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Health Promotion
Supervised by
Prof. Nawal Soliman
Presented by
Fatma Ibrahim Abdel-latif Megahed
At the end of this lecture the students will be
able to:
1. Define Health Promotion & Related
2. Dis...
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  1. 1. See discussions, stats, and author profiles for this publication at: Health Promotion Presentation · November 2021 CITATIONS 0 READS 148 1 author: Some of the authors of this publication are also working on these related projects: Guar gum & Iron deficiency anemia among the patients with inflammatory bowel disease View project Fatma Ibrahim Abdel-Latif Megahed Suez Canal University 30 PUBLICATIONS 7 CITATIONS SEE PROFILE All content following this page was uploaded by Fatma Ibrahim Abdel-Latif Megahed on 15 November 2021. The user has requested enhancement of the downloaded file.
  2. 2. Health Promotion Supervised by Prof. Nawal Soliman Presented by Fatma Ibrahim Abdel-latif Megahed
  3. 3. Objectives: At the end of this lecture the students will be able to: 1. Define Health Promotion & Related Concepts. 2. Discuss Health Promotion Models. 3. Identify 3 Strategies for Health Promotion Practice. 4. Identify Health promotion programs. 5. Evaluate Health Promotion Programs.
  4. 4.  Introduction:  In fact, many continuously attempt to change unhealthy behaviors.  Changing habits may begin at the individual or family level, but maintaining change relies on reinforcement and approval at the community level.  Program efforts need to focus on the whole community (family, the media, employers, educators, voluntary and professional organizations).
  5. 5.  Definition of health promotionrelated concepts : oHealthPromotion: It is the process of enabling people to increase control over and to improve their health by developing their resources that maintain or enhance well-being and maximize their human potential. oHeathEducation: Heath Promotion and Health Education are terms that are sometimes used interchangeably but this is incorrect because health education is only a part of health promotion.
  6. 6.  Cont.: oLife style: It is the most critical modifiable factor influencing the health day which include: nutrition, exercise, rest & sleep, safety, immunization and periodic health examination. HealthMaintenance: It is the act of incorporating this health promoting action into life style, leading to maintain ones health on a continuing basis.
  7. 7.  Health Promotion Models: 1. Precaution AdoptionProcessModel. 2. HealthBeliefModel. 3. Pender'sHealthPromotionModel. 4. Precede-ProceedModel.
  8. 8.  Cont. 1. Precaution AdoptionProcessModel: • Describe the stages that occur in deciding to adopt or not adopt a health-Related behavior 7stages (from awareness to action): • Stage.1 Unaware of the health _ related issue and the need to adopt any particular health related behavior. • Stage.2 Aware of the issue but unengaged by it . • Stage.3 Decide to act or not to act. (Deciding)
  9. 9.  Cont. • Stage.4 Decide not to act. (stop) • Stage.5 Decide to act. • Stage.6 Act and engage in the behavior. • Stage.7 The behavior become a routine in there lifestyle. ( maintenance)
  10. 10.  Cont. 2. HealthBeliefModel: • It has been widelyused in research and programdevelopment relatedto health-promoting behaviors. • Elements ofthe model include: a) Individual perceptionsof susceptibilityand seriousness. b) Modifying factors(demographic, psychosocial, and structural variables). c) Perceptionsof benefitsand barriersto action. • Health- promotive action based on 4 basic beliefs: I.First, one believes that one is susceptible to, or at risk for, a particular health problem.
  11. 11.  Cont. II.Second, One believes that the health problem can have serious consequences. III.Third, One believes that the problem can be prevented. IV.Fourth, That the benefits of action outweigh the costs or barriers. • For example, People with asymptomatic hypertension (family history) may not follow the treatment unless they accept that they have hypertension and they must understand HTN can lead to heart attacks and stork take treatment will reduce risk without negative side effect.
  12. 12.  Cont. 3. Pender'sHealthPromotionModel: • In thehealth promotionmodel, behavior isinfluenced by, a) Individual characteristics(bio-psycho social and cultural factors), Forexample, Aclient who wasphysically activepriorto pregnancy willbeengage in exercise afterdelivery. b) Behavior-specific cognitions& affect (emotionwhich include the perceivedbenefitsof & barriersto health-promoting activity) that result ina commitment toaction, Forexample, Iffamily members support weight loss, theclient ismore likelytostick to adiet.
  13. 13.  Cont. 4. Precede-ProceedModel: • Ithas beenwidelyused in health educationpracticeand consists of two components. a) The PRECEDE component.(Diagnostic element prior to planning health promotion activities) b) The PROCEED component.(The development of health promotion interventions)
  14. 14. Cont. PRECEDE-PROCEEDModel: PRECEDE PROCEED • Reflect diagnostic activities. • P; Predisposing factors. • R; Reinforcing factors. • E; Enabling factors. • C; Constructs. • E; Education • D; Diagnosis. • E; Evaluation. • For example, You know benefits of exercise but it is winter, you cannot exercise outdoors. • Determine environmental factors that need to change. • P; Policy. • R; Regulatory. • O; Organization. • C; Constructs. • E; Education. • E; Environment. • D; Development. • For example, University could require from student to take one unit physical education course each semester.
  15. 15.  Strategies for health promotion practice: • Different strategies for health promotion affect goal accomplishment in different ways which include the following: 1.Empowerment. 2.Social Marketing. 3.Health Education.
  16. 16.  Cont. 1. Empowerment: • It involves enabling communities to acquire the knowledge and skills to make informed decisions and allowing communities to make those decisions. • It focuses on the environmental conditions that affect peoples abilities to act in ways that promote health.
  17. 17.  Cont. • Description of community empowerment: 1. Empowering individuals for personal action. 2. Empowering individuals to form small mutual assistance group. 3. Empowering groups to create community organizations. 4. Empowering community organizations to form partnerships. 5. Empowering communities to take social and political action to improve environmental conditions that affect health. For example, Smoking cessation.
  18. 18.  Cont. 2. Social Marketing: • It involves the application of commercial marketing technologies to analysis, planning, implementation and evaluation of programs designed to influence the voluntary behavior of target audiences in order to improve their personal welfare or that of their society. • It is characterized by the concept of exchange, the use of research to direct action, and the development of marketing strategies.
  19. 19.  Cont. • Phases of the social marketing process: 1. Problem description: Identification of the problem issue to be resolved. 2. Market research: Determining of characteristics of the target audience. 3. Strategy research: Creation of a tailored marketing strategy or plan of action for each segment of the target audience. Identification and allocation of resources.
  20. 20.  Cont. 4. Intervention design: Development of actual marketing messages. 5. Monitoring plan: Development of strategies for monitoring intervention effectiveness. 6. Implementation: Dissemination of marketing messages. Evaluation of the effectiveness of marketing messages.
  21. 21.  Cont. 3. Health Education: It is an activity that seeks to inform the individual on the nature and causes of health / illness and that individual's personal level of risk associated with their lifestyle – related behavior.
  22. 22.  Cont. • Purposes of Health Education: The primary purpose is to assist clients in making health – related decisions. It may equip clients to make any of three types of health related decisions: 1. Decisions about self care. 2. Decisions about the use of health resources. 3. Decisions about social health issues.
  23. 23.  Cont. • Goals of Health Education: 1. Client participation in health decision making. 2. Increased potential to comply with health recommendations. 3. Development of self care skills. 4. Improved client and family coping. 5. Increased participation in continuing care for specific conditions. 6. Adoption to healthier lifestyles.
  24. 24.  Cont. • General principles of learning: 1. To develop health education programs required time, resources, and creativity appropriately target to specific audiences. 2. Culturally diverse teams should participate in the development of health education programs for culturally diverse audience. 3. Curricula for health education programs should be developed as team efforts.
  25. 25.  Health promotionprograms: 1. Evaluation/ screening programs: It include health risk appraisals, wellness inventories, breast- self-exam, fitness evaluation, hypertension screening, multiphase screening, diet analysis& stress. 2. Education/ motivation programs: It includes health risk, appraisal interpretation, health/ wellness fairs, wellness lectures, back education drug awareness, breast-say exam. Education and fattens/ weight.
  26. 26. Cont. 3. Behavior change programs: It includes aerobic exercise, running clubs, stress management training, smoking cessation, self-care skills, nutrition modification, and weight reduction. 4. Organization enhancement programs: It include healthy food programs, air quality, smoking policies, personal policies, professional development, work site, stress assessment and employee assistance programs
  27. 27.  Evaluating health promotion programs: • Evaluation is the process of assessing what has been achieved (whether the specified goals, objectives and targets have been met) and how it has been achieved. • It likes all community health nursing activities, the effectiveness of health promotion initiatives should be evaluated.
  28. 28.  Cont. • Purposes of Evaluation: 1. To assess results and to determine if objectives have been met. 2. To justify the use of resources. 3. To demonstrate success in order to compete for scarce resources. 4. To assist future planning by providing a knowledge base. 5. To improve our own practice by building on our success and learning from our mistakes.
  29. 29.  Cont. 6. To determine the effectiveness and efficiency of different methods of health promotion. This helps in deciding the best use of resources. 7. To inform other health promoters so that they don't have to reinvent the wheel. This helps others to improve their practice.
  30. 30.  Cont. • What to Evaluate? a) What has been achieved (Outcome)? b) How it has been achieved (Process)?
  31. 31.  Cont. • Types of Evaluating Health Promotion Programs: a) Formative Evaluation (Process Evaluation): Examines the way in which the program was carried out. b) Summative Evaluation: Focuses on program outcome, impact or both.
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