Flow of Presentation
A carbon credit is a
provides the holder
of the credit the right
to emit one ton of
carbon dioxide or an
equivalent of another
The main goal of
carbon credits is the
emissions of carbon
dioxide and other
activities to reduce
the effects of global
nations are allotted
a certain number of
credits and may
trade them to help
reduce their Carbon
How to calculate Carbon Credit
• Each ton of dry tree (biomass)
weight = 1 ton of carbon.
• It is estimated that 1 ton carbon
produce 3.67 tons of Carbon
• 1 ton of Carbon dioxide not
released in atmosphere = 1 Carbon
Source: International Journal of Low Carbon Technologies, Volume 9
Present Scenario of GHG Emission
rose by 6%
in 2021 and
Total Green House Gas emitted by
India reached to 254.1 million tonnes
with the increase of 7.3%
Share of GHG emission in India
Electricity Agriculture Manufacturing
Transport Industrial Processes Fuel Combustion
Activities eligible for carbon credit
Carbon Credit: Implication on Indian
Improvement in soil health is the indirect benefit that farmer can avail
Monetising this soil carbon directly benefit the farmers as 1 tonne carbon credit equals to INR 780.
Improvement of soil health leads to increase soil carbon which enhance carbon credit
Insecticides and Pesticides depleted soil carbon level
Agriculture is impacted by climatic crises
55% Indian population depend on agriculture
Source: idronline.org, Article by- Ravi Trivedi
Indian policy on Carbon Credit
These markets helps the Indian company to trade globally and act as drivers of reducing emission.
The Government is set to launch domestic carbon market to fulfil the demand.
The share of green energy up to 50% from current 42% by 2030.
Goal to reduce 1 billion tonnes of carbon by 2030 and achieving net-zero by 2070.
In August, 2022, India ban the export of carbon credits.
The United Nations' Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) developed a carbon
credit proposal to reduce worldwide carbon emissions in a 1997 agreement known as the Kyoto
Three mechanism have been made through which countries can acquire carbon credit:
Clean Development Mechanism
International Emission Trading
Emission Trading :
A country can acquire emission units from
another country for meeting a part of their
emission reduction target.
Joint Implementation :
Country A and Country B may take part in an
emission reduction project and count the
resulting emission units towards its target.
Lack of Carbon
Buy Carbon Credits
Money invested in
Carbon Emission is
reduced because of
Clean Development Mechanism :
Under the Clean Development Mechanism(CDM) a developed
country can “sponsor” a greenhouse gas reduction project in a
developing country where the cost of greenhouse gas reduction
project activities is usually much lower, but the atmospheric
effect is globally equivalent.
The COP26 Agreement
To keep global temperature
increases below 2°C
There will be a national plan
for the assessment of carbon
Countries submitted the plan to
reduce GHG to 2025
$ 100 billion a year in climate finance
for developing countries
Developed counties to absolute
reduction in carbon emission
Countries should reach global peaking
of GHG emission as soon as possible
Source: UNEP, Global Trends in Renewable Energy
Types of Carbon Credit Markets
Who are the typical buyers and sellers?
Example: Companies like
Google, Amazon and Apple
have vowed to go ‘net zero’
Since it is impossible to fully stop greenhouse
gas emissions or absorb them back, they keep
their promise by buying carbon credits.
The buyers are typically
municipalities or any
The sellers could be
anybody who saves CO2
Example: Waste disposal
units,plantation companies, can
sell the carbon credits
Companies dealing with carbon credits
Tesla’s one of the reason for turning profit by selling
carbon emissions credits to other manufactures
In 2021, the company made $354 M (3% of revenue) from
selling carbon credits
International players :
Companies dealing with Carbon Credits in India
Indore-based Enking International
Indore-based Enking International may
become the world’s first company that
operates in the carbon markets space to
go in for an initial public offering (IPO).
Handia Forest in Madhya Pradesh
In Madhya Pradesh, it is estimated that
95 very poor rural villages would
jointly earn at least US$300,000 every
year from carbon payments by restoring
10,000 hectares of degraded community
Jindal Vijaynagar Steel
It has recently declared that by the
next 10 years it will be ready to sell
$225 million worth of saved carbon by
uses the Corex furnace technology
which prevents 15 million tonnes of
carbon from being discharged.
Powerguda in Telangana
The village in Telangana was selling 147
tonnes equivalent of saved carbon dioxide
credits. This was done by extracting bio-
diesel from 4500 Pongamia trees in their
Source: Legal Service India( Article by Gautam1)
Role of India
Indian companies are expected to corner at least 10 % of the global market.
India is expected to rake in $ 100 million annually by trading in carbon credits.
India is the world’s 3rd largest emitter of carbon dioxide with its present share in
global emissions estimated at 7 %.
It will contribute to the vision of green house gas reduction by adopting
alternative source of energy.
Not being properly
Industries in the some
nations are purchasing legal
rights to pollute the
Industries are purchasing more
allowances rather than implementing
Carbon reduction at one
place and carbon emission at
some other place.
What factors prevented the carbon markets from evolving?
There were three major issues relating to the carbon market :
Human Rights Abuses
Double counting refers
to a situation where two
parties claim the same
carbon removal or
market their green
Global climate markets
raise critical questions
about justice since they
tend to benefit the
countries that are most
How To Invest in Carbon Credits ?
An exchange traded fund (ETF) is a low-risk pooled of securities. A carbon-credit ETF tracks regulations of
the carbon market.
E.g. The KraneShares Global Carbon Strategy ETF (KRBN) is largest ETFs with $ 705.17 million in FY
2020-21 which tracks carbon-credit futures contracts.
Carbon-Credit Futures Contract
Carbon Credit can also be traded in future market. A future contract is a type of derivative in which two
parties agree to trade a specific asset at a specific future date for a specific price agreed today.
This is indirectly invest in carbon credits by investing in companies that trade them.
E.g. Microsoft has announced its goal of becoming “carbon negative” by 2030, and as a part of that effort,
contracted 1.3 million carbon offset credits for 2021.
Source: “Carbon credits investments” Article by- Laurel Tincher
Future of Carbon Credits
o Climate Change is potentially the biggest challenge.
o While carbon trading is not only the solution to climate
change, But it is a mechanism that allows industry to
mobilize its existing resources into greener and more
environmentally friendly technologies.
o Within the next 10 to 20 years carbon is likely to be the most
traded commodity in the world.
o According to International Emissions Trading Association,
carbon prices in compliance market touch to $ 67 per metric
ton by 2030.
The voluntary carbon market could grow up
to 25-fold by 2050.
The annual global demand for carbon credits
could reach up to 1.5 to 2 billion metric tons
of carbon dioxide by 2030 and up to 7 to 13
billion metric tons by mid-century.
Total 1,565 companies with $12.5 trillion in
revenue have set net-zero targets by 2030.
Source: Article by Dorothy Neufeld
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