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Smith et al CSEE 2016



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Talk delivered at the annual meeting of the Canadian Society for Ecology and Evolution in St. John's Newfoundland, July 2016

Twitter: @Alex_Smith_Ants

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Smith et al CSEE 2016

  1. 1. ELEVATION, CRYPSIS AND PHYLOGENETIC COMMUNITY  STRUCTURE OF NEOTROPICAL ARTHROPODS Canadian Society of Ecology and Evolution Friday, July 8, 2016 @Alex_Smith_Ants M. Alex Smith1, K. Pare1, C. Warne1, W. Hallwachs2 and D. H. Janzen2 1 Department of Integrative Biology University of Guelph 2 Department of Biology, University of Pennsylvania
  2. 2. Kate Pare Connor Warne
  3. 3. Dry forest Rain forest Cloud forest Collection Localities Área de Conservación Guanacaste In an area ~3.5x the area of the city of St. John’s there are estimated to reside 3% of the world’s biodiversity
  4. 4. R² = 0.9611 17 22 27 32 37 0 500 1000 1500 Average Daily Max: Temp (°C) 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 04‐Dec‐12 04‐Dec‐13 04‐Dec‐14 04‐Dec Daily Max: Temp (°C)
  5. 5. Questions:  • Who lives where? • How much overlap? • Is this changing? • Functional:phylogenetic?
  6. 6. Smith, M. A., Hallwachs, W. and  Janzen, D. H. (2014), Diversity and  phylogenetic community structure of  ants along a Costa Rican elevational gradient. Ecography, 37: 720–731.  doi: 10.1111/j.1600‐ 0587.2013.00631.x
  7. 7. Elevational Range An example with Gnamptogenys ants • Most species found at only 1 site • Small number of sp. with a range
  8. 8. Elevational Range An example with Collembola • Some species found at only 1 site • Larger number of sp. with a range
  9. 9. Chord Diagram of elevational beta‐ diversity NB: the colours only represent the rows in the comparison and are only present to  facilitate the visualisation of the pairwise connections. 
  10. 10. • So there is strong genetic  differentiation at a fine  spatial scale.   • Is there corresponding  functional diversity?  • “Ant space”
  11. 11. Ants in Space?
  12. 12. Functionally significant morphological  features
  13. 13. F= 3.81, df=2, p=0.023
  14. 14. F=16.069, df=2, p<0.000
  15. 15. Morphospace along an elevational  gradient  • Largest “ant‐space” occurs  with the greatest diversity  • Dry & cloud forest occupy a  subset of this “ant‐space” • These subsets represent  smaller body measurements  of features that are  functionally associated with  predation. • This does not bode well for  the future.  • The largest “Collembola‐ space” occurs in the dry  forest. Not more diverse.  Range of ranges. • Rain & cloud forest occupy a  different portion of this  “Collembola‐space” • Traits here are those  associated with life at the  surface. 
  16. 16. 1. Turnover: extremely small communities • Climate change is affecting and will continue to affect turnover. • Vulnerable, vulnerable vulnerable! 2. Degree of coupling between genetic divergence and morphospace is not simple • Related in ants, not so much in Collembola 3. What next? • Community characterisation • Expansion of functional traits (ie. related to abiotic variables of thermal ecology) • Taxonomic expansion Messages
  17. 17. Acknowledgements • The ACG for protecting it all! • The ACG parataxonomists for collecting, rearing and databasing ACG insects. • ALL the graduate and undergraduate students and volunteers in the Smith Lab for their enthusiasm, questions, dedication and love for the little things. • NSERC Discovery Grant to MAS
  18. 18. Come & work with us! Chris Ho