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COMMUNICATION
PRESENTED BY,
THANGAVEL S
PRAVEEN RAJAN A
MNIKANDA RAJAN M.S
SARAVANAN J
BALAJI LOKESH S
ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR
PRESENTATION
小田 @ www.iloveppt.org
 Definition
 Functions
 Process
 Direction
 Interpersonal Communication
Organizational Communication
 Type of Channels
 Advantage & Barrier In Communication
Topics to be presented under communication
DefinitionDefinition
Communication-must include both the transfer and the understanding of meaning.Communication-must include both the transfer and the understanding of meaning.
Poor communication is probably the most frequently cited source of interpersonal conflict. Because individualsPoor communication is probably the most frequently cited source of interpersonal conflict. Because individuals
spend nearly 70 percent of their waking hours communicating—writing, reading, speaking, listening—it seemsspend nearly 70 percent of their waking hours communicating—writing, reading, speaking, listening—it seems
reasonable that one of the biggest inhibitors of group performance is lack of effective communication.reasonable that one of the biggest inhibitors of group performance is lack of effective communication.
Perfect communication, if it existed, would occur when a thought or idea was transmitted so the receiverPerfect communication, if it existed, would occur when a thought or idea was transmitted so the receiver
perceived exactly the same mental picture as the sender (perception). Though it sounds elementary, perfectperceived exactly the same mental picture as the sender (perception). Though it sounds elementary, perfect
communication is never achieved in practice,communication is never achieved in practice,
FunctionsFunctions
Communication serves four major functions within a group or organization:Communication serves four major functions within a group or organization: Control, Motivation, EmotionalControl, Motivation, Emotional
Expression, and Information.Expression, and Information.
 Control :Control : Communication acts to control member behavior in several ways. Organizations have authorityCommunication acts to control member behavior in several ways. Organizations have authority
hierarchies and formal guidelines employees are required to follow. When employees must communicate any job-hierarchies and formal guidelines employees are required to follow. When employees must communicate any job-
related grievance to their immediate boss, follow their job description, or comply with company policies,related grievance to their immediate boss, follow their job description, or comply with company policies,
communication is performing a control function. Informal communication controls behavior too. When workcommunication is performing a control function. Informal communication controls behavior too. When work
groups tease or harass a member who produces too much (and makes the rest of the group look bad), they aregroups tease or harass a member who produces too much (and makes the rest of the group look bad), they are
informally communicating, and controlling, the member’s behavior.informally communicating, and controlling, the member’s behavior.
 Motivation:Motivation: Communication fosters motivation by clarifying to employees what they must do, how well theyCommunication fosters motivation by clarifying to employees what they must do, how well they
are doing it, and how they can improve if performance is subpar. The formation of specific goals, feedback onare doing it, and how they can improve if performance is subpar. The formation of specific goals, feedback on
progress toward the goals, and reward for desired behavior all stimulate motivation and require communication.progress toward the goals, and reward for desired behavior all stimulate motivation and require communication.
 Emotional Expression :Emotional Expression :work group is a primary source of social interaction for many employees.work group is a primary source of social interaction for many employees.
Communication within the group is a fundamental mechanism by which members show their satisfaction andCommunication within the group is a fundamental mechanism by which members show their satisfaction and
frustrations. Communication,therefore, provides for the emotional expression of feelings and fulfillment of socialfrustrations. Communication,therefore, provides for the emotional expression of feelings and fulfillment of social
needs.needs.
 InformationInformation :The final function of communication is to facilitate decision making. Communication:The final function of communication is to facilitate decision making. Communication
provides the information individuals and groups need to make decisions by transmitting the data needed toprovides the information individuals and groups need to make decisions by transmitting the data needed to
identify and evaluate choices.identify and evaluate choices.
ProcessProcess
The key parts of this model are :The key parts of this model are :
(1) Sender(1) Sender
(2) Encoding(2) Encoding
(3) Message(3) Message
(4) Channel(4) Channel
(5) Receiver(5) Receiver
(6) Decoding(6) Decoding
(7) Noise and(7) Noise and
(8) Feedback.(8) Feedback.
It's discussed through flow diagram ,It's discussed through flow diagram , which will be further explained in detail.which will be further explained in detail.
Exhibit 11-1Exhibit 11-1 depicts this communication process ,depicts this communication process ,
SENDERSENDER: The sender initiates a message by encoding a thought.: The sender initiates a message by encoding a thought.
ENCODING:ENCODING: The message is the actual physical product of the sender’s encoding.The message is the actual physical product of the sender’s encoding.
MESSAGEMESSAGE : When we speak, the speech is the message. When we write, the writing is the message. When we gesture,: When we speak, the speech is the message. When we write, the writing is the message. When we gesture,
the movements of our arms and the expressions on our faces are the message.the movements of our arms and the expressions on our faces are the message.
CHANNEL :CHANNEL : The channel is the medium through which the message travels. The sender selects it, determiningThe channel is the medium through which the message travels. The sender selects it, determining
whether to use a formal or informal channel.whether to use a formal or informal channel.
Formal channels are established by the organization and transmit messages related to the professional activities ofFormal channels are established by the organization and transmit messages related to the professional activities of
members. They traditionally follow the authority chain within the organization.members. They traditionally follow the authority chain within the organization.
Other forms of messages, such as personal or social, follow informal channels ,which are spontaneous and emergeOther forms of messages, such as personal or social, follow informal channels ,which are spontaneous and emerge
as a response to individual choices.as a response to individual choices.
RECEIVER :RECEIVER : The receiver is the person(s) to whom the message is directed,The receiver is the person(s) to whom the message is directed,
DECODINGDECODING :First translate the symbols into understandable form .:First translate the symbols into understandable form .
NOISENOISE: Noise represents communication barriers that distort the clarity of the message,: Noise represents communication barriers that distort the clarity of the message,
such as perceptual problems, information overload, semantic difficulties, or cultural differences.such as perceptual problems, information overload, semantic difficulties, or cultural differences.
FEEDBACKFEEDBACK : Feedback is the check on how successful we have been in transferring our messages: Feedback is the check on how successful we have been in transferring our messages
as originally intended. It determines whether understanding has been achieved.as originally intended. It determines whether understanding has been achieved.
DirectionDirection
There are 3 types of direction :There are 3 types of direction :
 Downward CommunicationDownward Communication
 Upward CommunicationUpward Communication
 Lateral CommunicationLateral Communication
Downward CommunicationDownward Communication - Communication that flows from one level of a group or organization to a- Communication that flows from one level of a group or organization to a
lower level is downward communication . Group leaders and managers use it to assign goals, provide joblower level is downward communication . Group leaders and managers use it to assign goals, provide job
instructions, explain policies and procedures, point out problems that need attention, and offer feedback aboutinstructions, explain policies and procedures, point out problems that need attention, and offer feedback about
performance.performance.
Upward CommunicationUpward Communication - Upward communication flows to a higher level in the group or organization. It’s- Upward communication flows to a higher level in the group or organization. It’s
used to provide feedback to higher-ups, inform them of progress toward goals, and relay current problems.used to provide feedback to higher-ups, inform them of progress toward goals, and relay current problems.
Upward communication keeps managers aware of how employees feel about their jobs, co-workers, and theUpward communication keeps managers aware of how employees feel about their jobs, co-workers, and the
organization in general. Managers also rely on upward communication for ideas on how conditions can beorganization in general. Managers also rely on upward communication for ideas on how conditions can be
improved.improved.
Lateral CommunicationLateral Communication -When communication takes place among members of the same work group,-When communication takes place among members of the same work group,
members of work groups at the same level, managers at the same level, or any other horizontally equivalentmembers of work groups at the same level, managers at the same level, or any other horizontally equivalent
workers, we describe it as lateral communication.workers, we describe it as lateral communication.
Direction ChartDirection Chart
Interpersonal Communication
How do group members transfer meaning between and among each other?
Oral
Written
Nonverbal
Oral Communication
The chief means of conveying messages is oral communication
Popular forms of oral communication:
Speeches
 formal one-on-one and group discussions
Grapevine
Advantages:
Speed and feedback
Disadvantages:
The more people, the greater the potential distortion
Written Communication
Memos
 letters
fax transmissions
e-mail
 instant messaging
 organizational periodicals
 notices placed on bulletin boards
Advantages:
Tangible and Verifiable
The message is physically available for later reference
Well thought out, logical, and clear
Disadvantages:
Time consuming
Lack of a built-in feedback mechanism.
Nonverbal Communication
Body movements
 The intonations or emphasis we give to words
 Facial expressions
 Physical distance between the sender and receiver
Organizational Communication
Formal Small-Group Networks:
Formal organizational networks can be very complicated, including hundreds of people and a half-dozen or
more hierarchical levels.
The Grapevine:
The informal communication network in a group or organization is called the grapevine . Although the
rumors and gossip transmitted through the grapevine may be informal, it’s still an important source of
information.
Electronic Communications
An indispensable—and in about 71 percent of cases, the primary medium of communication in today’s
organizations is in electronic communication.
E-mail
Instant Messaging & Text messaging
Networking software (Social Networking)
Blogs
Video conferencing.
Channel
Channels differ in their capacity to convey information. Some are rich in that they can
(1) handle multiple cues simultaneously,
(2) facilitate rapid feedback, and
(3) be very personal. Others are lean in that they score low on these factors.
Face-to-Face (F2F) conversation scores highest in channel richness because it transmits the most information
per communication episode—multiple information cues (words, postures, facial expressions, gestures,
intonations),
Immediate feedback (both verbal and nonverbal), and
The personal touch of being present. Impersonal written media such as formal reports and bulletins rate lowest
in richness.
It would be further illustrated in Exhibit 11.6
Advantages
Perfect communication is unattainable. Yet a positive relationship exists between effective
communication and worker productivity. Choosing the correct channel, being an effective listener,
and using feedback can make for more effective communication.
If the communication become effective,
 It's a process that helps people manage, create and sustain organizational operations.
 Each of these types of communications are appropriate for different types of situations, as we
discussed earlier
All forms of communication may be used to impart authority, delegate responsibility and provide
vital information.
Barriers To Effective Communication
A number of barriers can retard or distort effective communication. In this section, we highlight the most
important.
 Filtering - sender’s purposely manipulating information so the receiver will see it more favorably. A manager
who tells his boss what he feels the boss wants to hear is filtering information.
 Selective Perception -We have mentioned selective perception before in this book. It appears again here
because the receivers in the communication process selectively see and hear based on their needs, motivations,
experience, background, and other personal characteristics.
 Information Overload - Individuals have a finite capacity for processing data. When the information .we
have to work with exceeds our processing capacity, the result is information overload. We’ve seen that dealing
with it has become a huge challenge for individuals and for organizations.
 Emotions -You may interpret the same message differently when you’re angry or distraught than when
you’re happy. For example, individuals in positive moods are more confident about their opinions after reading a
persuasive message, so well-crafted arguments have stronger impacts on their opinions. People in negative
moods are more likely to scrutinize messages in greater detail, whereas those in positive moods tend to accept
communications at face value.
 Language - Even when we’re communicating in the same language, words mean different things to different
people. Age and context are two of the biggest factors that influence such differences.
Barriers To Effective Communication (cont'd)
 Silence - It’s easy to ignore silence or lack of communication, precisely because it is defined by the
absence of information. However, research suggests silence and withholding communication are both
common and problematic.
 Communication Apprehension -An estimated 5 to 20 percent of the population suffers debilitating
communication apprehension, or social anxiety.These people experience undue tension and anxiety in
oral communication, written communication, or both.They may find it extremely difficult to talk with
others face-to-face or may become extremely anxious when they have to use the phone, relying on memos
or e-mails when a phone call would be faster and more appropriate.
 Lying - The final barrier to effective communication is outright misrepresentation of information, or
lying. People differ in their definition of what constitutes a lie.
eg: In one diary study, the average person reported telling one to two lies per day, with some individuals
telling considerably more.
THANK YOUTHANK YOU
for patience listening and co-operation ,for patience listening and co-operation ,
right away we had communicated what we want ......right away we had communicated what we want ......

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Communication

  • 1. COMMUNICATION PRESENTED BY, THANGAVEL S PRAVEEN RAJAN A MNIKANDA RAJAN M.S SARAVANAN J BALAJI LOKESH S ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR PRESENTATION
  • 2. 小田 @ www.iloveppt.org  Definition  Functions  Process  Direction  Interpersonal Communication Organizational Communication  Type of Channels  Advantage & Barrier In Communication Topics to be presented under communication
  • 3. DefinitionDefinition Communication-must include both the transfer and the understanding of meaning.Communication-must include both the transfer and the understanding of meaning. Poor communication is probably the most frequently cited source of interpersonal conflict. Because individualsPoor communication is probably the most frequently cited source of interpersonal conflict. Because individuals spend nearly 70 percent of their waking hours communicating—writing, reading, speaking, listening—it seemsspend nearly 70 percent of their waking hours communicating—writing, reading, speaking, listening—it seems reasonable that one of the biggest inhibitors of group performance is lack of effective communication.reasonable that one of the biggest inhibitors of group performance is lack of effective communication. Perfect communication, if it existed, would occur when a thought or idea was transmitted so the receiverPerfect communication, if it existed, would occur when a thought or idea was transmitted so the receiver perceived exactly the same mental picture as the sender (perception). Though it sounds elementary, perfectperceived exactly the same mental picture as the sender (perception). Though it sounds elementary, perfect communication is never achieved in practice,communication is never achieved in practice,
  • 4. FunctionsFunctions Communication serves four major functions within a group or organization:Communication serves four major functions within a group or organization: Control, Motivation, EmotionalControl, Motivation, Emotional Expression, and Information.Expression, and Information.  Control :Control : Communication acts to control member behavior in several ways. Organizations have authorityCommunication acts to control member behavior in several ways. Organizations have authority hierarchies and formal guidelines employees are required to follow. When employees must communicate any job-hierarchies and formal guidelines employees are required to follow. When employees must communicate any job- related grievance to their immediate boss, follow their job description, or comply with company policies,related grievance to their immediate boss, follow their job description, or comply with company policies, communication is performing a control function. Informal communication controls behavior too. When workcommunication is performing a control function. Informal communication controls behavior too. When work groups tease or harass a member who produces too much (and makes the rest of the group look bad), they aregroups tease or harass a member who produces too much (and makes the rest of the group look bad), they are informally communicating, and controlling, the member’s behavior.informally communicating, and controlling, the member’s behavior.  Motivation:Motivation: Communication fosters motivation by clarifying to employees what they must do, how well theyCommunication fosters motivation by clarifying to employees what they must do, how well they are doing it, and how they can improve if performance is subpar. The formation of specific goals, feedback onare doing it, and how they can improve if performance is subpar. The formation of specific goals, feedback on progress toward the goals, and reward for desired behavior all stimulate motivation and require communication.progress toward the goals, and reward for desired behavior all stimulate motivation and require communication.  Emotional Expression :Emotional Expression :work group is a primary source of social interaction for many employees.work group is a primary source of social interaction for many employees. Communication within the group is a fundamental mechanism by which members show their satisfaction andCommunication within the group is a fundamental mechanism by which members show their satisfaction and frustrations. Communication,therefore, provides for the emotional expression of feelings and fulfillment of socialfrustrations. Communication,therefore, provides for the emotional expression of feelings and fulfillment of social needs.needs.  InformationInformation :The final function of communication is to facilitate decision making. Communication:The final function of communication is to facilitate decision making. Communication provides the information individuals and groups need to make decisions by transmitting the data needed toprovides the information individuals and groups need to make decisions by transmitting the data needed to identify and evaluate choices.identify and evaluate choices.
  • 5. ProcessProcess The key parts of this model are :The key parts of this model are : (1) Sender(1) Sender (2) Encoding(2) Encoding (3) Message(3) Message (4) Channel(4) Channel (5) Receiver(5) Receiver (6) Decoding(6) Decoding (7) Noise and(7) Noise and (8) Feedback.(8) Feedback. It's discussed through flow diagram ,It's discussed through flow diagram , which will be further explained in detail.which will be further explained in detail.
  • 6.
  • 7. Exhibit 11-1Exhibit 11-1 depicts this communication process ,depicts this communication process , SENDERSENDER: The sender initiates a message by encoding a thought.: The sender initiates a message by encoding a thought. ENCODING:ENCODING: The message is the actual physical product of the sender’s encoding.The message is the actual physical product of the sender’s encoding. MESSAGEMESSAGE : When we speak, the speech is the message. When we write, the writing is the message. When we gesture,: When we speak, the speech is the message. When we write, the writing is the message. When we gesture, the movements of our arms and the expressions on our faces are the message.the movements of our arms and the expressions on our faces are the message. CHANNEL :CHANNEL : The channel is the medium through which the message travels. The sender selects it, determiningThe channel is the medium through which the message travels. The sender selects it, determining whether to use a formal or informal channel.whether to use a formal or informal channel. Formal channels are established by the organization and transmit messages related to the professional activities ofFormal channels are established by the organization and transmit messages related to the professional activities of members. They traditionally follow the authority chain within the organization.members. They traditionally follow the authority chain within the organization. Other forms of messages, such as personal or social, follow informal channels ,which are spontaneous and emergeOther forms of messages, such as personal or social, follow informal channels ,which are spontaneous and emerge as a response to individual choices.as a response to individual choices. RECEIVER :RECEIVER : The receiver is the person(s) to whom the message is directed,The receiver is the person(s) to whom the message is directed, DECODINGDECODING :First translate the symbols into understandable form .:First translate the symbols into understandable form . NOISENOISE: Noise represents communication barriers that distort the clarity of the message,: Noise represents communication barriers that distort the clarity of the message, such as perceptual problems, information overload, semantic difficulties, or cultural differences.such as perceptual problems, information overload, semantic difficulties, or cultural differences. FEEDBACKFEEDBACK : Feedback is the check on how successful we have been in transferring our messages: Feedback is the check on how successful we have been in transferring our messages as originally intended. It determines whether understanding has been achieved.as originally intended. It determines whether understanding has been achieved.
  • 8. DirectionDirection There are 3 types of direction :There are 3 types of direction :  Downward CommunicationDownward Communication  Upward CommunicationUpward Communication  Lateral CommunicationLateral Communication Downward CommunicationDownward Communication - Communication that flows from one level of a group or organization to a- Communication that flows from one level of a group or organization to a lower level is downward communication . Group leaders and managers use it to assign goals, provide joblower level is downward communication . Group leaders and managers use it to assign goals, provide job instructions, explain policies and procedures, point out problems that need attention, and offer feedback aboutinstructions, explain policies and procedures, point out problems that need attention, and offer feedback about performance.performance. Upward CommunicationUpward Communication - Upward communication flows to a higher level in the group or organization. It’s- Upward communication flows to a higher level in the group or organization. It’s used to provide feedback to higher-ups, inform them of progress toward goals, and relay current problems.used to provide feedback to higher-ups, inform them of progress toward goals, and relay current problems. Upward communication keeps managers aware of how employees feel about their jobs, co-workers, and theUpward communication keeps managers aware of how employees feel about their jobs, co-workers, and the organization in general. Managers also rely on upward communication for ideas on how conditions can beorganization in general. Managers also rely on upward communication for ideas on how conditions can be improved.improved. Lateral CommunicationLateral Communication -When communication takes place among members of the same work group,-When communication takes place among members of the same work group, members of work groups at the same level, managers at the same level, or any other horizontally equivalentmembers of work groups at the same level, managers at the same level, or any other horizontally equivalent workers, we describe it as lateral communication.workers, we describe it as lateral communication.
  • 10. Interpersonal Communication How do group members transfer meaning between and among each other? Oral Written Nonverbal
  • 11. Oral Communication The chief means of conveying messages is oral communication Popular forms of oral communication: Speeches  formal one-on-one and group discussions Grapevine Advantages: Speed and feedback Disadvantages: The more people, the greater the potential distortion
  • 12. Written Communication Memos  letters fax transmissions e-mail  instant messaging  organizational periodicals  notices placed on bulletin boards Advantages: Tangible and Verifiable The message is physically available for later reference Well thought out, logical, and clear Disadvantages: Time consuming Lack of a built-in feedback mechanism.
  • 13. Nonverbal Communication Body movements  The intonations or emphasis we give to words  Facial expressions  Physical distance between the sender and receiver
  • 14. Organizational Communication Formal Small-Group Networks: Formal organizational networks can be very complicated, including hundreds of people and a half-dozen or more hierarchical levels. The Grapevine: The informal communication network in a group or organization is called the grapevine . Although the rumors and gossip transmitted through the grapevine may be informal, it’s still an important source of information.
  • 15. Electronic Communications An indispensable—and in about 71 percent of cases, the primary medium of communication in today’s organizations is in electronic communication. E-mail Instant Messaging & Text messaging Networking software (Social Networking) Blogs Video conferencing.
  • 16. Channel Channels differ in their capacity to convey information. Some are rich in that they can (1) handle multiple cues simultaneously, (2) facilitate rapid feedback, and (3) be very personal. Others are lean in that they score low on these factors. Face-to-Face (F2F) conversation scores highest in channel richness because it transmits the most information per communication episode—multiple information cues (words, postures, facial expressions, gestures, intonations), Immediate feedback (both verbal and nonverbal), and The personal touch of being present. Impersonal written media such as formal reports and bulletins rate lowest in richness. It would be further illustrated in Exhibit 11.6
  • 17.
  • 18. Advantages Perfect communication is unattainable. Yet a positive relationship exists between effective communication and worker productivity. Choosing the correct channel, being an effective listener, and using feedback can make for more effective communication. If the communication become effective,  It's a process that helps people manage, create and sustain organizational operations.  Each of these types of communications are appropriate for different types of situations, as we discussed earlier All forms of communication may be used to impart authority, delegate responsibility and provide vital information.
  • 19. Barriers To Effective Communication A number of barriers can retard or distort effective communication. In this section, we highlight the most important.  Filtering - sender’s purposely manipulating information so the receiver will see it more favorably. A manager who tells his boss what he feels the boss wants to hear is filtering information.  Selective Perception -We have mentioned selective perception before in this book. It appears again here because the receivers in the communication process selectively see and hear based on their needs, motivations, experience, background, and other personal characteristics.  Information Overload - Individuals have a finite capacity for processing data. When the information .we have to work with exceeds our processing capacity, the result is information overload. We’ve seen that dealing with it has become a huge challenge for individuals and for organizations.  Emotions -You may interpret the same message differently when you’re angry or distraught than when you’re happy. For example, individuals in positive moods are more confident about their opinions after reading a persuasive message, so well-crafted arguments have stronger impacts on their opinions. People in negative moods are more likely to scrutinize messages in greater detail, whereas those in positive moods tend to accept communications at face value.  Language - Even when we’re communicating in the same language, words mean different things to different people. Age and context are two of the biggest factors that influence such differences.
  • 20. Barriers To Effective Communication (cont'd)  Silence - It’s easy to ignore silence or lack of communication, precisely because it is defined by the absence of information. However, research suggests silence and withholding communication are both common and problematic.  Communication Apprehension -An estimated 5 to 20 percent of the population suffers debilitating communication apprehension, or social anxiety.These people experience undue tension and anxiety in oral communication, written communication, or both.They may find it extremely difficult to talk with others face-to-face or may become extremely anxious when they have to use the phone, relying on memos or e-mails when a phone call would be faster and more appropriate.  Lying - The final barrier to effective communication is outright misrepresentation of information, or lying. People differ in their definition of what constitutes a lie. eg: In one diary study, the average person reported telling one to two lies per day, with some individuals telling considerably more.
  • 21. THANK YOUTHANK YOU for patience listening and co-operation ,for patience listening and co-operation , right away we had communicated what we want ......right away we had communicated what we want ......