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This presentation explores the varieties of Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) programmes that go under this umbrella term and explains the original four Cs of CLIL: content, communication, culture and cognition. The advantages and disadvantages of implementing a CLIL approach in the curriculum will be compared and some of the learning strategies to develop the cognitive domain while teaching a foreign language will be explained. The changes required in terms of professional development for teachers and changing roles for students will be explored and the efficacy of introducing a CLIL approach for bilingualism in a globalised world will be promoted.
What is CLIL?„CLIL is an approach in which a foreignlanguage is used as a tool in thelearning of a non-languagesubject in which both language and thesubject have a joint role.‟(Marsh in Coyle, 2006).
Marsh describes CLIL as„any dual-focused educational context inwhich an additional language, thus notusually the first language of the learnersinvolved, is used as a medium in theteaching and learning of non-languagecontent‟.(2002:15)
50% Language support 50% Subject Matter Subject T teaches in English (L2) notL1 ELTeacher teaches a subject e.gScience, Art, PE, Social Sts, Literature Good practice: Teaching /Learningtheory Interactive T and L Scaffolding for both C and L Use of graphics, FHEs, multimedia
Some CLIL Strategies activating visualisations note taking/genre writing/MoE running dictation right hand/left hand split questions matching pictures
Activatingfrom Dale, Es and Tanner (2010)CLIL Skills
The Four Cs Content - Progression in knowledge, skills andunderstanding related to specific elements of adefined curriculum Communication - Using language to learnwhilst learning to use language Cognition - Developing thinking skills whichlink concept formation (abstract and concrete),understanding and language Culture - Exposure to alternative perspectivesand shared understandings, which deepenawareness of otherness and self.
The “ WorldEnglish Project”…….a new orthodoxyappears to have takenroot in the last few yearswhich could bedescribed as „The WorldEnglish Project‟. If thisproject succeeds, it couldgenerate over 2 billionnew speakers of Englishwithin a decade.Graddol D. 2006 English Next
“Content and language integratedlearning (CLIL) has emerged as asignificant curriculum trend in Europe.Similar approaches are now used,under different names, in manycountries.”Graddol D. 2006
CLIL Contexts around the World Monolingual: Students in home country learning a subjectthrough CLIL. Some students may be non-native speakers.(e.g. Slovenia) Bilingual: students learn 50 % or more curricular subjects ina second or foreign language (The Netherlands, privatebilingual schools in Argentina) Multilingual: students learn curriculum subjects in three ormore languages (Basque Country, Cataluña) Plurilingual: students learn several languages, one or moreof which may be through CLIL. (Australia) Light: English language teachers introduce subject topicsinto ELT
CLIL Essentials 1NO direct language teaching in terms ofgrammar and vocabulary lists out ofcontext. All language must beEXTRACTED from thetexts/literature/ information andscaffolded using graphicorganisers/preteaching/substitution tables.
CLIL Essentials 2The Task:…….a piece of classroom work whichinvolves learners in comprehending,manipulating, producing or interactingin the target language while theirattention is principally focused onmeaning rather than form…. Nunan 88
Note takingGenre writingMoE(Mantle of the Expert)
CE 6: Graphic Organisers Focus the brain on deeper understanding Organise thoughts Are brain friendly (ie not linear) Encompass whole concepts without using toomany words Appeal to the spatially intelligent Appeal to the visual learner Encourage Sts to use different channels of learning
My personal NILE training Catalonian Secondary Subject Teachers French Secondary Subject Teachers Madrid Primary Language Teachers Madrid Primary Subject Teachers Majorcan Primary Subject and Lang. TsTeachers Austrian Secondary Subject and Lang. Ts Polish University Academic SubjectProfessors
I have to teach Musicthrough English inSeptember! How?I‟m reallyworried. Idon‟t knowthe Englishfor thelanguage ofSports.I‟m anEnglishLanguageteacher, nota scienceteacher.I love designing my materials forCLIL Science. It‟s changed mywhole life!The work my studentsproduce is amazing! Ican‟t believe how theywork in groups and helpeach other.How do I plan aCLIL lesson? I haveNO IDEA!I don‟t want todo this. I wantto teach MYsubject in MYlanguage.The parentsare not goingto like this!
Government Motivation forintroducing CLIL An innovative method to teach a foreignlanguage An innovative way to teach a subject Contribution to internationalization andmultilingualism A political move As an economic measure- to save salaries To contribute to economic growth
Teacher Beliefs and Attitudes a willingness to change a desire to learn something new a belief in the efficacy of CLIL motivation to learn the why, the what andthe how… linking the CLIL programme with schoolethos a willingness to design materials a willingness to work with others
ImplicationsThe CLIL Teacher‟s Competencies Grid defining CLIL adopting an approach to CLIL adapting CLIL to the local context integrating CLIL into the curriculum articulating quality assurance measures Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills(BICS) (Cummins) Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency(CALP) (Cummins)
Changes methodology for integrating both language andcontent creating rich and supportive target languageenvironments making input comprehensible learning to use teacher talk effectively promoting student comprehensible output attending to the different learning styles ofstudents continuous improvement in accuracyMehisto et al. 2008 Pg 232-236
Teacher Skills for CLILLanguage of teaching of learning activities of assessment of classroommanagementContent knowing the subject designing the course building new rolesand relationships new ways to assess
Long and Past Experience1975The Bullock ReportA Language for Life,published in EnglandEach school should have anorganised policy for languageacross the curriculum,establishing every teachersinvolvement in language andreading developmentthroughout the years ofschooling. (137-139; 190;89; 171)
Precursors of CLILProject WorkThematic CyclesContent-Based Instruction (CBI)Content-Based Learning (CBL)English for Specific Purposes (ESP)Cognitive Academic Language Learning Activities(CALLA)Language Across the Curriculum (LAC)Task-Based Learning (TBL)
Finland‟s Contribution Extensive research supported by the EuropeanCommission since 1990 See:http://www.clilcompendium.com/clilcompendium.htm http://www.ccn-clil.eu/index.php?name=Content&nodeIDX=3488
It‟s fun!Gosh, it´salready timefor break!I know muchmore than Ithought!Wedon´thave todomuchwriting!I likeworking ingroups.I like doingart insteadof English!I alwaysthoughthistory wasboring!I lovedoing theresearch.We don´treally doany work!My folder‟sfull of stuff.I canrememberstuff. I don´tneed tostudy!