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The role of quantum cryptography in today's world and how it was used in the 2003 fifa world cup and the advances quantum cryptography is making in providing security and showing that how it is next step in the security world.

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  1. 1. Quantum Cryptography Harsh Dawar Sumit Kadyan
  2. 2. •Introduction • Quantum cryptography is the one of the most successful application of Quantum Computing/InformationTheory. • For the first time in history, we can use the forces of nature to implement perfectly secure cryptosystems. • Quantum cryptography has been proved to work practically.
  3. 3. •State of the art • ClassicalCryptography(RSA) relies heavily on the complexity of factoring integers. • Future Quantum Computers can use Shor’s Algorithm to efficiently break today’s cryptosystems. • Quantum computers can solve factoring problems in polynomial time. What happens when that day arrives?
  4. 4. •Today’s Talk • Basic Ideas in Cryptography • Ideas from the QuantumWorld • Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) • BB84 without eavesdropping • BB84 with eavesdropping • Working Prototypes • Practical Implementation of QC • Conclusion
  5. 5. •Basic Ideas of Cryptography • Cryptography: “the coding and decoding of secret messages.” • The basic idea is to modify a message so as to make it unintelligible to anyone but the intended recipient. • For message (plaintext) M, e(M, K) encryption - ciphertext d[e(M, K), K] = M decryption
  6. 6. •Keys and key distribution  K is called the key.  The key is known only to sender and receiver: it is secret.  Anyone who knows the key can decrypt the message.  Key distribution is the problem of exchanging the key between sender and receiver.
  7. 7. •Perfect Secrecy and OTP  There exist perfect cryptosystems.  Example: One-Time Pad (OTP)  The problem of distributing the keys in the first place remains.  Key length has to be same as message length!!
  8. 8. •Quantum Key Distribution  Using the laws of quantum mechanics, we can distribute keys in perfect secrecy!!  The Result:The Perfect Cryptosystem, QC = QKD + OTP
  9. 9. •Quantum Physics Basics  Physical Qubits  Any subatomic particle can be used to represent a qubit, e.g. an electron.  A photon is a convenient choice.  A photon is an electromagnetic wave.
  10. 10. •Polarization • A photon has a property called polarization, which is the plane in which the electric field oscillates. • We can use photons of different polarizations to represent quantum states:   0 state 0 90 state 1
  11. 11. •Ideas from Quantum World  Measurement  Observing, or measuring, a quantum system will alter its state.  Example: the Qubit  When observed, the state of a qubit will collapse to unpredictable random state 1 or 0.
  12. 12. •Polarizers & Basics • A device called a polarizer allows us to place a photon in a particular polarization • The polarization basis is frame of reference for quantum measurement.
  13. 13. •Measuring Photons • A calcite crystal can be used to recover the bits encoded into a stream of photons. 13 CaCO3 Diagonal axis (X) 1 0 1 0
  14. 14. •Uncertainty Principle • What if the crystal has the wrong orientation? 14 CaCO3 RECTILINEAR axis(+) ??? 50% chance of getting right answer. Either | or ---
  15. 15. •No Cloning theorem • It is impossible to make a device that perfectly copies an unknown qubit. • Suppose there is a quantum process that implements: |q,_> ->|q,q>
  16. 16. •Quantum Key Distribution • Quantum Key Distribution exploits the effects discussed in order to thwart eavesdropping. • If an eavesdropper uses the wrong polarization basis to measure the channel, the result of the measurement will be random.
  17. 17. •QKD Protocols • A protocol is a set of rules governing the exchange of messages over a channel. • There are three main security protocols for QKD: BB84, B92, and Entanglement-Based QKD. • Lets discuss the BB84 in detail.
  18. 18. •BB84 • BB84 was the first security protocol implementingQuantum Key Distribution. • It uses the idea of photon polarization. • The key consists of bits that will be transmitted as photons. • Each bit is encoded with a random polarization basis!
  19. 19. •BB84 With no Eavesdropping • Alice is going to send Bob a key. • She begins with a random sequence of bits. • Bits are encoded with a random basis, and then sent to Bob: Bit 0 1 0 1 1 Basis + × × + × Photon
  20. 20. •BB84 With no Eavesdropping • Bob receives the photons and must decode them using a random basis. • Some of his measurements are correct. Photon Basis? + + × + × Bit? 0 0 0 1 1
  21. 21. •BB84 With no eavesdropper • Alice and Bob talk on the public encrypted channel: • Alice chooses a subset of the bits (the test bits) and reveals which basis she used to encode them to Bob. • Bob tells Alice which basis he used to decode the same bits.
  22. 22. •Comparing measurements Alice’s Bit 0 1 0 1 1 Alice’s Basis + × × + × Photon Bob’s Basis + + × + × Bob’s Bit 0 0 0 1 1 The test bits allow Alice and Bob to test whether the channel is secure.
  23. 23. •The Catch • As long as no errors and/or eavesdropping have occurred, the test bits should agree. • Alice and Bob have now made sure that the channel is secure.The test bits are removed. • Alice tells Bob the basis she used for the other bits, and they both have a common set of bits: the final key!
  24. 24. •Deriving the final key Alice’s Bit 0 1 0 1 1 Alice’s Basis + × × + × Photon Bob’s Basis + + × + × Bob’s Bit 0 0 0 1 1 Final Key = 01 Test bits discarded
  25. 25. •In the presence of eavesdropper • If an eavesdropper Eve tries to tap the channel, this will automatically show up in Bob’s measurements. • In those cases where Alice and Bob have used the same basis, Bob is likely to obtain an incorrect measurement: Eve’s measurements are bound to affect the states of the photons.
  26. 26. Eavesdropper Effect
  27. 27. •In the presence of Eavesdropper • As Eve intercepts Alice’s photons, she has to measure them with a random basis and send new photons to Bob. • The photon states cannot be cloned (non- cloneability). • Eve’s presence is always detected: measuring a quantum system irreparably alters its state.
  28. 28. •QKD - Review
  29. 29. •BB84 – Key Distillation  Sifting –Unmatched Bases; “stray” or “lost” qubits  Error Correction – Noise & Eaves-dropping detected – Uses “cascade” protocol – Reveals information to Eve so need to track this.  Privacy Amplification – reduces Eve’s knowledge obtained by previous EC  Authentication – avoid man-in- middle attacks .Many protocols in development!!
  30. 30. Researchers at Nokia and the University of Bristol in UK have come up with quantum cryptography in mobile phones. Goal: To perform "quantum key distribution" (QKD) using simple and potentially inexpensive "client" electronics that could be integrated within a single chip.
  31. 31. •Making use of twisting and turning • Makes use of the Reference independent frame QKD[RfiQKD] • Polarization or phase is measured in context with a reference frame • They select a specific threshold value and drop below this value signals there is an eavesdropper .
  32. 32. •Advantages • It will help protect the password that are transmitted using mobile phones • Nokia has patented the technology and looking forward to engineer into mobile devices.
  33. 33. •Quantum City Project(Durban) • 4 Node network connected in a star configuration. • Quantum Links as long as 26Kms • Data Transmitted : data records, telephones, and internet traffic. • 99.3% of the time the system functioned effectively and was stable.
  34. 34. •Limitations of QC • Expensive :- Quantum Cryptography needs expensive dedicated equipment to be set up before keys can be exchanged. Approx. 25 Millions $ for 2000 Km network!! Survey of 500 prospective QC users show they prefer QC for banking/military purpose.
  35. 35. •Limitations • Range :- The current Range of QC systems are a maximum of 250 kms. Lot of active research is being done to increase range!! • Since one cant use repeaters or amplifiers Trusted nodes are needed to extend the Range.
  36. 36. •Breaking Quantum Crypto • Break underlying cryptography?? • Not possible!! Governed by law of physics • Attack the implementation • Hardware Attack What if the laser generates more than one photon
  37. 37. •Breaking Quantum Crypto • Measure the color of the spectrum and not the state of photon!!
  38. 38. •Future of Quantum Cryptography • QKD with satellites:- Research groups are actively working to demonstrate key exchange with satellites.
  39. 39. •Thank you!!