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A bit about myself
I’m Samhita Shiledar from India!
I recently completed my Chemical engineering
and working in same field now. I play piano and sing
Indian Classical Music.
This lesson is for week 1 of Introduction To Music Production at
My ppt is about overview of various characteristics
of microphones and few important types.
Hope you guys enjoy ;)
Microphone is an INTERNAL
TRANSDUCER that converts
SOUND(pressure waves in air) into
ELECTRIC SIGNAL(voltage variations)
Way a microphone responds to different frequencies.
Some frequencies are exaggerated and others are
Frequency response may be less informatively stated
textually like so: "30 Hz–16 kHz ±3 dB".
This is interpreted as meaning a nearly flat, linear, plot
between the stated frequencies, with variations in
amplitude of no more than plus or minus 3 dB.
Which frequency response curve is
The x axis shows frequency in Hertz, the y axis shows
response in decibels
A higher value means that frequency will be
exaggerated, a lower value means the frequency is
An ideal "flat" frequency response means that the
microphone is equally sensitive to all frequencies. In
this case, no frequencies would be exaggerated or
Polar pattern indicates how sensitive it is to sounds
arriving at different angles about its central axis
Some microphones pick up sound equally from all
directions, others pick up sound only from one
direction or a particular combination of directions.
Captures From All Directions
Uses: Capturing ambient noise;
Situations where sound is
coming from many directions;
Situations where the mic
position must remain fixed
while the sound source is
Although omnidirectional mics are very useful in the
right situation, picking up sound from every direction
is not usually what you need.
Omni sound is very general and unfocused - if you are
trying to capture sound from a particular subject or
area it is likely to be overwhelmed by other noise.
Sound is picked up mostly
from the front, but to a
lesser extent the sides as
Uses: Emphasising sound
from the direction the mic is
pointed whilst leaving some
latitude for mic movement
and ambient noise
Very directional and
eliminates most sound
from the sides and rear.
Uses: Isolating the sound
from a subject or direction
when there is a lot of
ambient noise; Picking up
sound from a subject at a
Similar to a hyper-cardioid,
except there is more front
pickup and less rear pickup.
While any pattern between omni and figure 8 is
possible by adjusting their mix, common definitions
state that a hypercardioid is produced by
combining them at a 3:1 ratio, while supercardioid
is produced with a 5:3 ratio
Uses a figure-of-eight
pattern and picks up
sound equally from two
Uses: One possibility
would be an interview
with two people facing
each other (with the mic
small lobes of sensitivity to the
left, right, and rear but are
significantly less sensitive to the
side and rear than other
USES:television and film sets, in
stadiums, and for field recording
The difference in SPL between the noise floor and the
for example "120 dB", it conveys significantly less
information than having the self-noise and maximum
SPL figures individually.
Indicates how well the microphone converts
acoustic pressure to output voltage.
A high sensitivity microphone creates more
voltage and so needs less amplification at the mixer or
The sound level that creates the same output
voltage as the microphone does in the absence of
Represents the lowest point of the microphone's
dynamic range, and is particularly important should
you wish to record sounds that are quiet.
Proximity effect is a change in the frequency response
of a microphone, having a directional pickup pattern,
that produces an emphasis on lower frequencies.
It is caused by the use of ports to create directional
polar pickup patterns
A lightweight diaphragm,
usually made of plastic film,
is attached to a very small
coil of wire suspended in the
field of a permanent
magnet. When a sound
causes the diaphragm to
vibrate, the whole assembly
works as a miniature
electricity generator, and a
minute electric current is
A capacitor has two plates
with a voltage between
them. In the condenser
mic, one of these plates is
made of very light material
and acts as the diaphragm.
The diaphragm vibrates
when struck by sound
waves, changing the
distance between the two
plates and therefore
changing the capacitance.
Ribbon microphones use
a thin, usually
corrugated metal ribbon
suspended in a magnetic
field. The ribbon is
electrically connected to
output, and its vibration
within the magnetic
field generates the
Pressure Zone Microphones
A small condenser microphone
is mounted face-down a short
distance from the reflective
boundary plate. This creates a
pressure zone between the plate
and the mic. The microphone
detects changes in this pressure
zone, rather than the
conventional method of
detecting changes in the
surrounding air pressure (i.e.
CONDENSER DYNAMIC RIBBON PZM
SENSITIVITY HIGH LOW HIGH HIGH
YES NO YES NO
ADRESSING SIDE ADRESSED FRONT
CARDOID BIDIRECTIONAL CARDOID OR
CONDENSER DYNAMIC RIBBON PZM
USES Dynamic mics
are useful when
source is close
loud, and where
the sound is
bass or mid-
work well in
pick up quieter
or more distant
In the pressure
sound waves are
always in phase
and there is no
On stage, ideal
drums and loud
Condenser Mic Dynamic Mic
Ribbon Mic PZM Mic