Organizational Behaviour

29 de Sep de 2020

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Organizational Behaviour

  1. Sathish V Asst. Professor Department of Commerce & Management PES Institute of Advanced Management Studies, Shimoga
  2. Organisational Behaviour OB is the study of human behaviour The study is about behaviour in organisations OB is defined as “the systematic study and application of knowledge about how individuals and groups act within the organizations where they work”
  3. There are three key levels of analysis in OB. They are examining the individual, the group, and the organization. For example, if I want to understand my boss’s personality, I would be examining the individual level of analysis. If we want to know about how my manager’s personality affects my team, I am examining things at the team level. But, if I want to understand how my organization’s culture affects my boss’s behaviour, I would be interested in the organizational level of analysis.
  4. Definitions • “Organisational behaviour is a subset of management activities concerned with understanding, predicting and influencing individual behaviour in organisational setting.”—Callahan, Fleenor and Kudson. • “Organisational behaviour is the study and application of knowledge about how people act within an organisation. It is a human tool for human benefit. It applies broadly to the behaviour of people in all types of organisation.”— Newstrom and Davis.
  5. According to Luthans “OB is directly concerned with the understanding, predicting and controlling oh human behaviour in organisations” OB can be defined as the understanding, predicting and management of human behaviour both individually or in a group that occur within an organization.
  6. Why Organizational Behaviour Matters • it matters because it is all about things you care about. OB can help you become a more engaged organizational member. Getting along with others, getting a great job, lowering your stress level, making more effective decisions, and working effectively within a team…these are all great things, and OB addresses them
  7. Conti… it matters because employers care about OB. A recent survey by the National Association of Colleges and Employers (NACE) asked employers which skills are the most important for them when evaluating job candidates, and OB topics topped the list (NACE 2007 Job Outlook Survey, 2008). The following were the top five personal qualities/skills: • Communication skills (verbal and written) • Honesty/integrity • Interpersonal skills (relates well to others) • Motivation/initiative • Strong work ethic
  8. Conti… it matters because organizations care about OB. The best companies in the world understand that the people make the place. organizations that value their employees are more profitable than those that do not. Research shows that organizations that are considered healthier and more effective have strong OB characteristics throughout them such as role clarity, information sharing, and performance feedback. Unfortunately, research shows that most organizations are unhealthy, with 50% of respondents saying that their organizations do not engage in effective OB practices
  9. Nature of OB  A field of study and not a Discipline  Interdisciplinary Approach  An applied Science  Normative and Value centred  Humanistic and Optimistic  Oriented towards Organisational Objective  A total systems approach
  10. A field of study and not a Discipline OB can be treated as a distinct field of study and not a discipline. A discipline is an accepted science with a theoretical foundation that serves as the basis for research and analysis. OB, because of its broad base, recent emergence and interdisciplinary orientation, is not accepted as science. Therefore, it is reasonable to call it a field of study rather than a discipline.
  11. Interdisciplinary Approach OB is basically an interdisciplinary Approach. OB draws heavily From psychology, sociology, Anthropology, economics, political science, law and history. These disciplines exist separately, but OB integrates the relevant contents of these disciplines to make them applicable for organisational analysis.
  12. An applied Science The basic objective of OB is to make application of various researches to solve the organizational problems particularly related to human behaviour aspect. Unlike the pure science which concentrates on fundamental researches. OB concentrates on applied researches. Though many of the researches may be carried on in laboratory situations and controlled conditions, they are meant for general application in organizational analysis. Thus, OB is both science as well as art.
  13. Normative and Value centred OB is a normative science. It suggests only cause-effect relationships. Prescribes how the various findings of the researches can be applied to get organisational results which are acceptable to the society.
  14. Humanistic and Optimistic OB focuses the attention on people from humanistic point of view. It is based on the belief that needs and motivation of people is of high concern. there is optimism about the innate potential of man to be independent, creative, productive, and capable of contributing positively to the objectives of the organisation.
  15. Oriented towards Organisational Objective • OB, being an applied science and emphasising human aspect of the organisation, is oriented towards organisational objectives. Though an organisation may have several objectives and sometimes conflicting with individual objectives, it should not be understood that OB only emphasises the achievement of individual objectives at the cost of the organisational objectives. In fact, OB tries to integrate both types of objectives so that these are achieved simultaneously.
  16. A total systems approach The systems approach is an integrative approach which takes into account all the variables affecting organisational functioning. Human behaviour can be analysed keeping in view his psychological framework, interpersonal orientation, group influence and social and cultural factors. Thus, man’s nature is quite complex and OB by applying systems approach tries to find solution of this complexity.
  17. Importance of OB While working in an organisation, it is very important to understand others behaviour as well as make others understand ours. In order to maintain a healthy working environment, we need to adopt to the environment and understand the goals we need to achieve. This can be done easily if we understand the importance of OB.
  18. Importance of OB Conti…  it helps in explaining the interpersonal relationships employees share with each other as well as with their higher and lower subordinates.  the prediction of individual behaviour can be explained.  it balances the cordial relationships in an enterprise by maintaining effective communication.  it helps managers to encourage their subordinates.
  19. Importance of OB Conti…  any change within the organisation can be made easier.  it helps in predicting human behaviour and their application to achieve organisational goals. It helps in making the organisation more effective.  Organizational Behavior is multidisciplinary and it helps us multiple ways.  OB helps the managers to understand the basis of motivation and what he should do to motivate his subordinates.
  20. Importance of OB Conti… OB implies that the effective utilization of people working in the organization guarantees the success of the organization. OB has a great impact on individuals and also in organizations that cannot be ignored. To run the businesses effectively and efficiently, the study of organizational behavior is very essential.
  21. Contributing disciplines to OB OB is not a discipline in itself but it uses knowledge developed in the relevant disciplines. OB draws knowledge from different disciplines but it does not draw the whole knowledge of these disciplines but only the relevant knowledge which helps in predicting and directing human behaviour in the organisation. The contributions of core disciplines of behavioural sciences to OB are as follows:
  22. CONTRIBUTING DISCIPLINES TO THE OB FIELD Psychology Sociology Anthropology Social Psychology Political Science
  23. Multidisciplinary Nature of OB Discipline Relevant OB topics Psychology Perception and learning, personality, emotion, stress, attitudes, motivation, decision making and creativity. Sociology Group dynamics, communication, intergroup behaviour and socialisation. Anthropology Organisational culture, leadership, organisational empowerment Social Psychology Intergroup collaboration, group decision- making, integration of individual needs with group activities Political science Conflict, intra-organisational politics, manipulating power for individual self- interest.
  24. Psychology
  25. Psychology is defined as the science of behaviour. Psychology studies behaviour in various conditions- normal, abnormal, social, industrial, childhood, old age, adolescence etc. It also studies processes of human behaviour such as learning, thinking, memory, perception, emotion, feeling and personality. In fact, there is a separate branch of industrial psychology which deals with the application of psychological facts and principles to the problems concerning human relations in organisations. Human relations is the integration of human factor into work situation which motivates it to work together effectively providing it social, psychological and economic satisfaction. From this point of view, the contribution of psychology is quite significant.
  26. Sociology
  27. It is an academic discipline that utilises the scientific method in accumulating knowledge about man’s social behaviour. It studies the behaviour in which people act towards one another. It specifically studies social groups, social behaviour, society, customs, status and prestige. it has also developed sub-fields of political sociology, industrial sociology, family sociology, educational sociology etc.
  28. Anthropology
  29. Anthropology can be defined as the science of man. It particularly studies civilisation, forms of cultures and their impact on individuals and groups, biological features of man and evolutionary pattern, speech etc.. anthropology contributes in understanding the cultural effects on organisational behaviour, effects of value system, sentiments, cohesion and interaction.
  30. Social Psychology
  31. While psychology deals with individual behaviour and sociology deals with group behaviour, the social psychology examines interpersonal behaviour ( influence of people on one another). the social psychology focus attention on intergroup activities and decision-making processes, integration of individual needs with group activities, effect of change on individuals and how people cope with ‘change’
  32. Political Science
  33. Political science examines the behaviour of individuals and groups within a political environment. Major areas of interest that are related to organisational behaviour include political manipulation, allocation of power, conflict and conflict resolution, using power for personal gains, etc. it provides clue to conflicts in organisations, power and authority structure and overall administrative process.
  34. Models of OB Models are the techniques which help us to understand complex things and ideas in a clear manner. Models are frameworks or possible explanations why do people behave as they do at work. There are so many models as many are organizations. Varying results across the organizations are substantially caused by differences in the models of organizational behaviour.
  35. in the field of organisational behaviour, models are developed to provide framework about ‘how people will be treated in an organisation’ every organisation develops a particular model in which behaviour of the people takes place. This model is developed on the basis of management’s assumptions about people and the vision of the management. Since these assumptions vary to great extent, this has resulted in development of different models. Almost all organizations develop the models on the basis of which behavior of the people is determined.
  36. Different Models of OB  Autocratic model  Custodial model  Supportive model  Collegial model
  37. Autocratic model
  38.  The basis of this model is the power of the boss.  Organisation with an autocratic environment is authority oriented. This authority is delegated by the right of command over the people to whom it applies.  It assumes that the employees have to be directed, persuaded and pushed into performance.  Under autocratic model, the employee’s orientation is obedience to the boss  The bosses have absolute power to hire and fire employees.  The employees depend upon the boss and are paid minimum wages for minimum performance.  The employees sometimes give minimum performance, because they have to satisfy the subsistence needs of themselves and their families.
  39.  The autocratic model has been successful in some situations where the workers are actually lazy and have a tendency of avoiding work. It is also required in the situation where the work to be done is time bound.  The leadership in an autocratic model is negative because the employees are uninformed, insecure and afraid.  Nowadays, this model is not applicable in strict sense because there are minimum wages laws in most of the countries. Thus, the managers cannot threaten to cut down the wages or rewards of the workers. Moreover, the workers are educated and organized, thus they cannot be dictated to by the managers all the time.
  40. Custodial model
  41. Custodial model To overcome the shortcomings of the Autocratic model, the custodial model came into existence. The insecurity and frustration felt by the workers under the autocratic model sometimes led to aggression towards the boss and their families. To dispel (remove) this feeling of insecurity and frustration, the need was felt to develop a model which will improve the employer-employee relations. The custodial model was used by the progressive managers.
  42.  The success of the Custodial Model depends upon the economic resources because this model emphasizes the economic rewards and benefits. Since employee’s physiological needs are already met the employer looks to security needs as a motivating force.  The employees under Custodial Model depend upon organisation rather than their boss. If the organisation has got good welfare and development programmes for the employees, they cannot afford to leave the organisation.  Under this model, the employees are satisfied and happy and they are not strongly motivated. So they give only passive cooperation. They do not work more vigorously than under the autocratic approach.
  43.  The main benefit of this model is that it brings security and satisfaction to the employees.  The difficulty with this model is that it depends upon material rewards only to motivate the employees. But the workers have their psychological needs also. Due to the drawbacks of this method, a search began to find out the best way to motivate the workers so that they produce with their full capacity and capabilities.
  44. Supportive model
  45. Supportive model The supportive model has originated from the ‘Principles of Supportive Relationships.” According to Rensis Likert, “The leadership and other processes of the organisation must be such as to ensure a maximum probability that in all interactions and all relationships with the organisation, each member will, in the light of his background, values and expectations, view the experience as supportive, and one which builds and maintains his sense of personal worth and importance.”
  46. • The Supportive Model depends on leadership instead of power or money. • Management with the help of leadership try to create a favorable organisational climate in which the employees are helped to grow to the greater capacities and achieve things of which they have the capability in compliance with the goals of the organisation. • The leader assumes that the worker will take responsibility, make their contributions and improve themselves, if given a chance. It is assumed that the workers are not lazy by nature. If properly motivated, they can be self directed and creative to the organisation.
  47. • It should be the orientation of the management to support the employees’ job performance, rather than simply giving them payments and benefits as in the custodial approach. • This model takes care of the psychological needs of the employees in addition to their subsistence and security needs. Supportive behaviour helps in creating friendly superior-subordinate interaction with a high degree of confidence and trust. This model has been found to be effective in affluent countries where the workers are more concerned about their psychological needs like high self esteem, job satisfaction etc. But it has limited application in India, where the majority of the workers are below the poverty line. For them, the most important requirement is the satisfaction of their physiological needs and security. They are not much concerned about the psychological needs.
  48. Collegial model
  49. Collegial model The collegial model is an extension of the supportive model. The Dictionary meaning of collegial is a body of persons having a common purpose. As is clear from the meaning, this model is based upon the partnership between employees and the management. This model creates a favorable climate in the organisation as the workers feel that they are the partners in the organisation. They don’t see the managers as their bosses but as joint contributors. Both the management and workers accept and respect each other.
  50. • The collegial model inculcates the team spirit in an organisation. The workers accept responsibilities because they find it their obligation to do so, not because that they will be punished by the management. This helps in developing a system of self discipline in the organisation. • In this kind of collegial environment, the workers have job satisfaction, job involvement, job commitment and some degree of fulfillment. After studying all the four models it becomes very clear that there is no single model which is best suited to the requirements of all the organisations. The managers will have to make use of a combination of models depending upon the circumstances of the case. But keeping in view the emergence of professional management, we can say that the use of Supportive and Collegial will be more as compared to the Autocratic and Custodial Models.
  51. Challenges of OB Organizational behavior is the manner in which individuals and groups act and relate with each other in the workplace. Various factors influence these acts and relations, such as leadership, organizational culture, and the personal objectives of individuals within the organization.
  52. Various challenges confront managers and the entire organization within the context of the company’s organizational behavior.  Diversity at Work  Ethical Behavior  Globalization Response  Technology and Innovation
  53. Diversity at Work The workplace is an increasingly diverse space. There are people of different races, cultural backgrounds, gender and ages. The challenge facing managers from an organizational behavior point of view is how to manage this diversity in a way that will positively impact the organization. Managers have to move away from treating everyone alike while at the same time valuing every individual employee’s contribution to the growth of the organization so as to maintain its valuable employees.
  54. Ethical Behavior The challenge for managers is to promote an ethical organizational behavior and culture such that employees will not put their individual interests ahead of organizational interests. Personal interest is an aspect of organizational behavior and managers face the task of encouraging group interest over personal interest so as to preserve ethical values
  55. Globalization Response Through globalization, organizations that were once local become global. Managers have to manage international personnel with different cultural backgrounds, work ethics and values. As such, managers have the challenge of understanding the organizational behavior of the personnel in the company's subsidiary organizations.
  56. Technology and Innovation Information technology plays an integral role in workplace communication. Additionally, workplace communication also influences how people and groups behave in the organization. Although technology brings with it efficiency in collating and disseminating knowledge. The challenge here is in finding ways in which technology promotes organizational communication and inclusion rather than exclusion and discrimination.
  57. Organizational Structure An organizational structure is a system that outlines how certain activities are directed in order to achieve the goals of an organization. These activities can include rules, roles, and responsibilities. The organizational structure also determines how information flows between levels within the company. For example, in a centralized structure, decisions flow from the top down, while in a decentralized structure, decision-making power is distributed among various levels of the organization.
  58. This structuring provides a company with a visual representation of how it is shaped and how it can best move forward in achieving its goals. Organizational structures are normally illustrated in some sort of chart or diagram like a pyramid, where the most powerful members of the organization sit at the top, while those with the least amount are at the bottom. Not having a formal structure in place may prove difficult for certain organizations. For instance, employees may have difficulty knowing to whom they should report. That can lead to uncertainty as to who is responsible for what in the organization.
  59. Definition Organization structure is defined as “ the logical arrangement of task and the network of relationships and roles among the various positions established to carryout the business.
  60. Types of Organizational Structure  Line organization structure  Functional Organization structure  Line and staff organization structure  Matrix organization structure  Committee organization structure
  61. Line organization structure
  62. Line organization is the simplest framework for the whole administrative organization. Line organization approaches the vertical flow of the relationship. In these organizations, a supervisor exercises direct supervision over a subordinate. Also, authority flows from the top-most person in the organization to the person in the lowest rung. This type of an organization is also called a military organization or a scalar-type organization.
  63. ADVANTAGES • Simple to work • Economical and effective. It also allows quick decisions. • it promotes the unity of command. • In a line organization, the responsibility for the performance of tasks is fixed upon definite individuals. Therefore, there is accountability of delegated tasks. • There is excellent discipline in a line organization due to unified control and undivided loyalties.
  64. Disadvantages • A line organization can suffer from a lack of specialization. This is because each department manager is concerned only with the activities of his own department. Therefore, employees are skilled in tasks pertaining to their departments alone. • A line organization is usually rigid and inflexible. In fact, such organizations maintain discipline so rigorously that they can rarely change. • The division of work is not based on any scientific plan but on the whims of the manager.
  65. Functional Organization structure
  66. A functional structure divides the organization into departments based on their function. Each is headed by a functional manager and employees are grouped as per their role. Employees are classified according to their function in this structure. The organizational chart for a functional structure shows the role hierarchy: for example, president, vice president, finance department, sales department, customer service, administration, etc. Each department has a head responsible for it. This helps the organization control the quality and uniformity of their performance
  67. Advantages  Employees are grouped by their knowledge and skills, allowing them to achieve high performance.  Their roles and responsibilities are fixed, facilitating easy accountability for the work.  The hierarchy is clear. This reduces the number of communication channels.  Work is not duplicated as all departments have defined responsibilities.  Cooperation is excellent within the department.
  68. Disadvantages  Employees may feel bored because of repetitive work. This monotony causes loss of enthusiasm.  There is a lack of teamwork among different departments.  Employees may have little concern about events outside their group.  The functional structure is rigid and adapting to changes difficult and slow
  69. Line and staff organization structure
  70. In a line and staff organization structure, both the line managers and the staff have their own important roles to play. In this structure, the authority flows from the top down. The line manager is the one in charge. He is the one with the authority to make all the important decisions of the company. And he is also responsible for these decisions and the performance of his employees. The staff is the experts in this scenario. They have the knowledge and expertise of their field and are there to assist their line managers. They have an advisory role in the firm.
  71. Advantages  line executives receive expert advice from the staff. The staff has expertise on the matter, and the line executives can greatly benefit from this advice.  There is the benefit of specialization in this system. The whole organization is planned in such a way that the work is divided according to specialization.  There is also a lot of scope for growth of employees in a line and staff organization. It gives each individual the freedom to grow in flourish in their own specialty..
  72. Disadvantages  There are sometimes conflicts between the line executives and the staff managers. They could have a difference of opinions. This can prevent the harmonious relations between the two and cause an imbalance in the company.  Sometimes the expert advice given by the staff is misunderstood or misinterpreted by the line executives.  .
  73. Matrix organization structure
  74. This is also called project organisation. It is a combination of all relationships in the organisation – vertical, horizontal and diagonal. It is mostly used in complex projects. It provides a high degree of operational freedom, flexibility and adaptability for both the line and the staff managers in performing their respective roles. The main objective of matrix organisation is to secure a higher degree of coordination than what is possible from the conventional organisational structures such as – the line and staff.
  75. Advantages • It offers operational freedom and flexibility. • b. It seeks to optimize the utilization of resources. • c. It focuses on end results. • d. It maintains professional identity. • e. It holds an employee responsible for management of resources.
  76. Disadvantages • It calls for greater degree of coordination. • It may be difficult to define authority and responsibility precisely. • Employees may find it frustrating to work with two bosses.
  77. Committee organization structure
  78. Committee organization structure Committee can be defined as a group of organizational members who discuss and develop solutions to problems. the purpose of such committee is to discuss various problems and recommend solutions to the management. the Board of Directors of a company is an example of Committee organization.
  79. Advantages • It is an excellent medium of discussion and education and of communication between management and workers. • Sometimes problems are so complex or of inter- departmental nature that they are best solved by committees composed of concerned executives. • It is able to serve as a mechanism of participative decision making. By participating in discussions or decision, a member feels motivated in accepting a situation or implementing a decision.
  80. Disadvantages • It is an expensive device both in terms of time and cost. • Nobody is accountable for committee decisions. A committee decision is nobody's decision just because it is everybody's decision. • Often committees result into more conflict than problem solving
  81. Organizational Goals Organizational goals are strategically set objectives that outline expected results and guide employees’ efforts. Purposes of organizational goals are to provide direction to employees of the organization. 3 types of organizational goals are strategic, tactical, and operational goals.
  82. Strategic goals are set by and for top management of the organization. Tactical goals are for middle managers to focus on the actions necessary to achieve goals. Operational goals are for lower-level managers to tackle shorter-term issues. Goals are critical to organizational effectiveness as they serve as an objective for the employees and they work to achieve it. Organizational goals differ in three different criteria; level, area, and time frame.
  83. Types of Organizational Goals 3 types of organizational goals are; Strategic Goals. Tactical Goals. Operational Goals.
  84. Strategic Goals Strategic goals are goals set by and for top management of the organization. These goals are made by focusing on broad general issues. Strategic goals or strategies are usually long- term and from this goal, other goals are made and set for different time-frames and areas.
  85. Tactical Goals Tactical goals are set for middle managers. These goals focus on how to operationalize actions necessary to achieve the strategic goals. Middle managers of various departments are usually responsible for their attainment. Tactical goals are set by the middle managers, but often top-managers set tactical goals for the middle managers.
  86. Operational Goals. Operational goals are set by and for lower-level managers. Operational goals are usually made to tackle shorter-term issues associated with the tactical goals and lower-managers are responsible for their attainment.
  88. RELATED TO FUTURE Goals are always related to future, they are statements ,which an organization aims to achieve in the future ,goals provides a clear vision of future ,hence goals refer to the future destinations of an organization.
  89. MULTIPLE IN NUMBERS Goals are needed in all areas of organization this implies that every organization has a packages of goals set in various key areas.
  90. TYPES OF GOAL Organizational goals exist at each organizational level hence and organization needs to establish a great many goals they vary by organizational level.
  91. GOALS HAVE HIERARCHY Goals are hierarchical from corporate mission to specific individual goals the goals, which are based on mission or purpose of the organization, from a hierarchy from top to the lowest position in the organization structures
  92. GOALS ARE CONFLICTING Organizations have many goals which tend to be different ,these goals are not only complementary but also conflicting with one another for ex. manufacturing firm could have such goals as to -produce a stylish product- produce high quality product and keep the production cost to minimum ,those two goals to produce a stylish product with high quality conflict with the goal to keep manufacturing costs as low as possible.

Notas del editor

  1. optimism: Confidence
  2. Adolescence: Child to adult
  3. bureaucracy : officers of government role structures:
  4. Cohesion: action
  5. Abstraction: extraction
  6. Passive: being inactive
  7. Affluent: Healthy
  8. Collating: to examine diverse documents, disseminating: to scatter ideas