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Scholastic Backwardness Reasons & Remedies

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Scholastic Backwardness: Reasons & Remedies

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  • Children with a learning disability must be given special attention but should not be treated seperately. They must be nurtured as normally as possible while giving a little more attention to them.
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Scholastic Backwardness Reasons & Remedies

  1. 1. Dr. Renjan Roy Mathew Clinical Psychologist
  2. 2. Scholastic Backwardness © Dr.Renjan Roy Mathew [email_address]
  3. 3. Learning depends on <ul><li>Needs and interest of the child </li></ul><ul><li>Learning style </li></ul><ul><li>Learning materials </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching methods </li></ul><ul><li>Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Role of parents, teachers and peers etc.. </li></ul>© Dr.Renjan Roy Mathew [email_address]
  4. 4. Reasons for scholastic backwardness Low Intellectual Profile, Visual / hearing impairments Physical handicaps & chronic illness Learning disabilities Disorders of childhood & adolescents School, family & social environment and personnel factors © Dr.Renjan Roy Mathew [email_address]
  5. 5. Reasons for scholastic backwardness <ul><li>Problems related to the </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Child </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Family </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>School </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Society </li></ul></ul>© Dr.Renjan Roy Mathew [email_address]
  6. 6. Problems related to the Child <ul><li>Mental Retardation </li></ul><ul><li>Significant sub average intellectual functioning </li></ul><ul><li>Deficiencies in adaptive behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Onset before 18 yrs </li></ul><ul><li>Classification </li></ul><ul><li>Mild, Moderate, Severe, Profound </li></ul>© Dr.Renjan Roy Mathew [email_address]
  7. 7. Problems related to the Child <ul><li>2. Slow Learners </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IQ= MA/CA X 100 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Borderline Intelligence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IQ between 70 & 80 </li></ul></ul>© Dr.Renjan Roy Mathew [email_address]
  8. 8. Problems related to the Child <ul><li>3. Learning Disorders </li></ul><ul><li>A group of disorders impairing ‘learning’ </li></ul><ul><li>Defined as Difficulties in the Acquisition & Use of Specific Academic Skills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reading/ Reading Comprehension </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Writing/ Spelling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arithmetic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Language skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social skills etc. </li></ul></ul>© Dr.Renjan Roy Mathew [email_address]
  9. 10. © Dr.Renjan Roy Mathew [email_address]
  10. 11. © Dr.Renjan Roy Mathew [email_address]
  11. 12. © Dr.Renjan Roy Mathew [email_address]
  12. 13. © Dr.Renjan Roy Mathew [email_address]
  13. 14. Sample © Dr.Renjan Roy Mathew [email_address]
  14. 15. Regarding LD… <ul><li>Not a simple difficulty to learn </li></ul><ul><li>Not a term to be used for any child who fails at school/ behaves badly </li></ul><ul><li>Not ‘stupid’/‘lazy’/‘careless’ </li></ul><ul><li>Hidden neurological handicap- A ‘syndrome’ </li></ul><ul><li>Not having any mental illness </li></ul><ul><li>Not due to the teaching techniques </li></ul>© Dr.Renjan Roy Mathew [email_address]
  15. 16. Characteristics of LD <ul><li>Discrepancy in potential and performance </li></ul><ul><li>Average , above average intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Proficient in other activities </li></ul><ul><li>Reversing letters is common before the age of 7 </li></ul><ul><li>Prevalence= 10% </li></ul><ul><li>Boys: Girls = 3:1 </li></ul><ul><li>LD cannot be prevented </li></ul><ul><li>Early identification and remediation can help circumvent the problem </li></ul>© Dr.Renjan Roy Mathew [email_address]
  16. 17. © Dr.Renjan Roy Mathew [email_address]
  17. 18. Why LD? <ul><li>Heredity </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic </li></ul><ul><li>Complication during delivery </li></ul><ul><li>Children born prematurely </li></ul><ul><li>Children with complications right after birth </li></ul>© Dr.Renjan Roy Mathew [email_address]
  18. 19. Left Right Language Music Logic Colour Order Rhythm Lists Day dreaming Parts whole Thinks in lines, words, and numbers Thinks visually in pictures © Dr.Renjan Roy Mathew [email_address]
  19. 20. Types <ul><li>Basic Phonological Processing LD </li></ul><ul><li>Non Verbal LD </li></ul><ul><li>Discrete sets of assets & deficits… </li></ul>© Dr.Renjan Roy Mathew [email_address]
  20. 21. Where the child has difficulty © Dr.Renjan Roy Mathew [email_address] Reading Cannot read at all Reading is clearly behind most other children Reading age is very low compared to own age Spelling Cannot spell simple regular words Cannot spell name Spelling age is very low Number Cannot do simple addition/subtraction Difficulty in remembering multiplication tables Number age is low Handwriting Handwriting is clumsy and badly formed Handwriting is very immature Handwriting is illegible
  21. 22. Difficulty or signs © Dr.Renjan Roy Mathew [email_address] Concentrating / Attending Often day dreams or inattentive when they are working or listening Easily confused between left and right Great difficulty in explaining to you how to find a particular place Seems very clumsy Laziness even in simple tasks Quickly forgets things Keeps forgetting regular school activities, messages etc. Difficulty finding right words Struggles to find the right word when talking Difficulty in remembering things in correct sequence Getting telephone numbers mixed up Others in the family have had similar problems Hereditary factors.
  22. 23. Effects of LD – Primary effects © Dr.Renjan Roy Mathew [email_address] Reading Poor reading skills inhibit independent learning Spelling Restrict child’s ability to show what they know in class/ examination Writing Difficulty to show their thoughts and knowledge in writing Handwriting Deficiencies in legibility, speed and fluency of writing can seriously affect the child’s performance Number Difficulties in addition and subtraction Expressive language difficulty Difficulty finding the right word at the right time Receptive language difficulty Difficulty to fully understand what is being said.
  23. 24. Effects of LD – Secondary effects ( difficulty with) <ul><li>Organisation </li></ul><ul><li>Knowing time , date , year </li></ul><ul><li>Managing time </li></ul><ul><li>Completing assignments </li></ul><ul><li>Organizing thoughts </li></ul><ul><li>Locating belongings </li></ul><ul><li>Carrying out a plan </li></ul><ul><li>Making decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Setting priorities </li></ul><ul><li>Sequencing </li></ul><ul><li>Spelling </li></ul><ul><li>Writing stories and essays </li></ul><ul><li>Language </li></ul><ul><li>Pronouncing words </li></ul><ul><li>Learning new vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>Following directions </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding requests </li></ul><ul><li>Relating stories </li></ul><ul><li>Responding to questions </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Reading comprehension </li></ul>© Dr.Renjan Roy Mathew [email_address]
  24. 25. Effects of LD – Secondary effects ( difficulty with) <ul><li>Memory </li></ul><ul><li>Remembering directions </li></ul><ul><li>Learning new procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Learning the new alphabets </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying letters </li></ul><ul><li>Remembering names </li></ul><ul><li>Remembering events </li></ul><ul><li>Spelling </li></ul><ul><li>Study for tests </li></ul><ul><li>Attention & Concentration </li></ul><ul><li>Completing a task </li></ul><ul><li>Acting before thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Poor organization </li></ul><ul><li>Waiting </li></ul><ul><li>Restlessness </li></ul><ul><li>Day dreaming </li></ul><ul><li>Distractibility </li></ul>© Dr.Renjan Roy Mathew [email_address]
  25. 26. Effects of LD – Secondary effects ( difficulty with) <ul><li>Physical coordination </li></ul><ul><li>Manipulating small objects </li></ul><ul><li>Learning self help skills </li></ul><ul><li>Cutting </li></ul><ul><li>Drawing </li></ul><ul><li>Handwriting </li></ul><ul><li>Mastering sports </li></ul><ul><li>Social/emotional behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Making and keeping friends </li></ul><ul><li>Social judgment </li></ul><ul><li>Impulsive behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Frustration tolerance </li></ul><ul><li>Accepting changes in routine </li></ul><ul><li>Interpreting nonverbal cues </li></ul><ul><li>Lowered self esteem </li></ul><ul><li>Lowered self confidence. </li></ul>© Dr.Renjan Roy Mathew [email_address]
  26. 27. Problems with the child <ul><li>4. Hyperkinetic Disorders </li></ul><ul><li>5. Conduct Problems </li></ul><ul><li>Physical Challenges/ Status </li></ul><ul><li>Illness </li></ul><ul><li>6. Emotional Problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anxiety </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Depression </li></ul></ul>© Dr.Renjan Roy Mathew [email_address]
  27. 28. Problems with the child- specific <ul><li>Lack of concentration </li></ul><ul><li>Inferiority complex </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of interest </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of resources </li></ul><ul><li>Change of school </li></ul><ul><li>Change of stream </li></ul><ul><li>Learning methods </li></ul><ul><li>Excessive workload </li></ul>© Dr.Renjan Roy Mathew [email_address]
  28. 29. Problems with the Family <ul><li>Parenting </li></ul><ul><li>Separation </li></ul><ul><li>Family Conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Alcohol Dependence </li></ul><ul><li>Abuse </li></ul><ul><li>Parental Education & Attitude </li></ul><ul><li>Over expectations of parents/ Comparison </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of stimulation </li></ul><ul><li>Over restriction Vs Excessive freedom </li></ul>© Dr.Renjan Roy Mathew [email_address]
  29. 30. Problems with the School <ul><li>Poor Teaching Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Vision of School? </li></ul><ul><li>Curriculum? </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching methods </li></ul><ul><li>Peer influences </li></ul><ul><li>Attitude of the teachers </li></ul><ul><li>School environment </li></ul>© Dr.Renjan Roy Mathew [email_address]
  30. 31. Problems with the Society <ul><li>Socio-economic status </li></ul><ul><li>Gender Discrimination </li></ul><ul><li>Poverty </li></ul><ul><li>Infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural differences </li></ul><ul><li>Caste/ backwardness </li></ul>© Dr.Renjan Roy Mathew [email_address]
  31. 32. Management Philosophy <ul><li>Earthing period </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accepted in a non judgmental way </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teachers and parents do all the organization for the children </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Second stage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The teacher and parent reducing their input </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aim is to learn to organize themselves supported by responsible adults </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Challenging phase </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gradually withdraw support until the point is reached where children will organize themselves </li></ul></ul>© Dr.Renjan Roy Mathew [email_address]
  32. 33. Remedial Strategies <ul><li>Consultation/ Correct Diagnosis </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment/ Psychological Tests/ Behaviour Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t compare/ make fun… </li></ul><ul><li>Encouragement </li></ul><ul><li>Timetabling </li></ul><ul><li>Assess Strengths & Weakness </li></ul><ul><li>Self-esteem </li></ul><ul><li>Physical activity/ hobbies/ </li></ul><ul><li>Systematic Study/ revision/ plan/ </li></ul>© Dr.Renjan Roy Mathew [email_address]
  33. 34. Tips for parents: <ul><li>Help your child find their strengths and/or passion </li></ul><ul><li>Help your child accept both his/her strengths and weaknesses </li></ul><ul><li>Explore and make available opportunities for success </li></ul><ul><li>Be careful with how you criticize your child </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid homework wars </li></ul><ul><li>Set realistic goals </li></ul>© Dr.Renjan Roy Mathew [email_address]
  34. 35. Tips for parents: <ul><ul><li>Accept your child as they are </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t blame your child for his learning differences. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It is not his fault </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Let your child be involved </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Listen to your child </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Be aware of his/her feelings </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Your child’s self-esteem is very important </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Help your child to have a healthy self-esteem </li></ul></ul></ul>© Dr.Renjan Roy Mathew [email_address]
  35. 36. Over View <ul><li>Enhanced “self esteem” Belief in Himself/ Herself Resolution of emotional problems Improved academic performance Diagnosis and remedy Poor school performance </li></ul>© Dr.Renjan Roy Mathew [email_address]
  36. 37. <ul><li>“ If the child can’t learn the way you teach, teach him the way he can learn ” </li></ul>© Dr.Renjan Roy Mathew [email_address]
  37. 38. © Dr.Renjan Roy Mathew [email_address]

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