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Conflict management


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Conflict management

  1. 1. RESMI G S
  2. 2. DEFINITION OF CONFLICT Conflict can be defined as an expressed struggle between at least two interdependent parties, who perceive that incompatible goals, scarce resources, or interference from others are preventing them from achieving their goals
  3. 3. GENERAL CAUSES OF CONFLICTS •Scarcity of resources (finance, equipment, facilities, etc) •Different attitudes, values or perceptions. •Disagreements about needs, goals, priorities and interests • Poor communication •Poor or inadequate organizational structure •Lack of teamwork •Lack of clarity in roles and responsibilities
  4. 4. TYPES OF CONFLICTS Intrapersonal conflict: an intrapersonal conflict occurs within an individual in situations in which he or she must choose between two alternatives .
  5. 5. Interpersonal conflict: is conflict between two or more individuals.. The person experiencing this conflict may experience opposition in upward, downward, horizontal, or diagonal communication TYPES OF CONFLICTS (cont..,)
  6. 6. Intergroup conflict
  7. 7. Intergroup conflict refers to disagreements or differences between the members of two or more groups or their representatives over authority, territory, and resources Organizational conflicts: conflict also occurs in organization because of differing perceptions or goals.. Role ambiguity occurs when employees do not know what to do, how to do it, or what the outcomes must be Role conflict occurs when two or more individuals in different positions within the organization believe that certain actions or responsibilities belong exclusively to them
  8. 8. THE CONFLICT PROCESS •Latent conflict (also called antecedent conditions). •Perceived conflict •Felt conflict •Manifest conflict •Conflict resolution or conflict management •Conflict aftermath.
  9. 9. Latent conflict Felt conflict Perceived conflict Manifest conflict Conflict resolution Conflict aftermath
  10. 10. EFFECTS OF CONFLICT IN ORGANIZATION Stress Absenteeism Staff turnover De-motivation Non-productivity Improves decision quality Stimulates creativity Encourages interest Destructive Effect Constructive Effect
  11. 11. SIGNS OF CONFLICT BETWEEN INDIVIDUALS •Colleagues not speaking to each other or ignoring each other •Deliberately undermining or not co-operating with each other, to the downfall of the team
  12. 12. OUTCOMES OF CONFLICT Filley (1975) identified these 3 different positions or outcomes of conflict. •Win-lose outcome: occurs when one person obtains his or her desired ends in the situation and the other individual fails to obtain what is desired. •Lose-lose outcome: in lose-lose situation, there is no winner. •Win- win outcome: are of course the most desirable.
  13. 13. CONFLICT MANAGEMENT • Identify the boundaries of the conflict, the areas of agreement and disagreement, and the extent of each person's aims. • Understand the factors that limit the possibilities of managing the conflict constructively. • Be aware of whether more than one issue is involved. •Be open to the ideas, feelings, and attitudes expressed by the people involved. •Be willing to accept outside help to mediate the conflict.
  14. 14. HANDLING CONFLICT SITUATIONS Determine the person or group with whom there is a conflict Analyze the causes of the conflict Consider alternative strategies for conflict management Choose the strategy/strategies that will produce the best results. Implement the decision. . Evaluate the decision
  15. 15. CONFLICT-MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES It is important to take action as soon as a conflict surfaces so that bad feelings will not linger and grow. Three over-all frameworks for conflict management are oDefensive oCompromise oCreative problem-solving modes.
  16. 16. DEFENSIVE MODE The defensive mode produces feelings of winning in some and loss in others. The following ways to defensively solve a problem. •Separate the contending parties. •Suppress the conflict. •Restrict or isolate the conflict •Smooth it over or finesse it through an organizational change. •Avoid the conflict to diminish the destructive effects. CONFLICT-MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES
  17. 17. CONFLICT-MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES COMPROMISE. With a compromise each party wins something and loses something.." CREATIVE PROBLEM SOLVING. Use of a creative problem-solving mode produces feelings of gain and no feelings of loss for all conflict participants.
  18. 18. CONFLICT-MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES (cont..) As part of the creative problem-solving process, the following five steps for conflict management can be identified: •Initiate a discussion, timed sensitively and held in an environment conducive to private discussion. •Respect individual differences. •Be empathic with all involved parties. •Agree on a solution that balances the power and satisfies all parties, so that a consensus on a win-win solution is reached
  19. 19. •Have an assertive dialogue that consists of separating facts from feelings, clearly defining the central issue, differentiating viewpoints, making sure that each person clearly states their intentions, framing the main issue based on common principles, and being an attentive listener consciously focused on what the other person is saying. CONFLICT-MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES (cont..)
  20. 20. CONFLICT HANDLING INTENTIONS Blake and moutons five styles of handling interpersonal conflict are forcing', withdrawing, smoothing, sharing, and problem solving..Building on Blake and moutons’ model, Thomas reported that conflict has two dimensions, The two dimensions are 1. Assertiveness (satisfying one’s own concerns) 2. Cooperativeness (attempting to satisfy another’s concerns )
  21. 21. CONFLICT-RESOLUTION STRATEGIES Conflicts can be a source of chronic frustration, or they can lead to increased effectiveness in organizations and groups. A fair proportion of a leader's or manager's time is spent on handling conflict. The following is an overall list for methods or strategies for conflict resolution
  22. 22. •Avoiding: This is the strategy of avoiding conflict at all costs. Some people never acknowledge that a conflict exists. •Withholding or withdrawing: In this avoidance strategy, one party opts out of participation. They remove themselves from the situation. This does not resolve the conflict. However, this strategy does give individuals a chance to calm CONFLICT-RESOLUTION STRATEGIES (cont…)
  23. 23. •Accommodating: This strategy is used when there is a large power differential. The more powerful party is accommodated to preserve harmony or build up social credits. What this means is that the party of lesser power gives up his or her position in deference to the more powerful party.. CONFLICT-RESOLUTION STRATEGIES (cont…)
  24. 24. •Smoothing over or reassuring: This is the strategy of saying "Everything will be OK." By maintaining surface harmony, parties do not withdraw but simply attempt to make everyone feel good. •Forcing: This technique is a dominance move and an arbitrary way to manage conflict. An issue may be forced on the table by issuing orders or by putting it to a majority-rules vote. The hallmark phrase is "Let's vote on it." Forcing is an all-out power strategy to win while the other party loses. CONFLICT-RESOLUTION STRATEGIES (cont…)
  25. 25. •Competing: This is an assertive strategy where one party's needs are satisfied at the other's expense. Competing is an all-out effort to win at any cost. Applying for a job is a form of competition. •Compromising: This strategy is called "splitting the difference." In compromising each party gives up something it wants. It is useful when goals or values are markedly different. It is a staple of conflict management. CONFLICT-RESOLUTION STRATEGIES (cont…)
  26. 26. Confronting: This technique is called assertive problem solving and is focused on the issues. Individuals speak for themselves, but in a way that decreases defensiveness and allows another person to hear the message. It is a staple of conflict management but requires courage CONFLICT-RESOLUTION STRATEGIES (cont…)
  27. 27. Collaborating: This is an assertive and cooperative means of conflict resolution that results in a win-win solution. It is a strategy in which the parties work together to find a mutually satisfying solution. It is invoked with the phrase "Two heads are better than one." True collaboration requires mutual respect; open and honest communication; and equitable, shared decision-making powers. CONFLICT-RESOLUTION STRATEGIES (cont…)
  28. 28. •Bargaining and negotiating: These strategies are attempts to divide the rewards, power, or benefits so that everyone gets something. They involve both parties in a back-and-forth effort at some level of agreement. The process may be formal or informal. •Problem solving: This strategy's goal is to try to find an acceptable, workable solution for all parties. It is designed to generate feelings of gain by all parties. The problem-solving process is employed to reach a mutually agreeable solution to the conflict. CONFLICT-RESOLUTION STRATEGIES (cont…)
  29. 29. HOW TO PREVENT CONFLICTS IN MEDICAL PROFESSIONALS •Frequent meeting of your team •Allow your team to express openly •Sharing objectives •Having a clear and detailed job description •Distributing task fairly •Never criticize team members publicly •Always be fair and just with your team •Being a role model
  30. 30. NEGOTIATION Negotiation in its most creative form is similar to collaboration and in its most poorly managed form may resemble a competing approach. Negotiation frequently resembles compromise when it is used as a conflict resolution strategy. During negotiation, each party gives up something, and the emphasis is on accommodating differences between the parties. Because we live in a world with others, we have conflicting needs, wants, and desires that must be constantly compromised.
  31. 31. PRE-PREPARATION FOR NEGOTIATION (1) Be adequately prepared. (2) Be able to use appropriate negotiation strategies. (3) Apply appropriate closure and follow-up
  32. 32. STEPS IN NEGOTIATION PROCESS •Before the Negotiation For managers to be successful, they must systematically prepare for the negotiation. As the negotiator, the manager begins by gathering as much information as possible regarding the issue to be negotiated. Adequate preparation Tate (2005) suggests that managers should initially focus on seeking a bigger pie instead of dividing the pie up.
  33. 33. •During the Negotiation Negotiation is psychological and verbal. The effective negotiator always looks calm and self- assured. There are many types of personalities, and it is necessary to negotiate with most of them. Preparation, however, is not enough. In the end, the negotiator must have clarity in his or her communication, assertiveness, good listening skills, the ability to regroup quickly, and flexibility.
  34. 34. Strategies commonly used by leaders during negotiation to increase their persuasiveness and foster open communication include the following:  Use only factual statements that have been gathered in research.  Listen carefully, and watching nonverbal communication.  Keep an open mind, It is important not to prejudge. Instead, a cooperative climate should be established.  Try to understand where the other party is coming from. It is probable that one person's perception is different from another's.
  35. 35. Always discuss the conflict. It is important to not personalize the conflict by discussing the parties involved in the negotiation. Try not to be labour how the conflict occurred or to fix blame for the conflict. Instead, the focus must be on preventing its recurrence. Be honest. Never tell the other party what you are willing to negotiate totally. You may be giving up the ship too early
  36. 36. Tactics Not To Use During Negotiation •Ridicule or Belittling- The goal in using ridicule is to intimidate others involved in the negotiation. If you are negotiating with someone who uses ridicule, maintain a relaxed body posture, steady gaze, and patient smile. Body language must also remain relaxed and non-threatening •Inappropriate Questioning or ambiguous •Flattery. The person who has been flattered may be more reluctant to disagree with the other party in the negotiation, and thus his or her attention and focus are diverted.
  37. 37. Closure and Follow-Up to Negotiation • State what has been agreed to • Close on a friendly note • Send a memo regarding what has been agreed to
  38. 38. CONSENSUS Consensus is always an appropriate goal in resolving conflicts and in negotiation. Consensus means that negotiating parties are able to reach an agreement that all parties can support, even though it does not represent everyone's first priorities (Rowland & Rowland, 1997). Consensus decision making does not provide complete satisfaction for everyone involved in the negotiation, as an initially unanimous decision would, but it does indicate willingness by all parties to accept the agreed-upon conditions.