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Нил Хартман для Knowledge Stream

Профессор Слоуновской школы менеджмента при MIT Нил Хартман рассказал в Digital October, какие ошибки случаются, если вы строите компанию с представителями различных культур или пытаетесь перенести глобальные практики бизнеса на чужеродную почву, и как их избежать.

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Нил Хартман для Knowledge Stream

  1. 1. Knowledge Stream 1000 and 1 Entrepreneur Cultures Prof. Neal Hartman E62-342 MIT Sloan School of Management
  2. 2. Agenda • • • • Trends in Entrepreneurship Profile of Entrepreneurs Key Competencies for Intercultural Communication Dimensions of Culture – Definition – Experiences – Values and perceptions – Low context or high context • Intercultural Communication: A Strategic Approach
  3. 3. Trends in Entrepreneurship • Total early-stage activity increased in many economies • Rose 25% among 16 developing economies • China, Argentina, and Chile above-average rates * The Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) 2011 Global Report
  4. 4. Trends in Entrepreneurship • Twenty mature economies experienced a nearly 22% Total early-stage activity increase • United States and Australia showed substantial increases
  5. 5. Trends in Entrepreneurship • Intent to start a business is highest in emerging economies • People are most likely to see opportunities and believe in their ability to start a business • They hold entrepreneurship in high regard
  6. 6. Trends in Entrepreneurship • Expectations to start a business are also high in some middle-stage developing economies: China, Chile, and Brazil • These measures tend to fall as countries rise in economic development – Russia and the United Arab Emirates have the lowest entrepreneurial intention rates across the sample
  7. 7. Profile of Entrepreneurs • 163 million early-stage entrepreneurs are women • 165 million early-stage entrepreneurs are young entrepreneurs (age 18 to 25) • 69 million early-stage entrepreneurs are offering innovative products and services • 18 million early-stage entrepreneurs are selling 25% internationally
  8. 8. Intercultural Communication Key competencies Analytical Emotional Understanding beliefs, values and practices of other cultures Intercultural empathy; respect Creative Behavioral Ability to see the synergistic Ability to discern different potential of diverse cultural messages (verbal perspectives and nonverbal)
  9. 9. What is culture? One definition Values and perspectives shared by people who are conditioned by similar education and life experience.
  10. 10. Key characteristics of culture • Culture is not inherent, but learned. • Culture is rooted in deep-seated beliefs. • Culture is the basis for self-identity and community. • Culture is dynamic.
  11. 11. Culture can encompass a variety of experiences Culture Region Country Area Community Business Industry Company Department Group School Club
  12. 12. Culture can differ on values and perceptions Values  Individualism and collectivism Perceptions  Perceptions of  High context and low context – Space  Criteria for/definitions of success – Time  Nature of change  Importance of hierarchies – Gender roles  Nature of – Authority – Humor
  13. 13. Culture may be classified as low or high context Low Context Cultures Tend To… High Context Cultures Tend To… Prefer direct verbal interaction Prefer indirect verbal interaction Understand meaning at one level Understand meanings at many levels Be less proficient in reading nonverbal cues Be more proficient in reading non-verbal cues Value individualism Value group membership Say “no” directly Talk around point; avoid saying “no” Communicate in highly structured messages Rely more on context and feelings
  14. 14. Intercultural communication – A strategic approach Cultures Differ on Communication Practices • • • • • Emphasis on task or relationship-building Role of written communication and meetings Patterns of reasoning and argumentation Level of formality in interpersonal communication Style of oral presentations
  15. 15. Intercultural communication – A strategic approach Communication Behaviors Observe Nonverbal Behaviors      Eye contact Facial expressions Gestures Display of emotions Space and spatial zones
  16. 16. Intercultural communication – A strategic approach Follow Culturally Responsive Strategies Knowledge of Other Culture High Allow/Induce counterpart to follow own cultural script Improvise creatively Use mediator Embrace counterpart’s cultural script Counterpart Low Low You High Knowledge of Other Culture
  17. 17. Intercultural communication – A strategic approach • Avoid ethnocentrism • Look beyond stereotypes Approach Communication Openly • Seek common ground • Observe non-verbal cues • Study your own and other cultures