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Clean Energy: Structure and
Roles of Regulators
Owen Zinaman
U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory
1
Brief Profile
Owen Zinaman is an International Power
Sector Analyst at the U.S. National
Renewable Energy Laboratory based...
Outline
Brief Overview of Power Sector Transformation
The Evolving Role of the Power Sector
Regulator
An Overview of Varia...
Outline
Brief Overview of Power Sector Transformation
The Evolving Role of the Power Sector
Regulator
An Overview of Varia...
Power Sector Transformation is Happening
Today
• How countries envision, plan, and
regulate the power system is evolving.
...
Trends Driving Power System Evolution
Adapted from: Zinaman et al. (2015). Power Systems of the Future. 6
Outline
Brief Overview of Power Sector Transformation
The Evolving Role of the Power Sector
Regulator
An Overview of Varia...
The Evolving Role of the Power Sector
Regulator
Available:
http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy14osti/61570.pdf
8
• Power sector regulators are frequently “where the rubber hits
the road”
• Regulators seek to:
– understand emerging tren...
• Evolving regulatory objectives drive a new
role for regulators
– Existing objectives are growing more
complicated
– New ...
A Constellation of Objectives
Design and Manage
Electricity Tariffs
Meet Demand
Growth and Expand
Electricity Access
Ensur...
Ex: Distributed Solar Programs
Design and Manage
Electricity Tariffs
Meet Demand
Growth and Expand
Electricity Access
Ensu...
Ex: Minigrid-based Electrification
Design and Manage
Electricity Tariffs
Meet Demand
Growth and Expand
Electricity Access
...
Ex: Demand Response Program
Design and Manage
Electricity Tariffs
Meet Demand
Growth and Expand
Electricity Access
Ensure ...
• Prioritization and harmonization of a
multitude objectives is the essential
challenge of power sector regulation
• Emerg...
Outline
Brief Overview of Power Sector Transformation
The Evolving Role of the Power Sector
Regulator
An Overview of Varia...
An Overview of Variable Renewable Energy
Regulatory Issues
Available:
http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy14osti/61350.pdf
17
• vRE Generation
Procurement
• Ensuring Adequate Grid
Infrastructure
• Ensuring Short-term
Security of Supply
(Flexibility...
• Early Stages
– Normally less than 5%
VRE annual
penetration
• Intermediate Stages
– Typically between 5-
20% VRE annual
...
vRE
Generation
Grid
Infrastructure
Flexibility Adequacy
Early Stage
(vRE approx. < 5%)
Establish appropriate VRE
support m...
Early Stage vRE Regulatory Issues
Early Stage
(vRE approx. < 5%)
vRE
Generation
Grid
Infrastructure
Flexibility Adequacy
E...
• 2006 series of legal and
regulatory clarifications for
vRE under 5 MW:
– Interconnection processes
– Remuneration scheme...
Intermediate Stage vRE Regulatory Issues
Intermediate Stage
(vRE approx. 5-20%)
vRE
Generation
Grid
Infrastructure
Flexibi...
• High-quality wind
resources are distant
from large load centers,
exacerbating a“co-
investment conundrum”
• Intensive st...
Advanced Stage vRE Regulatory Issues
Advanced Stage
(vRE approx. >20%)
vRE
Generation
Grid
Infrastructure
Flexibility Adeq...
• Ordered: 1,325 MW of
storage in operation by
2024 for three California
Investor Owned Utilities
• No more than 50% of
ca...
• Unique forces at play in each regulatory
context
• Common issues and key ideas emerge
across contexts and at each stage ...
Outline
Brief Overview of Power Sector Transformation
The Evolving Role of the Power Sector
Regulator
An Overview of Varia...
Ask an Expert: Developing Solutions to Policy Barriers
We connect you to a global network of energy
experts for personaliz...
Engaging with CERI
Visit our website for more
information about CERI
publications, resources, and
current activities:
http...
Thank you to the International Copper
Association for your support of this work, as
well as our partners at Leonardo Energ...
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Clean Energy: Structure and Role of Regulators

This session is part of the Clean Energy Regulators Initiative Webinar Programme.

Theme 1 - The Evolving Role of Network Regulators.

Module 1: Defining Structure and Roles of Regulators and Institutions

Power systems around the world are quickly evolving, and the role of power sector regulators is growing substantially more complex.

This webinar will provide an overview of global forces shaping power sector transformation, discuss the evolving role of the regulator to harness such forces, and then zoom-in on a particular transformative force – variable renewable energy – to discuss specific regulatory aspects and approaches.

This webinar is based on the reports "The Evolving Role of the Power Sector Regulator" and "An Overview of Variable Renewable Energy Regulatory Issues".

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Clean Energy: Structure and Role of Regulators

  1. 1. Clean Energy: Structure and Roles of Regulators Owen Zinaman U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1
  2. 2. Brief Profile Owen Zinaman is an International Power Sector Analyst at the U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory based in Colorado (USA), focusing on deploying the next generation of energy planning, policy, and regulatory constructs. He has worked in a diverse range of countries on economic, financial and policy aspects of renewable energy development, including in Africa, Asia, and the Americas. 2
  3. 3. Outline Brief Overview of Power Sector Transformation The Evolving Role of the Power Sector Regulator An Overview of Variable Renewable Energy Regulatory Issues Moving Forward: CERI Resources 3
  4. 4. Outline Brief Overview of Power Sector Transformation The Evolving Role of the Power Sector Regulator An Overview of Variable Renewable Energy Regulatory Issues Moving Forward: CERI Resources 4
  5. 5. Power Sector Transformation is Happening Today • How countries envision, plan, and regulate the power system is evolving. • Long-held beliefs are evolving: • Renewables are now a cost- effective resource in many locations and have been proven not to require 1-to-1 reserves. • Distributed generation is not tantamount to the “utility death spiral.” • Planning, operational, and regulatory strategies must evolve but do not necessarily cost more to implement. • Networks can be cost-effectively expanded from the bottom up. • Utilities can sell more than just electrons. Source: GridWise Alliance, U.S. Department of Energy 5
  6. 6. Trends Driving Power System Evolution Adapted from: Zinaman et al. (2015). Power Systems of the Future. 6
  7. 7. Outline Brief Overview of Power Sector Transformation The Evolving Role of the Power Sector Regulator An Overview of Variable Renewable Energy Regulatory Issues Moving Forward: CERI Resources 7
  8. 8. The Evolving Role of the Power Sector Regulator Available: http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy14osti/61570.pdf 8
  9. 9. • Power sector regulators are frequently “where the rubber hits the road” • Regulators seek to: – understand emerging trends in policy, technology, planning, operations, and finance – understand the technology implications of executing a policy goal – evaluate new technology solutions and how they impact existing and emerging objectives – navigate a multitude of evolving objectives (both legacy and new) • The objectives (and therefore the role!) of regulators is quickly evolving 9
  10. 10. • Evolving regulatory objectives drive a new role for regulators – Existing objectives are growing more complicated – New suite of emerging objectives poses a novel set of challenges 10
  11. 11. A Constellation of Objectives Design and Manage Electricity Tariffs Meet Demand Growth and Expand Electricity Access Ensure Financial Health of Utilities Facilitate Private Investment Protect the Interests of the Poor Support Technical Safety and Reliability of the Power System Enhance Energy Security and Manage Risk Reduce Health and Environmental Impacts of Power System Operation Meet Rapidly Growing Demand While Minimizing Environmental Impacts and Risk Support Procurement of Renewable Energy Integrate Renewable and Distributed Generation Resources to Grid Incentivize Energy Efficiency, Demand Side Management and Smart Grid Technologies Utilize Microgrid Technology to Bolster Reliability and/or Access Facilitate Consumer Participation in Power Markets Enhance Cybersecurity and Protect Consumer Privacy Manage Increased Interactions with Other Sectors Existing Objectives Emerging Objectives 11
  12. 12. Ex: Distributed Solar Programs Design and Manage Electricity Tariffs Meet Demand Growth and Expand Electricity Access Ensure Financial Health of Utilities Facilitate Private Investment Protect the Interests of the Poor Support Technical Safety and Reliability of the Power System Enhance Energy Security and Manage Risk Reduce Health and Environmental Impacts of Power System Operation Meet Rapidly Growing Demand While Minimizing Environmental Impacts and Risk Support Procurement of Renewable Energy Integrate Renewable and Distributed Generation Resources to Grid Incentivize Energy Efficiency, Demand Side Management and Smart Grid Technologies Utilize Microgrid Technology to Bolster Reliability and/or Access Facilitate Consumer Participation in Power Markets Enhance Cybersecurity and Protect Consumer Privacy Manage Increased Interactions with Other Sectors Existing Objectives Emerging Objectives Pressing Objectives: 12
  13. 13. Ex: Minigrid-based Electrification Design and Manage Electricity Tariffs Meet Demand Growth and Expand Electricity Access Ensure Financial Health of Utilities Facilitate Private Investment Protect the Interests of the Poor Support Technical Safety and Reliability of the Power System Enhance Energy Security and Manage Risk Reduce Health and Environmental Impacts of Power System Operation Meet Rapidly Growing Demand While Minimizing Environmental Impacts and Risk Support Procurement of Renewable Energy Integrate Renewable and Distributed Generation Resources to Grid Incentivize Energy Efficiency, Demand Side Management and Smart Grid Technologies Utilize Microgrid Technology to Bolster Reliability and/or Access Facilitate Consumer Participation in Power Markets Enhance Cybersecurity and Protect Consumer Privacy Manage Increased Interactions with Other Sectors Existing Objectives Emerging Objectives Pressing Objectives: 13
  14. 14. Ex: Demand Response Program Design and Manage Electricity Tariffs Meet Demand Growth and Expand Electricity Access Ensure Financial Health of Utilities Facilitate Private Investment Protect the Interests of the Poor Support Technical Safety and Reliability of the Power System Enhance Energy Security and Manage Risk Reduce Health and Environmental Impacts of Power System Operation Meet Rapidly Growing Demand While Minimizing Environmental Impacts and Risk Support Procurement of Renewable Energy Integrate Renewable and Distributed Generation Resources to Grid Incentivize Energy Efficiency, Demand Side Management and Smart Grid Technologies Utilize Microgrid Technology to Bolster Reliability and/or Access Facilitate Consumer Participation in Power Markets Enhance Cybersecurity and Protect Consumer Privacy Manage Increased Interactions with Other Sectors Existing Objectives Emerging Objectives Pressing Objectives: 14
  15. 15. • Prioritization and harmonization of a multitude objectives is the essential challenge of power sector regulation • Emerging trends in policy, technology, planning, operations, and finance are driving an evolution of regulatory objectives – The “information asymmetry” is evolving as well • Regulators are uniquely positioned to accelerate modernization/transformation Key Messages 15
  16. 16. Outline Brief Overview of Power Sector Transformation The Evolving Role of the Power Sector Regulator An Overview of Variable Renewable Energy Regulatory Issues Moving Forward: CERI Resources 16
  17. 17. An Overview of Variable Renewable Energy Regulatory Issues Available: http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy14osti/61350.pdf 17
  18. 18. • vRE Generation Procurement • Ensuring Adequate Grid Infrastructure • Ensuring Short-term Security of Supply (Flexibility) • Ensuring Long-term Security of Supply (Resource Adequacy) Framework for Categorizing vRE Regulatory Issues vRE Generation Grid Infrastructure Resource Adequacy Flexibility The Four Main Categories of VRE Regulation 18
  19. 19. • Early Stages – Normally less than 5% VRE annual penetration • Intermediate Stages – Typically between 5- 20% VRE annual penetration • Advanced Stages – As VRE surpasses 20% annual penetration 3 Stages of vRE Regulation 19
  20. 20. vRE Generation Grid Infrastructure Flexibility Adequacy Early Stage (vRE approx. < 5%) Establish appropriate VRE support mechanisms Establish queue management Establish efficient siting processes Simplify interconnection protocols Initiate data collection efforts that will facilitate formal grid integration studies Initiate data collection efforts that will facilitate formal grid integration studies Intermediate Stage (vRE approx. 5-20%) Refine VRE support mechanisms if necessary Refine siting and queue management Establish VRE grid codes and designated transmission zones Coordinate generation and grid planning Establish distribution network standards for VRE Initiate formal grid integration study Improve forecasting Broaden balancing-area footprints Improve system operation methods Initiate formal grid integration study, with capacity credit or resource adequacy components as needed Advanced Stage (vRE approx. >20%) Encourage alignment between demand and VRE production Incentivize VRE dispatchability Expand grid interconnection and market coupling Employ locational pricing Incentivize active network management Employ advanced system operation Incentivize demand response (DR) Incentivize flexible generation and/or storage Improve adequacy mechanism in accordance with predominant paradigm (e.g., capabilities market; strategic reserve requirement; full scarcity pricing) Issues & Actions at Different Stages of vRE Deployment Increased Interdependency = Priority Area = 20
  21. 21. Early Stage vRE Regulatory Issues Early Stage (vRE approx. < 5%) vRE Generation Grid Infrastructure Flexibility Adequacy Establish appropriate VRE support mechanisms Establish queue management Establish efficient siting processes Simplify interconnection protocols Initiate data collection efforts that will facilitate formal grid integration studies Initiate data collection efforts that will facilitate formal grid integration studies = Priority Area 21
  22. 22. • 2006 series of legal and regulatory clarifications for vRE under 5 MW: – Interconnection processes – Remuneration schemes; cost allocations – Equipment standards • Harmonizing interconnection procedures with robust technical standards can encourage investment while maintaining reliability Snapshot – Guatemala Distributed vRE Interconnection Source: CNEE (2006) 22
  23. 23. Intermediate Stage vRE Regulatory Issues Intermediate Stage (vRE approx. 5-20%) vRE Generation Grid Infrastructure Flexibility Adequacy Refine VRE support mechanisms if necessary Refine siting and queue management Establish VRE grid codes and designated transmission zones Coordinate generation and grid planning Establish distribution network standards for VRE Initiate formal grid integration study Improve forecasting Broaden balancing-area footprints Improve system operation methods Initiate formal grid integration study, with capacity credit or resource adequacy components as needed = Priority Area 23
  24. 24. • High-quality wind resources are distant from large load centers, exacerbating a“co- investment conundrum” • Intensive stakeholder consultations helped identify CREZ regions; • Transmission investments financed by utility customers Snapshot – Texas “Competitive RE Zones” Source: SNLFinancial 24
  25. 25. Advanced Stage vRE Regulatory Issues Advanced Stage (vRE approx. >20%) vRE Generation Grid Infrastructure Flexibility Adequacy Encourage alignment between demand and VRE production Incentivize VRE dispatchability Expand grid interconnection and market coupling Employ locational pricing Incentivize active network management Employ advanced system operation Incentivize demand response (DR) Incentivize flexible generation and/or storage Improve adequacy mechanism in accordance with predominant paradigm (e.g., capabilities market; strategic reserve requirement; full scarcity pricing) Increased Interdependency = Priority Area = 25
  26. 26. • Ordered: 1,325 MW of storage in operation by 2024 for three California Investor Owned Utilities • No more than 50% of capacity owned by Utilities • Intention: Create a mature storage market that doesn’t require targets Snapshot – CPUC Energy Storage Decision Source: CPUC (2013) 26
  27. 27. • Unique forces at play in each regulatory context • Common issues and key ideas emerge across contexts and at each stage of vRE deployment and integration • Regulating vRE presents a novel landscape of challenges and opportunities Key Takeaways 27
  28. 28. Outline Brief Overview of Power Sector Transformation The Evolving Role of the Power Sector Regulator An Overview of Variable Renewable Energy Regulatory Issues Moving Forward: CERI Resources 28
  29. 29. Ask an Expert: Developing Solutions to Policy Barriers We connect you to a global network of energy experts for personalized attention and quick response technical assistance on strategies, regulations, standards, financial incentives, and deployment programs for a broad range of clean energy sectors and technologies including:  Energy Access  Energy Efficiency  Renewable Energy  Smart Grid  Transportation  Utilities Delivered no-cost assistance for more than 160 requests from over 75 countries. To request assistance, register on http://cleanenergysolutions.org/expert Ask-an-Expert: Our Experts in Action 29
  30. 30. Engaging with CERI Visit our website for more information about CERI publications, resources, and current activities: http://www.leonardo- energy.org/projects/ceri-clean- energy-regulators-initiative CERI Webinar Programme: http://www.leonardo- energy.org/webinar/clean- energy-regulators-initiative- webinar-programme 30
  31. 31. Thank you to the International Copper Association for your support of this work, as well as our partners at Leonardo Energy!! http://copperalliance.org/ http://www.leonardo-energy.org/ Thank You! 31

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