index. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 205(3), 244.e241-244.e248.
  22. 22. Abnormally slow progress during active phase labor resulting from abnormalities in…1 Passage Passenger Power 1ACOG, 2003 Labor Dystocia
  23. 23. Abnormally slow progress during active phase labor resulting from abnormalities in…1 Passenger Power 2Crane et al, 1997. Association between pre-pregnancy obesity and the risk of cesarean delivery. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 89(2), 213-216. 3Fyfe et al, 2011. Risk of first-stage and second-stage cesarean delivery by maternal body mass index among nulliparous women in labor at term. Obstet Gynecol, 117(6), 1315-1322. 4Kominiarek et al, 2011. Contemporary labor patterns: the impact of maternal body mass index. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 205(3), 244.e241-244.e248. Labor Dystocia
  24. 24. Labor Dystocia Abnormally slow progress during active phase labor resulting from abnormalities in… Power Verdiales, 2009. The effect of maternal obesity on the course of labor. Journal of Perinatal Medicine, 37(6), 651-655.
  25. 25. Labor Dystocia Abnormally slow progress during active phase labor resulting from abnormalities in… Zhang et al, 2007. Contractility and calcium signaling of human myometrium are profoundly affected by cholesterol manipulation: implications for labor? Reprod Sci, 14(5), 456-466. Cedergren, 2010. Non-elective caesarean delivery due to ineffective uterine contractility or due to obstructed labour in relation to maternal body mass index. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol, 145(2), 163-166.
  26. 26. Leptin & Cholesterol in Obese Women Leptin • Elevated in obese women • Produced by fat cells • Also produced by placenta • In obesity, leptin resistance Tessier, D. R., Ferraro, Z. M., & Gruslin, A. (2013). Role of leptin in pregnancy: consequences of maternal obesity. Placenta, 34(3), 205- 211. Cholesterol • Elevated in obese women • Positive association with BMI, especially in people between 25-35 years of age Gostynski, M., et al. (2004). Analysis of the relationship between total cholesterol, age, body mass index among males and females in the WHO MONICA Project. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disords, 28(8), 1082- 1090
  27. 27. BIOLOGY OF OBESITY IN PREGNANCY (4 MODELS) Cholesterol causes disrupted contractility in uterus Smith et al, 2005
  28. 28. MODEL 2 Leptin disrupts contractility & cervical/uterine ripening. Wendremaire et al, 2012 From Moynihan et al, 2006
  29. 29. Garabedian et al, 2011; Elmes et al, 2011 MODEL 3 Decreased oxytocin receptors & Connexin-43 connections between myocytes.
  30. 30. Electrophysiologic Model of Uterus with Irregular Propagation Aslanidi, et al (2011). Towards a computational reconstruction of the electrodynamics of premature and full term human labour. Prog Biophys Mol Biol, 107(1), 183-192.
  31. 31. Intrapartum Care of Obese Women • Intrapartum intervention choices & timing explain much of the association between obesity & unplanned cesarean delivery1 • Optimal intrapartum care lowered rate of unplanned cesarean in mixed weight group, .2 1Abenhaim & Benjamin, 2011. Higher cesarean section rates in women with high body mass index: are we managing differently? J Obstet Gynaecology Canada, 33(5), 443-448. 2Leeman & Leeman, 2003. A Native American Community with a 7% Cesarean Delivery Rate: Does Case Mix, Ethnicity, or Labor Management Explain the Low Rate? The Annals of Family Medicine, 1(1), 36 -43.
  32. 32. Intrapartum Interventions in the U.S. FREQUENTLY INVOLVES HIGH-TECHNOLOGY INTERVENTIONS, USED WITH TIMING/INDICATION AGAINST EVIDENCE-BASED GUIDELINES1 1Declercq et al, 2013.
  33. 33. Listening to Mothers Survey III (n=2400 women) High-Technology Intervention in Labor Intervention No Intervention How Many Interventions in Labor? 3 or more interventions 1-2 interventions Declercq et al, 2013
  34. 34. Intrapartum Interventions Associated with Cesarean in Mixed-Weight Groups of Women 1Jackson, 2003 2Smyth et al, 2013 3Nguyen et al, 2009 4Dunne et al, 2009 5Debiec et al, 2009
  35. 35. Intrapartum Interventions in the Labors of SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE, N=8 STUDIES: Obese Women more often receive intrapartum interventions including: Induction of labor Early Hospital Admission AROM Augmentation of labor Epidural Unplanned Cesarean Delivery When compared to normal BMI referent Carlson & Lowe, 2014 Intrapartum management associated with obesity in nulliparous women. J Midwifery Womens Health, 59(1), 43-53 .
  36. 36. Interaction: Provider & Biology of Obesity Myometrial Dysfunction Intrapartum Interventions Labor Dystocia Unplanned Cesarean Delivery
  37. 37. Induction of Labor in Obese Women • Takes longer than spontaneous labor (which is already LONG) • Labor duration & progress inversely related to maternal weight • Failure to respond to prostaglandin cervical ripening – 54.7% failure among obese – 34.5% failure among normal wt women, p=.0016 – Up to 80% failure of induction rate among Obese III women who had macrosomic fetus & no previous vaginal delivery2 1Gauthieret al 2011. Obesity and cervical ripening failure risk. Journal of Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Medicine, 1-4. 2Wolfe, et al (2011). The effect of maternal obesity on the rate of failed induction of labor. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 205(2), 128.e121-128.e127.
  38. 38. Obese poorer response to oxytocin During Induction • Walsh & Foley, 2010. Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine, 24(6), 817- 821. – Prospective Irish standardized AML trial 1015 term, nulliparous induced women – linear relationship BMI increase to cesarean despite oxytocin infusion per protocol • Nuthalpaty et al, 2004. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 103(3), 452-456. – Prospective IOL trial UAB 509 women, controlled for DM, etc. – IUPC, pitocin infusion standardized, protocol – Ran pitocin higher on obese women • Lean women pit avg @ 16 mU/min • Obese women pit avg @ 24 mU/min – Obese women higher rate labor dystocia resulting in unplanned cesarean For each additional 10kg of maternal weight, 17% increase in risk of cesarean in this induction RCT
  39. 39. Obese poorer response oxytocin augmentation N= 2,143 term, nulliparous women spontaneous labor, Ireland Prospective observational study, Active Management of Labor protocol Obese women significantly more likely to fail oxytocin augmentation (require cesarean for dystocia despite augment). (Walsh & Foley, 2010)
  40. 40. Intrapartum Interventions in the Labors of Obese Women How do intrapartum interventions interact in the unique physiology of an ? obese woman? No Current Guidelines for Best Use of Intrapartum Interventions in Obese Women
  41. 41. Timing of Interventions—Also Important Liberal guidelines for hospital admission in early labor2 & Often applied using stringent timelines for labor progression3 2Jackson, 2003. Impact of Collaborative Management and Early Admission in Labor on Method of Delivery. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing, 32(2), 147-157. 3Lavender et al, 2012. Effect of partogram use on outcomes for women in spontaneous labour at term. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 8, CD005461.
  42. 42. Friedman’s Curve, 1954
  43. 43. Zhang et al, 2010 Consortium for Safe Labor NICHD
  44. 44. Kominiarek et al, 2011
  45. 45. Kominiarek et al, 2011
  46. 46. Median Duration of Labor in Hours (Slowest 5%ile) in Nulliparous Women by BMI, normal neonates (Kominiarek et al, 2011) Cervical dilation, cm BMI <25 BMI 25.0- 29.0 BMI 30- 34.9 BMI 35.0- 39.9 BMI ≥ 40 P value for trend 4-10 cm 5.4 (18.2) 5.7 (18.8) 6.0 (19.9) 6.7 (22.2) 7.7 (25.6) < .0001 2nd stage 0.61 (2.5) 0.44 (1.9) 0.50 (2.1) 0.44 (1.9) 0.65 (2.7) .49 without epidural 2nd stage with epidural 0.75 (2.6) 0.83 (2.8) 0.79 (2.7) 0.69 (2.4) 1.18 (3.7) .81
  47. 47. Median Duration of Labor in Hours (Slowest 5%ile) in Multiparous Women by BMI, normal neonates (Kominiarek et al, 2011) Cervical dilation, cm BMI <25 BMI 25.0- 29.0 BMI 30- 34.9 BMI 35.0- 39.9 BMI ≥ 40 P value for trend 4-10 cm 4.6 (17.5) 4.5 (17.4) 4.7 (17.9) 5.0 (19.0) 5.4 (20.6) < .0001 2nd stage 0.17 (1.0) 0.17 (1.0) 0.15 (0.9) 0.15 (0.9) 0.12 (0.7) <.0001 without epidural 2nd stage with epidural 0.40 (1.7) 0.33 (1.5) 0.27 (1.2) 0.25 (1.1) 0.36 (1.6) <.0001
  48. 48. Slowest Cervical Dilation/Hour in Active Phase Labor Lowest range of normal=Need to intervene clinically • Friedman (1954) 1cm/hr • Zhang, 2002: 1cm/hr (mixed weight sample) • Neal et al, 2010: 0.5 cm/hr (mixed weight sample) • Kominiarek et al, 2011 (obese women): – Slowest between 4-5cm: 0.15-0.11 cm/hr (i.e. 6.3 to 9 hours/cm) – Slowest between 5-6cm: 0.25-0.2 cm/hr – Slowest in transition: 0.6 cm/hr
  49. 49. Take Away: Management of Obese Pregnant Women In Labor  If baby and mother stable, obese women average 0.5 cm/hr in transition (1.6 cm/hr slowest)  May take up to 6 hours/cm in early active labor for BMI 30, up to 9 hours for higher BMIs  Delay admission to L&D until active phase labor if possible  Allow TOL for EFW ≤ 5000g non-DM, ≤4500g DM  Running pitocin:  Obese women may need higher doses, run for longer periods of time than normal-weight women  Avoid IOL whenever possible—obese women more likely to fail IOL than normal weight women  Consider multi-day cervical ripening protocols  Consider multiple methods of cervical ripening
  50. 50. Monica AN24: external FHR ECG & contraction EHG
  51. 51. Postpartum in Obese Women Immediate Postpartum • Increased risk PPH (atonic)1 • VTE prophylaxis 1 wk class III?2 • Delayed lactogenesis3 (>60-72 hours) • Reduced duration of lactation2 • PPD and anxiety4 Long-term Postpartum • PPD & Anxiety • Need to decrease weight (antenatal lifestyle & dietary)5 • Testing for DM • Follow-up for HTN • Referrals—weight reduction specialist, endocrine, etc. (ACOG #549) 1Blomberg, 2011. Maternal obesity and the risk of postpartum hemorrhage. Obstet Gynecol 118: 561-568. 2RCOG, 2012. Reducing the risk of thrombosis and embolism (#37). 3Lepe, M. et al (2011). Effect of maternal obesity on lactation: systematic review. Nutr Hosp, 26(6). 4Molyneaux et al, 2014. Obesity and mental disorders during pregnancy and postpartum: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Obstet & Gynec 123(4), 857-867. 5van der Pligt, P., et al (2013). Systematic review of lifestyle interventions to limit postpartum weight retention: implications for future opportunities to prevent maternal overweight and obesity following childbirth. Obes Rev, 14(10), 792-805.
  52. 52. Thank you!

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