2. Why was it needed???
• When India gained independence its economy was groveling
• The British had left the Indian Economy crippled and hence
the fathers of development formulated the five year plan to
develop the Indian Economy.
3. Who Monitors It?
• The five year plans of India are framed, executed and monitored
by The Planning Commission Of India.
• The Planning Commission was set up in March, 1950.
• The draft of the first five year plan was published in July 1951
and was approved in December 1951.
• With the Prime Minister as the ex officio chairman,
The commission has a nominated Deputy Chairman, who has
the rank of a Cabinet Minister.
• The first Prime Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru presented the first
plan to the Parliament of India on December 8, 1951.
• Five-Year Plans (FYPs) are centralized and integrated national
• Joseph Stalin implemented the first FYP in the Soviet Union in the
• Most communist states and several capitalist countries
subsequently have adopted them.
• First Five Year Plan- 1951-1956
• Second Five Year Plan- 1956-1961
• Third Plan -1961–1966
• Fourth Plan – 1969-1974
• Fifth Plan – 1974-1979
• Sixth Plan -1980- 1985
• Seventh Plan -1985-1990
5. EIGHTH FIVE
P V NARASIMHA RAO (PRIME MINISTER OF
• Against the estimated total potential of about 4.5 lakh tonnes of
inland and brackish water fish, it was proposed to reach a
production level of 2.7 lakh tonnes by the end of Eighth plan.
• The water area to be covered under fresh water aquiculture
would reach more than 4 lakh ha. against the total area of 15
lakh ha. of ponds and tanks.
• In the case of brackish water aquiculture an estimated 65000 ha
was brought under aquiculture till the end of Seventh Plan and
another 20,000 ha. is expected to be brought under semi
intensive culture during the Eighth Plan period.
7. • Steps would be taken for increasing the availability of fish/prawn
seeds through construction of suitable hatcheries especially in the
private sector, training of fish farmers, provision of adequate
infrastructure such as feed mills, aquiculture implements etc.
• A World Bank Project for development of prawn and fish
production from inland and brackish water areas is to be taken
up at an estimated cost of US$ 100 million.
• The programme would cover five states over a period of seven
years. Brackish water culture would be taken up in 8 districts of
Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Orissa, U.P. and West Bengal.
• It was expected that this project would provide employment to
14,000 shrimp and fish farmers.
8. • In the marine sector the major thrust would be on motorisation of
traditional craft and introduction of intermediate craft of 12-16 metre size
for exploiting the off-shore resources.
• Suitable infra- structure for processing of this fish would also be developed.
This would require new post-harvest techniques for product development
and value addition in order to have better utilisation of these resources.
• In the deep sea sector, organised development of tuna fishery is to be given
a thrust. Other important schemes include setting up of "Whole chain"
scheme and encouragement of diversified fishing activities.
• Joint venture programmes and leasing of fishing vessel will be stream-lined,
making them more acceptable to private entrepreneurs.
9. • Management and maintenance of fishing harbours would receive
adequate support to utilise existing capacity of the landing and
berthing facilities. Suitable harbour facility would also be
developed for accommodation of deep sea tune vessels.
• Export of marine products is expected to reach a level of about
2,69,800 tonnes valued at Rs.3,077 crores.
• The welfare of fisherman would continue to receive priority
attention. A new programme namely, savings-cum-relief would
be introduced under which fisherman would make saving of a
fixed amount every- day during good fishing season and this
would be supplemented by additional contribution from and
10. • These would be utilised to disburse a monthly amount to each fishermen
family during the lean months.
• The main thrust would be on increasing employment opportunities and
sustained fish production by adopting an integrated approach. An
additional employment potential of the order of 1.8 lakh person per year
during the Eighth Plan is expected.
• Fish production target for Eighth Plan is fixed at 5.5 million tons (28.5
lakh tons marine & 26.5 lakh tons inland). Promotion of aquiculture
activities would help in achieving a higher fish production target from
inland and brackish water sources.
11. • The growth rate from aquiculture is expected between five
and six percent at a modest level although this may go up in
certain states where conductive atmosphere prevails for
taking up intensive fish farming.
• The fishery resources potential of the Exclusive Economic
Zone (EEZ) has been revalidated as 3.9 million tons against
the earlier estimation of 4.5 million tons.
• The priority areas of research under Fisheries include
research on brackish water fish farming and commercial
exploitation of mericulture fish like `Tuna' and exploitation
of shell fish, sea-cucumber etc.
• The other areas which will need concentrated research efforts
are post-harvest technology for fishing, control of fish
diseases and development of high yielding cold fisheries.
12. • Research in Post-harvest technology in fish culture can prevent
a lot of wastage of fish, and lead to development of new
products from unconventional fish species.
• Reservoir ecology and management, particularly with respect to
fish diseases and their control, can increase fish production to
the desired level.
13. NINTH FIVE
ATAL BIHARI VAJPAYEE (PRIME MINISTER
OF INDIA 1998-2004)
• DEVELOPMENT OF FRESHWATER AQUACULTURE:
Assistance to the fish farmers in the form of subsidy for new
pond construction, supply of inputs such as fish seed, feed etc.
• INTEGRATED COASTAL AQUACULTURE:
During the period of the ninth five year plan an area of 5000
ha were developed for shrimp culture across India.
An expenditure of about 5.84 crores was estimated.
15. • DEVELOPMENT OF MARINE FISHERY SECTOR:
Motorization of traditional craft
50% of the cost of engine would be provided as subsidy (subject to a
maximum of Rs. 10,000 for Out Board Motors – (OBM) and Rs. 12,000 for
In Board Motors – (IBM), which would be equally shared by the centre
and the states.
Rs. 6,000 was also provided as grant to fishermen for purchase of gear.
16. • FISHING HARBOUR FACILITIES AT MAJOR AND MINOR
The objective of this scheme was to provide infrastructural facilities viz.
jetty, dredging, reclamation, auction halls, slipway, workshop, and
navigation facilities etc. for efficient operation of mechanized fishing
vessels including deep sea fishing vessel and traditional craft at the
100% grant was provided to Port Trusts for construction of fishing
harbours at major ports. In case of minor fishing harbours and fish
landing centers, the cost is shared on 50:50 basis by the centre and the
17. • WELFARE PROGRAMMES FOR FISHERS:
Development of Fishermen Villages (DFV)
Group Accident Insurance (GAI) Scheme for active fishermen.
Saving-Cum-Relief For fishermen (SCR)
18. TENTH FIVE
Dr. MANMOHAN SINGH (PRIME MINISTER OF
INDIA SINCE 2004)
Integrated development of riverine fisheries.
Habitat restoration and fisheries development of upland waters.
Development of reservoir fisheries.
Vertical and horizontal development of aquaculture productivity.
Management of coastal fisheries.
Deep-sea fisheries with equity participation.
Infrastructure development and improved post-harvest management
20. Aquaculture on par with agriculture.
Implementation of the code of conduct for responsible fisheries.
PROGRAMMES IN TENTH FIVE YEAR PLAN:
Enhancing the production of fish and the productivity of fishermen,
fisherwomen, fish farmers and the fishing community;
Generating employment and higher income in fisheries sector;
Improving the socio-economic conditions of traditional fishers and
ensuring their welfare;
Augmenting the export of marine, brackish and freshwater fin and
shellfishes and other aquatic species
21. Increasing the per capita availability and consumption of fish to
about 11 kg per annum;
Adopting an integrated approach to marine and inland fisheries and
aquaculture taking into account the needs for responsible and
sustainable fisheries and aquaculture;
Conservation of aquatic resources and genetic diversity; and
Strengthening of Post-harvest Infrastructure and Marketing.
Establishment of hatchery for shrimps in coastal states.
Culture of tiger shrimps in saline conditions.
Culture of pearl oyster, edible oysters, mussels and clams.
22. Assistance to Fisheries Institutes:
i. Fishery Survey of India
ii. Central Institute of Fisheries, Nautical and Engineering
iii. Central Institute of Coastal Engineering for Fishery
iv. Integrated Fisheries Project
v. Establishment of Total Aquaculture Technology (TACT)
centres for demonstration and training preferably under
24. OBJECTIVES IN FISHERIES
Enhancing the production of fish from Indian waters, both
marine and inland, on an environmentally sustainable and
socially equitable basis;
Address the unexplored potentials of Indian fisheries such as
island fisheries and non-food fisheries;
Conservation of aquatic resources and genetic diversity, as
also preservation of health of ecosystems;
Increasing profitability of fishers and aqua-farmers through
an integrated approach from production to consumption;
25. Promoting fish as health food and meeting the changing
requirements of both domestic and export markets to make the
sector globally competitive;
Strengthening of Infrastructure in harvest, post-harvest,
value-addition and marketing;
Upliftment of fisher and aqua-farmer communities with
gainful employment opportunities and capacity strengthening.
26. PROJECTED BUDGETARY
REQUIREMENTS IN THE XI PLAN
Sl. No Schemes Budget (Rs
1 Marine Fisheries and Mariculture 550.00
2 Inland Fisheries and Aquaculture 1035.00
3 Infrastructure 1242.50
4 Welfare programmes, Governance,
Transfer of technology and
5 Strengthening of Database and
6 Central Institutes 610.54
28. ACTION POINTS IN 11th FIVE YEAR
Post harvest handling.
Value addition and domestic marketing.
Development of coastal and open sea mariculture.
Conservation and stock enhancement through sea
Restoration of threatened critical habitats.
29. Management Options
Restriction on fishing effort
Restriction on fishing area
Restriction on fishing gear
Enforcement of FMRA
Shift from open to right
Deep sea/Oceanic fishing
Utilization of discards and
Alternatives (sea farming)
30. • MARICULTURE
Identification of suitable sites along the coastline, Hatcheries and grow-out
systems for high value fish, crustaceans, molluscs, sea cucumber, ornamental
fishes, Cage culture in open seas & island ecosystems (0.007mt to 0.5mt).
• ENHANCED INLAND FISHERIES
Culture-based fisheries in Reservoirs with stocking of advanced fish fingerlings,
Pen & Cage culture in large water bodies and Canal fishery development,
Resource-specific harvesting techniques, Implementing code of conduct of
responsible fisheries.(0.68 mt to 1.12mt)
• COLDWATER FISHERIES
Seed production of trout and mahseer, Hill aquaculture, Ranching of streams,
Sport fisheries (0.0003mt to 0.001mt)
31. • COASTAL AQUACULTURE
Increasing water area under aquaculture, from existing 13% of
potential area, Diversification of species, from existing shrimp to Sea
bass & pearl spot. (0.113mt to 0.25mt)
• FRESHWATER AQUACULTURE
Increase in the coverage of areas of ponds and tanks for fish culture,
Reclamation of weed chocked waters, Diversification of species and
Intensification of culture practices, Integrated fish farming and
wastewater aquaculture to optimize water productivity (2.6145mt to
A. Development of Marine Fisheries
(i) Motorization of traditional craft,
(ii) Safety of fishermen at sea,
(iv) Introduction of intermediate craft of improved design including
prototype study of new intermediate vessel design,
(v) Establishment and operation of Vessel Monitoring System,
(vi) Promotion of fuel efficient and environment-friendly fishing
(vii) Management of marine fisheries.
33. B. Development of Infrastructure and Post Harvest Operations
(i) Establishment of fishing harbours and fish landing
(ii) Strengthening of post-harvest infrastructure,
(iii) Assistance for maintenance dredging of fishing harbours
and fish landing centres.
34. TWELFTH FIVE
Dr. MANMOHAN SINGH (PRIME MINISTER
OF INDIA SINCE 2004)
• The total fish production is targeted at 11.58 mmt by the end
of the Twelfth Plan Period (2016-17). To achieve this growth,
it is estimated that the sector would require Rs. 6 000 crores
for the Twelfth Plan period.
• Enhancing production of fish on an environmentally
sustainable and socially equitable basis;
• Ensuring optimum exploitation of fisheries resources in the
Indian Exclusive Economic Zone in a manner consistent with
the principles of ecologically sustainable development;
36. • Conserving aquatic resources and genetic diversity and preservation
of health of ecosystems while ensuring bio-security;
• Maximizing net economic returns to the fishers and fish farmers
through technological support and implementing efficient and cost
–effective aquaculture and fisheries management practices;
• Strengthening infrastructure in harvest, post-harvest, value-addition
• Increasing the per capita availability and consumption of fish to
• Augmenting export of fish and fish products;
• Securing and increasing employment opportunities in the sector;
37. • Improving safety and labour conditions in fisheries and aquaculture;
• Uplifting the social and economic conditions of fishers and fish
farmers and ensuring their welfare; and
• Improving overall governance and management of fisheries sector
in the country through institutional strengthening and human
38. DEVELOPMENT OF MARINE
• Motorization of traditional craft
• Use of sail in motorized boats
• Conversion of trawlers to resource specific fishing vessels
• Safety of fishermen at sea
• Development of Monitoring, Control and Surveillance system for
• Production enhancement through mariculture
39. DEVELOPMENT OF INFRASTRUCTURE
• Construction and expansion of Minor Fishing Harbours
(FHs) and Fish Landing Centres (FLCs)
• Modernization of FHs and FLCs
• Strengthening of postharvest infrastructure
• Developing fish preservation and storage infrastructure
• Assistance for maintenance dredging of FHs and FLCs
40. DEVELOPMENT OF DOMESTIC FISH
• Modernization of wholesale fish markets
• Modernization of retail markets
• Construction of new retail market with 10-20 stall capacity
• Cold chain development and preparation of value added products.
• Establishment of ice plants.
• Campaign for promotion of fish products and increased consumption
of fish and fish products.
41. DEVELOPMENT OF INLAND
FISHERIES AND AQUACULTURE
• Identification of riverine stretches for conservation as sanctuaries,
primarily for maintaining brood stock populations and genetic
• Replenishment of depleted stocks through river ranching in selected
• Conservation/protection of breeding grounds of commercially
important fish species;
• Habitat improvements in floodplain lakes and wetlands and
supplementary stocking in identified water bodies for stock
• Community mobilization for increased participation of local
communities in implementation of conservation and habitat
42. NATIONAL SCHEME FOR WELFARE
OF FISHERMEN AND
• Development of Model Fishermen Villages.
• Group Accident Insurance for Active Fishers.
• Saving-cum-Relief Scheme.
• Treating fisheries and aquaculture at par with agriculture;
• Leasing of inland natural and manmade waters such as rivers,
reservoirs, floodplain lakes, etc for fisheries and aquaculture
• Conservation and habitat restoration of inland water bodies,
• Introduction of exotic aquatic species;
• Insurance for aquaculture and capture fisheries’ assets such as
boats, nets, etc;
44. • Reducing pollution load in inland water bodies;
• Deep sea fishing;
• Leasing of coastal waters for mariculture purpose;
• Occupational safety and health aspects of fishers;
• Strengthening of fisheries cooperative societies;
• Human resource development in fisheries sector;
45. IMPORTANT REQUIREMENTS IN THE
• Revision of the Marine Fishing Regulation Acts (MFRAs)
through a Model Bill that takes care of the topical
requirements of the sector from both national and
• Renewed emphasis on the Model Bill prepared for Inland
fisheries and aquaculture; and
• New legislation to regulate fishing by wholly Indian owned
fishing vessels in the Exclusive Economic Zone.
Notas del editor
Ex officio- by virtue of office or position.
The Third Plan failed miserably so the government sought to make annual plans for the next three years.
The year 1979-1980 witnessed a Rolling Plan as the then government rejected the plan and made a new one for a year.
The Eighth Plan could not take off in 1990 due to the fast changing political situation at the centre and the years 1990-91 and 1991-92 were treated as Annual Plans. The Eighth Plan was finally launched in 1992 after the initiation of structural adjustment policies.
Rs. 50,000 against death or permanent disability and Rs. 25,000 against partial disability
The main objective of Saving-Cum-Relief scheme are:
a)to provide basic amenities like housing, drinking water, community hall etc. for fishers
b)to facilitate better living standards for fishers and their families
c)to uplift social and economic securities for active fishers and their dependents and
d)to update knowledge and improving skills of fishers in regard to modern fishing technology.
Upland Waters- cold, clear, rocky, fast flowing rivers in mountainous regions.