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Media Literacy and the Emergence of Adolescent Civic Engagement

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Media Literacy and the Emergence of Adolescent Civic Engagement

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Overview of three studies on media literacy in K-12 education and impact on civic engagement, plus an introduction to Mind Over Media, a new resource designed to teach about contemporary propaganda.

Overview of three studies on media literacy in K-12 education and impact on civic engagement, plus an introduction to Mind Over Media, a new resource designed to teach about contemporary propaganda.

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Media Literacy and the Emergence of Adolescent Civic Engagement

  1. 1. Media Literacy and the Emergence of Adolescent Civic Engagement Renee Hobbs Professor of Communication Studies Harrington School of Communication and Media, University of Rhode Island USA Email: hobbs@uri.edu Twitter: @reneehobbs
  2. 2. http://mediaeducationlab.com
  3. 3. Partnerships with School Districts: Professional Development
  4. 4. Motivations for Using Media & Technology in Education 12
  5. 5. http://jmle.org
  6. 6. Media Smart Libraries Children’s Librarians & Children’s Media Professionals In Partnership with the Providence Children’s Film Festival and the Rhode Island Office of Library and Information Services
  7. 7. www.harrington.uri.edu
  8. 8. Graduate Certificate in Digital Literacy A 12-credit graduate program that enables educators, librarians and media professionals to acquire the knowledge and skills required for full participation in a read/write culture where active participation in a knowledge community requires the skillful use, creation and sharing of digital texts, tools and technologies.
  9. 9. Summer Institute in Digital Literacy July 26 - 31, 2015 Providence RI USA
  10. 10. Media Literacy and the Emergence of Adolescent Civic Engagement Renee Hobbs Professor of Communication Studies Harrington School of Communication and Media, University of Rhode Island USA Email: hobbs@uri.edu Twitter: @reneehobbs
  11. 11. PEER-TO-PEER FILE SHARING Medium Theory. Media & technology are immersive cultural environments; media structures re-shape human perception & values. Active Audience Theory. Audiences are active; meaning-making is variable; lived experience & social context are key dimensions of interpretation. Communication & Education. Institutions of education, communication practices & democratic values are interconnected. Inquiry Learning. People learn best from experiences that engage them in active work that promotes intellectual curiosity and collaboration. Critical Pedagogy. Awareness, analysis, and reflection enable people to take action to make society more just and equitable. Theoretical Framework
  12. 12. expanding the concept of text
  13. 13. ACCESS expanding the concept of literacy
  14. 14. expanding the concept of literacy open access multitasking transmediation curation play data ownership identity representation privacy addiction
  15. 15. PEER-TO-PEER FILE SHARING How can media literacy education support the emergence of adolescent civic engagement? Question
  16. 16. PEER-TO-PEER FILE SHARING Participatory action research uses iterative cycles of planning, reflection, action and evaluation. Key characteristics: • Participants collaborate at every stage • Intended to result in some action, change or improvement Approach
  17. 17. PEER-TO-PEER FILE SHARING Montgomery Blair High School: How do media literacy competencies develop in learners enrolled in programs designed for different groups? PBS News Hour Student Reporting Labs: What is the impact of a high school program in broadcast journalism on adolescents? Mark Day School: Can a media literacy program combined with the use of social media help promote global understanding? Overview of Three Studies
  18. 18. Communication Arts Program (CAP) Montgomery Blair High School Silver Spring MD
  19. 19. Communication Arts Program (CAP) INTERDISCIPLINARY INTERDISCIPLINARY PROJECTS The projects synthesize information from various disciplines into comprehensive presentations that highlight the events of the era assigned. MOVIE REVIEWS Each quarter the Students watch a movie in the auditorium that relates to the historical period focused on in History class. They write a movie review and for homework, watch movies from a list compiled by the faculty. The project entails an in depth argument and analysis for a major social issue facing humanity. A comprehensive program that connects the humanities to the media, now in its 25th year 9
  20. 20. Communication Arts Program (CAP) Crystal Ball Students research demographic and voter characteristics and then predict the Presidential, US Senate, US House of Representatives, and gubernatorial races throughout the United States. Critical Thinking Essay The Critical Thinking Essay requires students to select an issue of national importance and write a persuasive essay arguing one side of that issue, supported by documented and cited sources. In 10th grade, each student supports the issue from the side opposite to the one advocated in the 9th grade essay CAP Congress – Foreign Policy Students research foreign policy issues concerning seven regions from around the world, draft resolutions, debate the issues, and prioritize the foreign policy needs of the US. CAP Court Students hold mock trials on court cases drawn from each of the four 10th grade subjects: English, Government, Journalism and Media. Students act as lawyers trying the case and also role-play the defendants and witnesses. INTERDISCIPLINARY 10
  21. 21. Selective Admission Programs Communication Arts Program (CAP) Science, Mathematics and Computer Science Magnet Program Open Admission Programs Media Literacy Entrepreneurship International Studies and Law Human Service Professions Science, Math and Technology
  22. 22. Research Design Quasi-experimental study 2 x 2 factorial Open Selective Admission Admission Media Literacy No ML CAPML ACADEMY CONTROL CONTROL Academy Level Treatment
  23. 23. MEASURES Internet use Information Motives (U&G) Civic Engagement News Analysis Ad Analysis Media Knowledge We asked respondents to identify how much they use the Internet on an 8-point scale ranging from never to every day.
  24. 24. MEASURES Internet use Information Motives (U&G) Civic Engagement News Analysis Ad Analysis Media Knowledge To assess students’ motives to seek out information as a part of daily life, we used an instrument developed to assess Internet uses and gratifications by Papacharissi & Rubin (2000). Using a five-point scale, students were asked to respond to four statements: I use the internet: • to search for information • to see what is out there • to keep up with current events and issues • because it provides me with a new and interesting way to do research
  25. 25. MEASURES Internet use Information Motives (U&G) Civic Engagement News Analysis Ad Analysis Media Knowledge Students were asked to report if they expect to engage in the following activities when they become an adult: • vote in national elections • get information about candidates before voting in an election • join a political party • write letters to a newspaper about social or political concerns • be a candidate for a local or city office • volunteer time to help poor or elderly people in the community • collect money for a cause • collect signatures for a petition, and participate in a peaceful rally or protest. A 4-point scale was used, scaled as certainly will not do, probably will not do, probably will do, and certainly will do.
  26. 26. MEASURES Internet use Information Motives (U&G) Civic Engagement News Analysis Ad Analysis Media Knowledge In the news analysis task, students were given a short Time magazine piece and asked to read it, responding to open-ended questions including: • summarize the main point of the article • identify the target audience & explain what specific information from the reading supports your answer • identify the message purpose • identify what techniques were used to attract and hold attention • list some different points of view presented • identify omitted information Scores were summed to form an additive index which ranged from 14 to 0.
  27. 27. MEASURES Internet use Information Motives (U&G) Civic Engagement News Analysis Ad Analysis Media Knowledge In the ad analysis task, students were given a print ad and asked to respond to open-ended questions including: • identify the target audience & explain what specific information from the reading supports your answer • identify the message purpose • Identify the ad’s implied message or subtext • identify what techniques were used to attract and hold attention • list some different points of view presented • identify omitted information Scores were summed to form an additive index which ranged from 14 to 0.
  28. 28. MEASURES Internet use Information Motives (U&G) Civic Engagement News Analysis Ad Analysis Media Knowledge We asked students to complete short tests relating to different facets of the media industry, including information about history, economics, institutions, audiences and effects. MULTIPLE CHOICE (6 items): • identify the main purpose of photos in a newspaper • recognize the most common kind of economic control over mass media • name the system of financing used to pay for commercial radio. TRUE FALSE (11 items) • The number of companies that own mass media outlets is growing • Newspapers make most of their money through the price paid by the consumers who buy them
  29. 29. Students in the Selective Admission media literacy program have stronger media knowledge and news and advertising analysis skills than students in other programs. Table 1 Comparing means Open Admission Program Selective Admission Program Other program ML program Other program ML program Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Media knowledge .53 (.17) .62 (.22) .71 (.17) .75 (.13) News analysis 4.80 (3.09) 4.27 (3.32) 7.60 (3.16) 8.86 (2.58) Ad analysis 8.20 (3.45) 8.38 (4.02) 9.31 (3.18) 11.10 (3.16) n = 191 n = 55 n = 87 n = 59
  30. 30. Students who participate in media literacy programs are more likely to be civically engaged than students enrolled in other programs. Predictors of Civic Engagement
  31. 31. News analysis skills, media knowledge & information motive predict civic engagement. Amount of Internet use and advertising analysis skills are not associated with civic engagement. Predictors of Civic Engagement
  32. 32. PEER-TO-PEER FILE SHARING How do media literacy competencies develop in learners enrolled in programs designed for different groups?  Students have differential skills in analyzing news and advertising  News analysis, media knowledge and information seeking motives are associated with higher levels of civic engagement Finding #1
  33. 33. www.studentreportinglabs.com
  34. 34. http://www.studentreportinglabs.com/video/philly-teens-examine-possible- solutions-dropout-epidemic Benjamin Rush High School, Philadelphia PA
  35. 35. PILOT STUDY N = 85 HS students 61% African American 33% Caucasian 3% Hispanic/Latino MAIN STUDY N = 544 HS students 36% Hispanic 30% Caucasian 13% African American RESEARCH DESIGN Pre-Post Online Survey Teacher Interviews Analysis of Student Work Samples
  36. 36. PRODUCTION SKILLS Communication skills Technical skills MEDIA LITERACY CIVIC ENGAGEMENT Sign an online petition Express an opinion to news media Blog about an issue Write an opinion letter
  37. 37. PRODUCTION SKILLS Non-technical skills Technical skills IN-CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES Gathering & Synthesizing Info Using Digital Media Revision MEDIA LITERACY CIVIC ENGAGEMENT Sign an online petition Express an opinion to news media Blog about an issue Write an opinion letter Gathering and Synthesizing Information Percentage Analyzed videos 70% Created a story board 65% Conducted interviews 68% Fact-checked information 49% Pitched a news story 54% Discussed different points of view about social and political issues 53% Using Digital Media to Communicate Ideas Used a video camera to record visuals 69% Wrote a script 64% Performed in front of the camera 65% Worked behind the scenes/different roles 64% Logged footage 43% Edited visuals and sounds 68% Used images/sounds to tell a story 54% Posted videos online 38% Engaging in Cycles of Revision & Feedback Edited reports in response to feedback 38%
  38. 38. PRODUCTION SK]ILLS Communication skills Technical skills] MEDIA LITERACY ANALYSIS CIVIC ENGAGEMENT Sig an online petition Express an opinion to news media Blog about an issue Write an opinion letter
  39. 39. ATTITUDES Intellectual Curiosity Giving & Receiving Feedback Confidence
  40. 40. PRODUCTION SKILLS Communication skills Technical skills ATTITUDES Intellectual Curiosity Giving & Receiving Feedback Confidence MEDIA LITERACY ANALYSIS CIVIC ENGAGEMENT IN-CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES Gathering & Synthesizing Info Using Digital Media Revision
  41. 41. PRODUCTION SKILLS Communication skills Technical skills ATTITUDES Intellectual Curiosity Giving & Receiving Feedback Confidence MEDIA LITERACY ANALYSIS CIVIC ENGAGEMENT IN-CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES Gathering & Synthesizing Info Using Digital Media Revision
  42. 42. PRODUCTION SKILLS Communication skills Technical skills ATTITUDES Intellectual Curiosity Giving & Receiving Feedback Confidence MEDIA LITERACY ANALYSIS CIVIC ENGAGEMENT Sign an online petition Express an opinion to news media Blog about an issue Write an opinion letter IN-CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES Gathering & Synthesizing Info Using Digital Media Revision
  43. 43. OTHER VARIABLES THAT DID NOT AFFECT CIVIC ENGAGEMENT • Attitudes Towards School • Leadership • Cynicism towards Media • Vocational Interest in Media • News Media Use
  44. 44. PEER-TO-PEER FILE SHARING How does a production-focused media literacy program affect participating youth?  Media pre-production activities support media analysis skills and contribute to intellectual curiosity, practices of creative collaboration & civic engagement Finding #2
  45. 45. University-school partnership program Six-week pilot project designed to explore media literacy pedagogy in the context of global communication Subjects: Middle-school children ages 11 – 13 and their teachers • MARK DAY SCHOOL – San Rafael CA USA • Gokkusagi MIDDLE SCHOOL, Canakkale, Turkey Method Interviews with teachers Analysis of student work samples Classroom observation
  46. 46. 1. Getting to Know You 2. Learning about Two Countries 3. Creating Videos about our Lives 4. Analyzing TV Shows that Feature Schools & Teachers 5. Discussing Current Events
  47. 47. American students have only basic information about Turkish history, daily life and culture
  48. 48. Information sharing about Turkey includes student- curated images and links
  49. 49. American students lack knowledge of Turkish history, life and culture
  50. 50. As a result of popular culture, Turkish students have significant information about American culture
  51. 51. Students recognize how values are (mis) represented in entertainment television
  52. 52. Feelings of social and emotional connectedness
  53. 53. ANALYSIS OF POPULAR CULTURE IN SCHOOL. Students can identify cultural values in the representation of school in popular television programs. They can identify misrepresentations only from home country programming. DISCUSSING CURRENT EVENTS IN SCHOOL. Turkish students are not comfortable talking about national politics in their country. MEDIA LITERACY SUPPORTS CULTURAL KNOWLEDGE. For adolescents, the asymmetrical knowledge gap between Turkish and U.S. students can be mitigated through media literacy activities involving online interpersonal communication. American students gain new awareness of the power imbalance in their own lack of access to global popular culture.
  54. 54. PEER-TO-PEER FILE SHARING Can a media literacy program using social media help promote global understanding?  Social media activities that involve global dialogue combined with critical analysis of entertainment media can promote an awareness of inequalities in information flows Finding #3
  55. 55. PEER-TO-PEER FILE SHARING  Students have differential skills in analyzing news and advertising; news analysis, media knowledge and information seeking motives are associated with higher levels of civic engagement  Media pre-production activities support media analysis skills that contribute to intellectual curiosity, creative collaboration & civic engagement  Social media activities that involve global dialogue combined with critical analysis of entertainment media can promote an awareness of inequalities in information flows Overview of Findings
  56. 56. PEER-TO-PEER FILE SHARING  How could news and current events best be used in classrooms to promote intellectual curiosity, critical analysis & civic engagement?  How could critical analysis of entertainment media be incorporated into work with younger adolescents?  How can social media support other media literacy learning outcomes?  What are the consequences of adolescents’ increased understanding of the inequalities in global information flows?  What are best practices in teacher professional development in implementing and assessing media literacy programs? Future Questions
  57. 57. Martens, H. & Hobbs, R. (in press). How media literacy supports civic engagement in a digital age. Atlantic Journal of Communication. Hobbs, R. & Tuzel, S. (2014). The Use of Media Literacy Instructional Strategies for Promoting Intercultural Communication in U.S. & Turkish Middle Schools. Paper presentation to the International Association for Intercultural Communication Studies (IAICS). Providence, RI. August 1, 2014. Hobbs, R. & McGee, S. (2014). Teaching about propaganda: An examination of the historical roots of media literacy. Journal of Media Literacy Education 6(2), 56 – 67. Hobbs, R., Donnelly, K., Friesem, J. & Moen, M. (2013). Learning to engage: How positive attitudes about the news, media literacy and video production contribute to adolescent civic engagement. Educational Media International 50(4), 231 – 246. Hobbs, R. (2013). The blurring of art, journalism and advocacy: Confronting 21st century propaganda in a world of online journalism. I/S: A Journal of Law and Policy for the Information Society 8(3), 625 – 638. Hobbs, R. & Donnelly, K. Friesem, J. & Moen, M. . (2013, August). Evaluation of PBS NewsHour Student Reporting Labs. Kingston, RI: Media Education Lab. University of Rhode Island. Hobbs, R. (2013). “Global Developments in Media Literacy Education,” Media and Digital Literacy Lab (MDLAB). Keynote address at the American University of Beirut, Lebanon. August 18. Hobbs (2011). “How Digital and Media Literacy Supports Global Understanding,” Arab-US Association of Communication Educators (AUSACE), Beirut, Lebanon, October 30. Hobbs, R. (2011). Digital and media literacy: Connecting culture and classroom. Beverly Hills: Corwin/Sage.
  58. 58. Renee Hobbs Professor of Communication Studies Harrington School of Communication and Media University of Rhode Island USA Email: hobbs@uri.edu Twitter: @reneehobbs

Notas del editor

  • Professors everywhere in higher education, and film/media students should be able to crack DVDs to use material both in new works and for teaching purposes, within an educational objective, argued the Library Copyright Alliance.  (They won this exemption last time; it now needs renewal.) The Society for Cinema and Media Studies and others want this extended to all university students; their filing was done with help from Washington College of Law’s IP clinic.
    Teachers in K-12 should be able to crack encrypted audio-visual material for teaching, said the Media Education Lab at Temple University, with help from Washington College of Law’s IP clinic.
    Documentary and fiction filmmakers should be able to crack DVD, Blu-Ray and digital files (if unavailable in hard copy) to employ fair use to make their work, according to film organizations such as the International Documentary Association and filmmakers such as Kartemquin Films. They argued their case with the help of the University of Southern California’s IP clinic and Donaldson and Callif. (The last exemption round won documentary filmmakers only access to DVDs only.)
    DVD owners should be able to copy movies in order to watch them on other devices (like their iPads), argued Public Knowledge.
    Multimedia e-book authors should be able to crack DVDs and digital video generally in order to employ fair use in the creation of their work, argued book authors with the help f the University of Southern California’s IP clinic and Donaldson and Callif. 
    Mobile device owners should be able to unlock their devices  (i.e. let them connect to other than the carrier’s preferred networks), argued Consumers Union with help from the Institute for Public Representation at Georgetown Law School.  (In the last round of exemptions, users of cellphone handsets won a similar exemption.) 

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