Computer and their Uses types of computer

18 de Feb de 2019

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Computer and their Uses types of computer

  1. Lecture#2 YASMIN AFZAAL 1
  2. Exploring Computers and their Uses: “Computers are everywhere” • In our family car, in home appliances and even in our alarm clock • Majority of business now use computerized equipment • Most companies are networked internally and externally • More than half of all homes in the united states have at least one computer • Workers who once had little use for technology now interact with computers almost every minute of the work day. 2
  3. Cont.. • A computer controlling the automatic transmission in a car. Any radio or CD player with a digital display contains a computer of its own. Fig: Car navigation System 3
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  5. The computer defined • A computer is an electronic device that processes data, converting it information that is useful to people. • Any type of computer is controlled by programmed instructions, which give the machine a purpose and tell it what to do. 5
  6. TYPES OF COMPUTERS • Two types of computers – Digital computers – Analog computers 6
  7. Cont.. • Analog computers are used for quantities for which the exact values are not always necessary such as temperature and speed • Digital computers are used for numbers which require exact values, for example, the calculations which are carried out while constructing a bridge and other operations. 7
  8. Digital computers: • Are work “ by the numbers” • Break all types information into tiny units and use numbers to represent those pieces of information. • Digital computer, any of a class of devices capable of solving problems by processing information in discrete form. • It operates on data, including magnitudes, letters, and symbols, that are expressed in binary code— i.e., using only the two digits 0 and 1. Cont.. 8
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  10. Cont.. • Analog computers: – A lesser known computers – Earliest computers were analog systems – Early analog computers were mechanical devices weighing several tons and using motors and gears to perform calculations 10
  11. Fig: Vannevar Bush (1890–1974) with his differential analyzer Differential Analyzer – An Analog computer 11
  12. A simple kind of analog computer 12
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  14. • Computer can be categorized – by their use • used by one person • Used by groups of people • Not used by people at all – by their power • Speed at which they operate • Types of tasks they can handle – By price – By types of hardware – By kind of software 14
  15. · Computers for individual users • Computer meant for single accessibility that is used by only one user at a time e.g. Computers in lab • Also called microcomputer • Smallest computers created for people • Connected to create networks 15
  16. Cont.. • Desktop computers • Workstations • Notebook computers • Tablets computer • Handheld computers • Smart phones 16
  17. Desktop Computers • Most common type of computer • A PC design to sit on a desk or table • In schools, homes and offices. • Today’s desktop are more powerful can be used to communicate, produce music, edit photographs and videos, play games and much more. • From preschool to nuclear physicists 17
  18. Design of desktop computers Fig: tower design system unit can be placed on floor or desk Fig: traditional design , with monitor stacked on top of the system unit 18
  19. Work stations • A workstation is a special computer designed for technical or scientific applications. Intended primarily to be used by one person at a time, they are commonly connected to a local area network and run multi-user operating systems. • Specialized, single user computer • More features and power than desktop PC • Used by engineers, scientists, animators • Large high resolution monitor, accelerated graphics handling capabilities, engineering design,video editing 19
  20. Cont.. Fig: Office work stations 20
  21. Note book Computers • Have power and features of desktop PCs but are light and portable • Shape of 8.5-by-11 inch • Fit inside a brief case • Also called laptop computers • Operate on special batteries • Weightless than 8 pounds even than three pounds • Having thin monitor and keyboard • Also called mobile computers 21
  22. Cont.. • Docking station is a hardware device that allows portable computers to connect with other devices with little or no effort. • enable users with a laptop computer to convert it into a desktop computer when at the office or at home. 22
  23. Cont.. 23
  24. Tablets PC • Functionality of note book PC but are more lighter • Accept input from a special pen -Stylus or a digital pen • Used to write directly on the screen • Built-in microphones and special software accept input from user voice • Few models with fold-out keyboard can be transferred to notebook PC • Can be connected to keyboard and a full-sized monitor 24
  25. Handheld PCs • Small enough to fit in hands • Popular type of handheld computer – PDA(Personal digital assistance) • Not larger than a small appointment book • Built-in keyboard or microphones • Access internet via wireless connection • Some models have features such as cellular telephones, cameras, music players &GPS • Used for – Taking notes – Displaying telephones numbers & Addresses – Keeping track of dates and agenda 25
  26. Smart phones • a mobile phone that performs many of the functions of a computer, typically having a touchscreen interface, Internet access, and an operating system capable of running downloaded apps. Fig: Smart phone with miniature keyboard 26
  27. Computers for organizations • Handled needs of many users at the same time i.e. In schools, business • Each user interact with his or her own device • Freeing people from having to wait for their turn for a single keyboard and monitor • Support thousands of users at the same time from thousand of miles away • Some are for special purpose and mostly for general purpose 27
  28. Network servers • Individual users with desktop computers connected to one or more centralized computers called network servers • It is powerful computer with special software equipment • Clusters or server farms (dozens or hundreds of individual servers working together) 28
  29. Cont.. 29
  30. Mainframe computers • Large powerful systems, handled processing needs of thousands of users at a given time • Used in large organizations i.e. insurance company and banks • Where many people frequently need to use the same data • In traditional mainframe environment user access the mainframe resources through a device called terminal • dumb terminals and intelligent terminals 30
  31. Cont.. • Intelligent terminal – Perform some processing operations – No storage • Dumb terminal – Do not store/process data – Simply an input/output device • Can use PCs to access mainframe. 31
  32. Cont.. • Most mainframe system designed to handle specific tasks • Department of a motor vehicles – Storing information about » Drivers » Vehicles » Drivers’ licenses • Airline’s website – To reserve a seat on a flight conduct a transaction with mainframe computer Fig: Often housed alone in special rooms away from their users 32
  33. Minicomputers • Released in 1960s • Small sized • Also called midrange computers (capabilities between personnel and mainframe computers) • Handled more input/output than personal computers • Used in scientific and engineering computations, business-transaction processing, file handling, and database management 33
  34. Super computer • Largest and powerful computers • Process huge amount of data • Perform more than one trillion calculations per second • Housed thousands of processors • Used for handling complex problems – Forecasting weather – Nuclear fission 34
  35. Fig: Super computer 35
  36. Parts of a computer system • Hardware • Software • Data • User 36
  37. Software • Software is a program that enables a computer to perform a specific task • software is instructions that can be stored and ran by hardware. • Application software 37
  38. Hardware • Computer hardware are the physical parts or components of a computer, such as the monitor, keyboard, computer data storage, graphic card, sound card and motherboard. 38
  39. Data • Computer data is information processed or stored by a computer. This information may be in the form of text documents, images, audio clips, software programs, or other types of data. Computer data may be processed by the computer's CPU and is stored in files and folders on the computer's hard disk. 39
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  41. Cont.. • These processes work together and repeat over and over. • Input—entering data into the computer. • Processing—performing operations on the data. • Storage—saving data, programs, or output for future use. • Output—presenting the results. 41
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  43. Essential computer hardware • Processor • Memory • Input/output • storage 43
  44. Processor • Brain of computer • It is in motherboard • A central processing unit is the electronic circuitry within a computer that carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetic, logical, control and input/output operations specified by the instructions. 44
  45. Memory • Computer memory is any physical device capable of storing information temporarily or permanently. • RAM (random access memory) • ROM (read only memory) 45
  46. RAM • Random-access memory is a form of computer data storage that stores data and machine code currently being used. • Hold data and program instructions while the CPU works with them • Also called read/write memory 46
  47. ROM • ROM is "built-in" computer memory containing data that normally can only be read, not written to. • Non-volatile memory never loses its contents • Contains info about computer hardware • ROM contains the programming that allows your computer to be "booted up" or regenerated each time you turn it on. • . Unlike a computer's random access memory (RAM), the data in ROM is not lost when the computer power is turned off. The ROM is sustained by a small long-life battery in your computer. 47
  48. Cont.. • Tremendous effect on computer speed and power • More RAM a computer has more tasks it can do and faster it can perform tasks 48
  49. INPUT/OUTPUT DEVICES • INPUT DEVICES • Input Devices: • a) Graphics Tablets • b) Cameras • c) Video Capture Hardware • d) Trackballs • e) Barcode reader • f) Digital camera • g) Gamepad h)Joystick i) Keyboard j) Microphone k) Mouse m) Scanner n) Webcam o) Touchpads p) Pen Input 49
  50. Output devices • Monitor (LED, LCD, CRT etc.) • Printers (all types) • Plotters • Projector • Speaker(s) • Head Phone • Visual Display Unit • Film Recorder 50
  51. Both… • Both Input–OutPut Devices: • Modems • Network cards • Touch Screen • Headsets (Headset consists of Speakers and Microphone. – Speaker act Output Device and Microphone act as Input device) • Facsimile (FAX) – It has scanner to scan the document and also have printer to Print the document • Audio Cards / Sound Card 51
  52. Storages devices • a piece of computer equipment on which information can be stored. • Magnetic storage • Optical storage 52
  53. Cont.. 53
  54. • Optical storage is the storage of data on an optically readable medium. Data is recorded by making marks in a pattern that can be read back with the aid of light, usually a beam of laser light precisely focused on a spinning optical disc. Optical storage devices 54
  55. Magnetic storage • Magnetic storage or magnetic recording is the storage of data on a magnetized medium. Magnetic storage uses different patterns of magnetisation in a magnetisable material to store data and is a form of non- volatile memory. 55
  56. Material • BOOK: – Introduction to Computers Peter Norton Published by McGraw Hill – lesson 1A  Exploring computer and their uses – Lesson 1B • Looking inside the computer system • SLIDES: – Uploaded on portal 56