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Trauma and Frustration as Predictors of Martyrdom in Low SES Palestinian Males Jerry D. Smith, Jr., Psy.D.
Review of Literature
Definitions of Martyrdom <ul><li>Martyrdom Typologies   </li></ul><ul><li>Passive Active   </li></ul><ul><li>Accidental * ...
History of Martyrdom
Theories of Martyrdom <ul><li>Frustration Aggression </li></ul><ul><li>Narcissistic Rage </li></ul><ul><li>Psychopathology...
Frustration-aggression theory <ul><li>When one’s environment does not meet the expectations of the individual, frustration...
Narcissistic-rage theory <ul><li>Unchecked narcissism leads to violent behavior with little regard for pain caused to othe...
Psychopathology theory <ul><li>Psychosis, delusions, disturbed personal identities, and other forms of psychopathology res...
Social problems theory <ul><li>By engaging in aggressive behavior individuals may seek to feel better about their lives, e...
Socioeconomic Status
Contradicting research <ul><li>Lower SES associated with increased suicide attacks (De Silva, Hobbs, & Hanks, 2001; Shamee...
Social Influence and Control
Control practices <ul><li>Similar to religious cults (Hudson, 1999) </li></ul>
Techniques <ul><li>Milieu control </li></ul><ul><li>Mystical manipulation </li></ul><ul><li>Demand for purity </li></ul><u...
Group think <ul><li>illusions of invulnerability </li></ul><ul><li>excessive optimism and risk taking </li></ul><ul><li>pr...
Wish fulfillment <ul><li>tendency to want to believe in things that are seen as beneficial </li></ul><ul><li>(Hafez, 2006;...
Media effects <ul><li>repeated exposure to media reports can result in PTSD and peri-traumatic symptoms  </li></ul><ul><li...
Media effects cont. <ul><li>advertising more likely to be noticed and psychologically processed by people in their late te...
Abuse and Martyrdom
Neglect & lack of empathy <ul><li>evidence that martyrdom may result from child abuse (physical and emotional abuse, negle...
Misogyny <ul><li>misogynist culture isolates and oppresses women who in turn act out their frustration with their sons </l...
Cycle of Abuse Misogynist culture oppresses women Women take out frustration on their  sons Sons become resentful and reje...
Borderline personality <ul><li>cycle of abusive and neglectful child-rearing practices may lead to borderline personalitie...
Marketing martyrdom to children <ul><li>Erikson’s theory of developmental psychology </li></ul><ul><li>adolescents seeking...
Example <ul><li>Palestinian Authority’s 2001 Martyrdom Campaign </li></ul><ul><li>5-minute music video  </li></ul><ul><li>...
<ul><li>Palestinian Authority’s 2001 Martyrdom Campaign </li></ul><ul><li>21 suicide attacks in 12 years prior to 2001 cam...
Creating a martyr (Hudson, 1999; Soibelman, 2004) Sympathizer Passive supporter Group member Martyr
Moral disengagement <ul><li>Moral justification </li></ul><ul><li>Displacement of responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Minimiz...
Incentives <ul><li>Social </li></ul><ul><ul><li>elevation of social status of the martyr and family (Post, Sprinzak, & Den...
Incentives cont. <ul><li>Religious </li></ul><ul><ul><li>forgiveness of sins, fulfillment of denied sexual desires, interc...
Suicide <ul><li>Some contradicting findings </li></ul><ul><li>However, majority of research finds that militant martyrs ha...
Results
Frustrating environment (FE) <ul><li>an environment that does not meet the expectations of the individual </li></ul><ul><u...
Ego strength (ES) <ul><li>the extent to which one’s sense of self has been impacted by psychological victimization </li></...
Traditional view <ul><li>Social problems vs. individual psychopathy </li></ul><ul><li>it’s EITHER/OR </li></ul>
ES-FT view <ul><li>Frustration interacts with individual psychology </li></ul><ul><li>it’s BOTH </li></ul>
more specifically… <ul><li>frustration interacts with ego strength to create certain tendencies </li></ul>
Ego Strength-Frustration Tendencies (ES-FT) Model Socially integrated Acculturated Political Activist Militant group leade...
Clinical Implications
<ul><li>theory allows both parties a means of reassessing their current actions, current motivations, desired outcomes, an...
<ul><li>theory warrants the provider with an outline, similar to current treatments for abused persons, for working with i...
<ul><li>theory helps replace the image of a murderous, abhorrent perpetrator of mass atrocities with that of a human being...
<ul><li>mental health professionals can devise treatments at the individual and group level to help resolve some of the ps...
References <ul><li>Baines, P., & Worcester, R. M. (2005). When the British 'Tommy' went to war, public opinion followed.  ...
References cont. <ul><li>Lachkar, J. (2002). The psychological make-up of a suicide bomber.  Journal of Psychohistory ,  2...
Questions and Comments
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Trauma And Frustration As Predictors of Martyrdom In Low SES Palestinian Males

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Trauma And Frustration As Predictors of Martyrdom In Low SES Palestinian Males

  1. 1. Trauma and Frustration as Predictors of Martyrdom in Low SES Palestinian Males Jerry D. Smith, Jr., Psy.D.
  2. 2. Review of Literature
  3. 3. Definitions of Martyrdom <ul><li>Martyrdom Typologies </li></ul><ul><li>Passive Active </li></ul><ul><li>Accidental * Militant </li></ul><ul><li>Cognizant Self-sacrificial </li></ul><ul><li>* “Accidental martyr” taken from &quot;Martyrs for a just cause: The eulogies of Cesar Chavez.&quot; by R. J. Jensen, T. R. Burkholder, and J. C. Hammerback, Pall 2003, Western Journal of Communication, 67(4) , p. 335-356. </li></ul>
  4. 4. History of Martyrdom
  5. 5. Theories of Martyrdom <ul><li>Frustration Aggression </li></ul><ul><li>Narcissistic Rage </li></ul><ul><li>Psychopathology </li></ul><ul><li>Social Problems </li></ul>
  6. 6. Frustration-aggression theory <ul><li>When one’s environment does not meet the expectations of the individual, frustration occurs. Aggression is the inevitable result of repeated and/or sustained frustration (Dollard, Doob, Miller, Mowrer, & Sears, 1939; Hudson, 1999; Miller, 1941) . </li></ul>
  7. 7. Narcissistic-rage theory <ul><li>Unchecked narcissism leads to violent behavior with little regard for pain caused to others (Hudson, 1999 ). </li></ul>
  8. 8. Psychopathology theory <ul><li>Psychosis, delusions, disturbed personal identities, and other forms of psychopathology result in the drive to engage in suicide attacks (Rosenberger, 2003; Salib, 2003; Volkan, 2002). </li></ul>
  9. 9. Social problems theory <ul><li>By engaging in aggressive behavior individuals may seek to feel better about their lives, establish control where none is perceived, improve living conditions, achieve social recognition and/or status, etc (Elnur, 2003; Hammond, 1998; Hill, 2002; Shaffer, 1975; Von Hippel, 2002) . </li></ul>
  10. 10. Socioeconomic Status
  11. 11. Contradicting research <ul><li>Lower SES associated with increased suicide attacks (De Silva, Hobbs, & Hanks, 2001; Shameen, 2002) </li></ul><ul><li>Higher SES associated with increased suicide attacks (Coney, 2003; Krueger & Meleckova, 2002) </li></ul><ul><li>SES unrelated to suicide attacks (Hudson, 1999; Krueger & Meleckova, 2002; Kushner, 1996; Laqueur, 2004; Taylor, 1988) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Social Influence and Control
  13. 13. Control practices <ul><li>Similar to religious cults (Hudson, 1999) </li></ul>
  14. 14. Techniques <ul><li>Milieu control </li></ul><ul><li>Mystical manipulation </li></ul><ul><li>Demand for purity </li></ul><ul><li>Dispensing of existence </li></ul><ul><li>Sacred science </li></ul><ul><li>Loading the language </li></ul><ul><li>(Walsh, 2001) </li></ul>
  15. 15. Group think <ul><li>illusions of invulnerability </li></ul><ul><li>excessive optimism and risk taking </li></ul><ul><li>presumptions of morality </li></ul><ul><li>one-dimensional view of enemy as evil </li></ul><ul><li>intolerance to challenges to shared beliefs </li></ul><ul><li>(Hudson, 1999) </li></ul>
  16. 16. Wish fulfillment <ul><li>tendency to want to believe in things that are seen as beneficial </li></ul><ul><li>(Hafez, 2006; Tomar, 2003) </li></ul>
  17. 17. Media effects <ul><li>repeated exposure to media reports can result in PTSD and peri-traumatic symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>(Pfefferbaum, B., Pfefferbaum, R.L., Gurwitch, R.H., Doughty, D.E., Pynoos, R. S., Foy, D. W., Brandt, E.N., & Reddy, C., 2004; Pfefferbaum, B., Sconzo, G.M., Flynn, B.W., Kearns, L.J., Doughty, D.E., Gurwitch, R.H., Nixon, S.J., & Nawaz, S., 2003) </li></ul>
  18. 18. Media effects cont. <ul><li>advertising more likely to be noticed and psychologically processed by people in their late teens and early 20s (Dermody & Scullion, 2003) </li></ul><ul><li>rhetorical devices, repetition of messages, priming, framing, etc. highly effective at influencing political outcomes (Baines and Worcester, 2005; Bar-Tal, 2005; Li and Brewer, 2004; McGoldrick, 2005) </li></ul>
  19. 19. Abuse and Martyrdom
  20. 20. Neglect & lack of empathy <ul><li>evidence that martyrdom may result from child abuse (physical and emotional abuse, neglect, etc.) and a lack of empathy that is past down from mothers to their sons (DeMause, 2002; Janowitz, 2006; Kaganovskiy, 2003) </li></ul>
  21. 21. Misogyny <ul><li>misogynist culture isolates and oppresses women who in turn act out their frustration with their sons </li></ul><ul><li>sons respond to the abusive behavior of their mother by disassociating with “womanly activities,” including child rearing, and abusing their wives </li></ul><ul><li>(Berko & Erez, 2005; DeMause, 2002; Lachkar, 2002; Steiner, 1974) </li></ul>
  22. 22. Cycle of Abuse Misogynist culture oppresses women Women take out frustration on their sons Sons become resentful and reject women and feminine roles
  23. 23. Borderline personality <ul><li>cycle of abusive and neglectful child-rearing practices may lead to borderline personalities (Lachkar, 2002) </li></ul>
  24. 24. Marketing martyrdom to children <ul><li>Erikson’s theory of developmental psychology </li></ul><ul><li>adolescents seeking to define themselves are susceptible to propaganda </li></ul><ul><li>(Erikson, 1968) </li></ul>
  25. 25. Example <ul><li>Palestinian Authority’s 2001 Martyrdom Campaign </li></ul><ul><li>5-minute music video </li></ul><ul><li>with in 1 year 3 child suicide bombers quoted lines from the video in farewell letters </li></ul><ul><li>(Timmerman, 2002) </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>Palestinian Authority’s 2001 Martyrdom Campaign </li></ul><ul><li>21 suicide attacks in 12 years prior to 2001 campaign </li></ul><ul><li>110 suicide attacks in 3 years following 2001 campaign </li></ul><ul><li>(Yom & Saleh, 2004) </li></ul>
  27. 27. Creating a martyr (Hudson, 1999; Soibelman, 2004) Sympathizer Passive supporter Group member Martyr
  28. 28. Moral disengagement <ul><li>Moral justification </li></ul><ul><li>Displacement of responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Minimization of victim suffering </li></ul><ul><li>Dehumanization of victims </li></ul><ul><li>(Hudson, 1999) </li></ul>
  29. 29. Incentives <ul><li>Social </li></ul><ul><ul><li>elevation of social status of the martyr and family (Post, Sprinzak, & Denny, 2003; Post, 2005) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Economic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>family receives financial aid or reward (Post, et al., 2003) </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Incentives cont. <ul><li>Religious </li></ul><ul><ul><li>forgiveness of sins, fulfillment of denied sexual desires, interceding on behalf of family at judgment (Knapp, 2003; Soibelman, 2004) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Psychological </li></ul><ul><ul><li>creating meaning and purpose in life, proclaim a sense of identity, achieve self-worth (Kaplan, 1981; Moghadam, 2003) </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Suicide <ul><li>Some contradicting findings </li></ul><ul><li>However, majority of research finds that militant martyrs have similar risk factors for suicide as traditional suicidal individuals (Berko & Erez, 2005; Lester, Yang, & Lindsay, 2004; Post, 2005) </li></ul>
  32. 32. Results
  33. 33. Frustrating environment (FE) <ul><li>an environment that does not meet the expectations of the individual </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ex. oppressive, lack of shelter, lack of safety, lack of food, lack of individual expression, lack of self-determination, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Frustration Continuum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FE Non-FE </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Ego strength (ES) <ul><li>the extent to which one’s sense of self has been impacted by psychological victimization </li></ul><ul><li>Ego Strength Continuum </li></ul><ul><li>Positive ES Negative ES </li></ul>
  35. 35. Traditional view <ul><li>Social problems vs. individual psychopathy </li></ul><ul><li>it’s EITHER/OR </li></ul>
  36. 36. ES-FT view <ul><li>Frustration interacts with individual psychology </li></ul><ul><li>it’s BOTH </li></ul>
  37. 37. more specifically… <ul><li>frustration interacts with ego strength to create certain tendencies </li></ul>
  38. 38. Ego Strength-Frustration Tendencies (ES-FT) Model Socially integrated Acculturated Political Activist Militant group leader Militant group member Positive Ego Strength Socially isolated Withdrawn Depressed Militant martyr Self-sacrificial martyr Martyrdom-group leader Negative Ego Strength Non-Frustrating Environment Frustrating Environment
  39. 39. Clinical Implications
  40. 40. <ul><li>theory allows both parties a means of reassessing their current actions, current motivations, desired outcomes, and opportunities for collaboration </li></ul>
  41. 41. <ul><li>theory warrants the provider with an outline, similar to current treatments for abused persons, for working with individuals </li></ul>
  42. 42. <ul><li>theory helps replace the image of a murderous, abhorrent perpetrator of mass atrocities with that of a human being, with human needs and human frailties </li></ul>
  43. 43. <ul><li>mental health professionals can devise treatments at the individual and group level to help resolve some of the psychological ailments faced after enduring systemic victimization </li></ul>
  44. 44. References <ul><li>Baines, P., & Worcester, R. M. (2005). When the British 'Tommy' went to war, public opinion followed. Journal of Public Affairs, 5(1), 4-19. </li></ul><ul><li>Bar-Tal, D. (2005). The influence of events and (mis)information on Israeli-Jewish public opinion: The case of the Camp David Summit and the second intifada. Palestine -Israel Journal of Politics, Economics & Culture, 11(3/4), 112-124. </li></ul><ul><li>Berko, A. & Erez, E. (2005). “Ordinary people” and “death work”: Palestinian suicide bombers as victimizers and victims. Violence and Victims , 20(6), 603-623. </li></ul><ul><li>Coney, J. (2003). Martyrdom 2. In Religion, psychology, and violence. Retrieved January 19, 2004, from http://clam.rutgers.edu/~jerryk/ReligionAndPsychology/Martyrdom2.htm </li></ul><ul><li>DeMause, L. (2002). The childhood origins of terrorism. Journal of Psychohistory , 29, 340-348. </li></ul><ul><li>Dermody, J., & Scullion, R. (2003). Facing the future: Young people's awareness of the 2001 British general election advertising campaigns. Journal of Public Affairs, 3(2), 152-165. </li></ul><ul><li>De Silva, H., Hobbs, C., & Hanks, H. (2001). Conscription of children in armed conflict--a form of child abuse. A study of 19 former child soldiers. Child Abuse Review , 10, 125-134. </li></ul><ul><li>Dollard, J., Doob, L., Miller, N., Mowrer, O., & Sear, R. (1939). Frustration and aggression . New Haven: Yale University Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Elnur, I. (2003). 11 September and the widening North-South gap: Root causes of terrorism in the global order. Arab Studies Quarterly , 25(1&2), 57-70. </li></ul><ul><li>Erikson, E.H. (1968). Identity: Youth and crisis . New York: W.W. Norton. </li></ul><ul><li>Hafez, M.M. (2006). Rationality, culture, and structure in the making of suicide bombers: A preliminary theoretical synthesis and illustrative case study. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism , 29, 165-185. </li></ul><ul><li>Hammond, A. (1998). Terrorism’s roots. Christian Science Monitor , 90(220), 11. </li></ul><ul><li>Hill, P. (2002, October 20). Studies say elites spurred to terror. The Washington Times . </li></ul><ul><li>Hudson, R.A. (1999). The sociology and psychology of terrorism: Who becomes a terrorist and why? Washington, D.C.: Federal Research Division, Library of Congress. </li></ul><ul><li>Janowitz, N. (2006). Lusting for death: Unconscious fantasies in an ancient Jewish martyrdom text. Psychoanalytic Psychology , 23(4), 644-653. </li></ul><ul><li>Jensen, R.J., Burkholder, T. R., & Hammerback, J. C. (2003, Fall). Martyrs for a just cause: The eulogies of Cesar Chavez. Western Journal of Communication, 67(4), 335-356. </li></ul><ul><li>Kaganovskiy, J. (2003). From child to terrorist. In Religion, psychology, and violence. Retrieved January 19, 2004, from http://clam.rutgers.edul~jerryk/ReligionAndPsychology/FromChildtoTerrorist.htm </li></ul><ul><li>Kaplan, A. (1981). The psychodynamics of terrorism. In Y. Alexander & J. Gleason (Eds.), Behavioral and Quantitative Perspectives on Terrorism , 35-50. New York: Pergamon. </li></ul><ul><li>Knapp, M.G. (2003, Spring). The concept and practice of jihad in Islam. Parameters, US Army War College Quarterly, pp. 82-94. </li></ul><ul><li>Krueger, A.B. & Maleckova, J. (2002, June 24). Does poverty cause terrorism? The economics and the education of suicide bombers. The New Republic , 27-33. </li></ul><ul><li>Kushner, H.W. (1996). Suicide bombers. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism , 19, 329-337. </li></ul>
  45. 45. References cont. <ul><li>Lachkar, J. (2002). The psychological make-up of a suicide bomber. Journal of Psychohistory , 20, 349-367. </li></ul><ul><li>Laqueur, W. (2004). The terrorism to come. Policy Review , 49-64. </li></ul><ul><li>Lester, D., Yang, B., & Lindsay, M. (2004). Suicide bombers: Are psychological profiles possible? Studies in Conflict & Terrorism , 27, 283-295. </li></ul><ul><li>Li, Q., & Brewer, M. B. (2004). What does it mean to be an American? Patriotism, nationalism, and American identity after 9/11. Political Psychology, 25(5), 727-739. </li></ul><ul><li>McGoldrick, P. (2005, May). Repetitive messages. Broadcast Engineering, 47(5), 106-106. </li></ul><ul><li>Miller, N.E. (1941). The frustration-aggression hypothesis. Psychology Review , 48(4), 337-342. </li></ul><ul><li>Moghadam, A. (2003). Palestinian suicide terrorism in the Second Intifada: Motivations and organizational aspects. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism , 26(2) . </li></ul><ul><li>Pfefferbaum, B., Pfefferbaum, R.L., Gurwitch, R.H., Doughty, D.E., Pynoos, R. S., Foy, D. W., Brandt, E.N., & Reddy, C. (2004). Teacher's psychological reactions & weeks after the 1995 Oklahoma City bombing. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 74(3), 263-271. </li></ul><ul><li>Pfefferbaum, B., Sconzo, G.M., Flynn, B.W., Kearns, L.J., Doughty, D.E., Gurwitch, R.H., Nixon, S.J., & Nawaz, S. (2003). Case finding and mental health services for children in the aftermath of the Oklahoma City bombing. The Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research, 30(2), 215-227. </li></ul><ul><li>Post, J.M. (2005). When hatred is bred in the bone: Psycho-cultural foundations of contemporary terrorism. Political Psychology , 26(4), 615-636. </li></ul><ul><li>Post, J., Sprinzak, E., & Denny, L. (2003). The terrorists in their own words: Interviews with 35 incarcerated Middle Eastern terrorists. Terrorism and Political Violence , 15(1), 171-184. </li></ul><ul><li>Rosenberger, J. (2003). Discerning the behavior of the suicide bomber. Journal of Religion & Health , 42, 13-20. </li></ul><ul><li>Salib, E. (2003). Suicide Terrorism. British Journal of Psychiatry , 182, 475-476. </li></ul><ul><li>Shaffer, B.D. (1975). Violence as a product of imposed order. University of Miami Law Review , 29(4), 732-763. </li></ul><ul><li>Shameen, A. (2002, May 6). Secrets of the mosque. Time Europe, 159(18), 42-44. Retrieved January 13, 2004, from Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection Database. </li></ul><ul><li>Soibelman, M. (2004). Palestinian Suicide Bombers. Journal of Investigative Psychology and Offender Profiling , 1, 175-190. </li></ul><ul><li>Steiner, C. (1974). Scripts People Live . New York: Grove. </li></ul><ul><li>Taylor, M. (1988). The Terrorist . New York: Brassey’s Defense Publishers. </li></ul><ul><li>Timmerman, K. R. (2002, December 24). Prime-time hate from Arafat TV. Insight on the News, 19(1), 35-37. Retrieved January 21, 2004, from Regional Business News Database. </li></ul><ul><li>Tomar, H. (2003). Martyrdom 1. In Religion, psychology, and violence. Retrieved January 19, 2004, from http://clam.rutgers.edu/~jerryk/ReligionAndPsychology/Martyrdoml.htm. </li></ul><ul><li>Volkan, V. (2002). September 11 and societal regression. Group Analysis , 35, 456-483. </li></ul><ul><li>Von Hippel, K. (2002). The roots of terrorism: Probing the myths. The Political Quarterly , Supplement 1, 73 , 25-39. </li></ul><ul><li>Walsh, Y. (2001). Deconstructing 'brainwashing' within cults as an aid to counseling psychologists. Counseling Psychology Quarterly, 14(2), 119-128. </li></ul><ul><li>Yom, S. & Saleh, B. (2004, November) Palestinian suicide bombers: A statistical analysis. Economists for Peace & Security . Retrieved July 7, 2007, from www.epsusa.org. </li></ul>
  46. 46. Questions and Comments

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