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Introduction Motivation can be defined as an internal condition initiated by drives, needs, or desires and producing a goal behaviour. According to Stephen P Robbins Motivation is “defined as the willingness to exert high levels of effort towards organizational goals.” According to Fred Luthans (1986) Motivation can be defined as “ a process that starts with psychological or psychological deficiency or need that activates behaviour or a drive that is aimed at a goal or incentive.”
Process of Motivation Need Drive / goal Directed behavior Goal Incentives / Relief
Nature and Importance ofMotivation Motivated employees are required It helps organization to survive Motivated employees are more productive
Motivating tools The best employee motivation efforts focus on what employees deem to be important. Many organizations find flexibility in job design. Helps in increasing productivity and better morale. Motivation includes issues of emotion, support, capability.
Employee InvolvementProgrammeForms of employee involvement programmes are:- 1. Employee Involvement TeamsGroup of employees who work on solvingproblems. 2. Participative MangementDegree of decision making power share withtheir supervisors.
3.Representative participationRepresented by a small group who actuallyparticipate. 4. Quality CirclesSmall groups of employees who workvoluntarily in the company time.
Theories of Motivation There are a number of different views as to what motivates workers The most commonly held views or theories will be discussed and have been developed over the last 100 years or so Unfortunately these theories do not all reach the same conclusions !!
Frederick Winslow Taylor (1856 – 1917) Workers are motivated mainly by pay Theory of Scientific Management:-• Workers do not naturally enjoy work and so need close supervision and control• Therefore managers should break down production into a series of small tasks• Workers should then be given appropriate training and tools so they can work as efficiently as possible on one set task• Workers are then paid according to the number of items they produce in a set period of time- piece-rate pay• As a result workers are encouraged to work hard and maximise their productivity
Taylor’s methods were widely adopted as businesses saw the benefits of increased productivity levels and lower unit costs The most notably advocate was Henry Ford who used them to design the first ever production line, making Ford cars This was the start of the era of mass production Taylor’s approach has close links with the concept of an autocratic management style (managers take all the decisions and simply give orders to those below them) Macgregor’s Theory X approach to workers (workers are viewed as lazy and wish to avoid responsibility)
However workers soon came to dislike Taylor’s approach as they were only given boring, repetitive tasks to carry out and were being treated little better than human machines Firms could also afford to lay off workers as productivity levels increased This led to an increase in strikes and other forms of industrial action by dis- satisfied workers
Elton Mayo (1880 – 1949) Workers are not just concerned with money but could be better motivated by having their social needs met whilst at work He focused on managers taking more of an interest in the workers, treating them as people who have worthwhile opinions and realising that workers enjoy interacting together
Mayo conducted a series of experiments at the Hawthorne factory of the Western Electric Company in Chicago He isolated two groups of women workers and studied the effect on their productivity levels of changing factors such as lighting and working conditions. He expected to see productivity levels decline as lighting or other conditions became progressively worse What he actually discovered surprised him, whatever the change in lighting or working conditions, the productivity levels of the workers improved or remained the same
From this Mayo concluded that workers are best motivated by:- Better communication between managers and workers (workers were consulted over the experiments and also had the opportunity to give feedback) Greater manager involvement in employees working lives (workers responded to the increased level of attention they were receiving) Working in groups or teams (workers did not previously regularly work in teams)In practice therefore businesses should re-organiseproduction to encourage greater use of teamworking and introduce personnel departments toencourage greater manager involvement in lookingafter employees’ interests
Abraham Maslow (1908 – 1970) Abraham Maslow along with Frederick Herzberg introduced the Neo-Human Relations School in the 1950’s, which focused on the psychological needs of employees Maslow put forward a theory that there are five levels of human needs which employees need to have fulfilled at work All of the needs are structured into a hierarchy and only once a lower level of need has been fully met Worker will be motivated by the opportunity of having the next need up in the hierarchy to be satisfied
Frederick Herzberg Motivators are more concerned with the actual job itself Interesting the work is and how much opportunity it gives for extra responsibility, recognition and promotion Herzberg believed that businesses should motivate employees by adopting a democratic approach to management Improving the nature and content of the actual job through certain methods
Some of the methods managers could use to achieve this are:- Job enlargement – workers being given a greater variety of tasks to perform (not necessarily more challenging) which should make the work more interesting. Job enrichment - involves workers being given a wider range of more complex, interesting and challenging tasks surrounding a complete unit of work. This should give a greater sense of achievement. Empowerment means delegating more power to employees to make their own decisions over areas of their working life.