Revolution of 3 d organ model in pharmacological research
1. A SEMINAR ON
REVOLUTION OF 3D ORGAN MODEL IN
SYED DASTAGIR HUSSAIN
Mpharmacy I year I sem
UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF :-
Dr. M.V. KIRAN KUMAR
M.Pharm ., Ph.D., MBA.
HEAD OF DEPARTMENT OF
C.M.R. COLLEGE OF PHARMACY
KANDLAKOYA(V), MEDCHAL ROAD, HYDERABAD,TELANGANA 1
01 Aim and Objective
2.1 3D printing
2.2 3D Bioprinting
03 Types of 3D bioprinting and approaches
04 Creation of 3D Biostructures
05 Current Research on 3D Bioprinting
06 Concluding Remarks & Future
3. Aim and Objective:
3D organ models have gained increasing attention as novel preclinical test systems and
alternatives to animal testing.
Over the years, many excellent in vitro tissue models have been developed. In parallel,
microfluidic organ-on-a-chip tissue cultures have gained increasing interest for their ability
to house several organ models on a single device and interlink these within a human-like
Human disease models have proven valuable for their ability to closely mimic disease
patterns in vitro, permitting the study of pathophysiological features and new treatment
Although animal studies remain the gold standard for preclinical testing, they have major
drawbacks such as high cost and ongoing controversy over their predictive value for several
4. 3D printing
3D printing, also known as additive manufacturing, was developed in the 1980’s as a process
used to make three dimensional objects. Additive manufacturing creates parts from the ground
up by fusing together layers of material. Its counterpart, subtractive manufacturing, begins
with material and removes excess until only the desired shape remains1
• There are several methods of 3D printing. The most commonly recognized is called Fused
Deposition Modeling (FDM).
• Other 3D printing processes, like Stereolithography (SLA)2
Fig. No:01 figure of 3D printing process
5. 3D Bioprinting approaches
advances have enabled 3D printing of biocompatible materials, cells and supporting components
into complex 3D functional living tissues. 3D bioprinting is being applied to regenerative
medicine to address the need for tissues and organs suitable for transplantation. Compared with
non-biological printing, 3D bioprinting involves additional complexities, such as the choice of
materials, cell types, growth and differentiation factors, and technical challenges related to the
sensitivities of living cells and the construction of tissues.3,4
Biologically inspired engineering has been applied to many technological problems,
including flight5, materials research6, cell-culture methods6 and nanotechnology7.
Its application to 3D bioprinting involves the manufacture of identical reproductions of the
cellular and extracellular components of a tissue or organ.8
It an embryonic organ development as a guide,developing tissue produce their own ECM
components, appropriate cell signaling and autonomous organization and micro-
architecture and function9,10.
A ‘scaffold-free’ version self-assembling cellular spheroids that undergo fusion and cellular
organization to mimic developing tissues.11
Autonomous self-assembly relies on the cell as the primary driver of histogenesis, directing
the composition, localization, functional and structural properties of the tissue12.
Types of 3D bioprinting and approaches
Fig. No:02 figure of Types 3D Bioprinting and approaches
Both of the above strategies for 3D bioprinting. Organs and tissues comprise smaller,
functional building blocks13,14 or mini-tissues.
It is a smallest structural and functional component of a tissue, such as a kidney nephron.
Mini-tissues can be fabricated and assembled .
There are two major strategies: first, self-assembling cell spheres (similar to mini-tissues)
are assembled into a macro-tissue using biologically inspired design and organization13,14
Produce functional tissue units to create ‘organs-on-a-chip’, which are maintained and
connected by a microfluidic network for use in the screening of drugs and vaccines or as in
in vitro models of disease15,16.
The bases for reconstruction of tissues and organs through 3D Bioprinting consist of a set of
techniques that transfer biologically active material onto a substrate.17 The basic concept of
3DB allows the building process to be able to create cellular patterns, which are the
systematical organization of cell-to-cell interactions and produce mechanical and chemical
signaling. These patterns confined in a tridimensional structure hope to achieve cellular
and become a viable tissue or whole organ.17
8. Creation of 3D Biostructures:
steps of creating a tridimensional biostructure18
(a) Layer of hydrogel or hydrogel container
(d) Bioink dispensation process
4. Application 8
9. True 3D Bioprinting Advances:
Bioprinting for organ creation is the establishment of vascular networks that are essential to the
organ, the desired tissue cannot survive. described a method for fabricating .
3D biostructures with vasculature, multiple types of cells, and ECM, with the use of four
different bioinks in vitro,19
A layer-by-layer printing technique with the use of multicellular spheroids containing smooth
cells and fibroblasts along withagarose rods, resulting in single- and double-layer small diameter
Meso-rex bypass left portal vein for the treatment of portal vein thrombosis,
Living donor liver transplantation vasculature for the drainage of segments V and VIII of
the liver to the middle hepatic vein or vena cava to prevent outflow issues in right lobe grafts20
Current Research on 3D Bioprinting
Fig. No:03 figure of Biostructure of vascular
10. 2) Liver:
Drug metabolism has fueled multiple interests around the world to develop liver
biostructures to test the biopharmacology of many drugs.
Research to develop 3D liver structures will eventually benefit the field of transplantation.
Till a date, only reports of early data in in vitro models are available. Robbins et al.21
3D filament networks made of carbohydrate glass in a cylindrical shape that were lined
with endothelial cells and perfused with blood.
This model was tested in a rat hepatocyte model, maintaining the metabolic function of
Hepatotoxic effects of the antibiotics levofloxacin and trovafloxacin.23
Fig. No:04 figure of Biostructure of liver
11. 3) Intestine:
Although GI tract models have been developed with diverse bioengineering techniques.
3D bioprinting world has not focused on the development of GI tract models. The
complexity of creating an intestine requires the creation of vasculature, neural, and
lymphoid tissue along with epithelial tissue with absorptive and secretory functions.
At our institution, efforts are being focused on the creation of a muscular graft onto which
all the functions previously mentioned are added.24
Fig. No:05 figure of Biostructure of Intestine
12. 4) Kidney:
Drug nephrotoxicity is estimated to cause 25% of acute renal failure.
3D-bioprinted kidney models is being fueled by the need to understand better the
interaction between the kidney and multiple drugs.
Created an in vitro model of multicellular, 3D-bioprinted proximal tubules.25
In these model, the interface between tubular epithelium and renal interstitial cells was
observed within an extracellular matrix and housed in perfusable tissue chips that allowed
the model to survive for more than 2 months.
Their model exhibits enhanced epithelial morphology and functional properties.
Cyclosporine demonstrated disruption of the epithelial barrier in a dose-dependent
manner, proving the utility of the in vitro model.26
12Fig. No:06 figure of bioprinted kidney model
13. 5) Heart:
The complexity of the heart tissue poses a barrier that only few researchers are willing to
confront. 27 created a hybrid strategy based on 3D bioprinting and scaffolding 28.
First with the use of bioink containing endothelial cells, they injected microfibrous hydrogel
This endothelial layer was then seeded with cardiomyocytes in order to generate aligned
myocardium capable of spontaneous and synchronous contractions.
Lack of structure and functionality. This is one of the earliest demonstrations of 3D-
bioprinted heart tissue29
13Fig. No:07 figure of Biostructure of cardiomyocytes
14. 6) Neural tissue:
Engineering nervous system tissues limited work done in the context of bioprinting for
neural tissue fabrication.
Studied the effect of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) release on proliferation and
migration of murine neural stem cells .30
Proliferated successfully in contrast to the cells that could not proliferate within the
7) Pancreas tissue :
Pancreatic β-cells do not easily survive in vitro and only a very few attempts have taken
place to differentiate β-cells from human stem cells.
Regeneration of pancreas tissue is primarily embodied to the extent that β- cells from
mouse lines or insulinoma cells have been used to fabricate pancreatic islets.32
Encapsulated human and mouse islets as well as rat insulinoma INS1E β-cells within
hydrogels and bioprinted them in dual layer scaffolds 33.
The scaffolds were later implanted in diabetic mice and explanted 7 days thereafter.
15. 8) Pharmaceutics and high-throughput screening:
Improving the ability to predict the efficacy and toxicity of drug candidates earlier in the
drug discovery process will speed up the translation of new drugs into clinics.
Recent attempts in 3D in vitro assay systems is an ideal way to resolve this bottleneck
because 3D tissue models can closely mimic the native tissue and have the capability to be
used in high-throughput .
Among various methods for engineering 3D in vitro systems34, bioprinting has superiorities
such as controllability on size and microarchitecture, high-throughput capability, co culture
ability and low-risk of cross-contamination.
Bioprinted tissue and organ models have been increasingly considered for the potential of
pharmaceutics use such as drug toxicology and high throughput screening.35
Fig. No:08 figure of extracellular matrix and perfusable tissue chips
16. Organ models hold the potential to revolutionize preclinical research, although there
is still a long road ahead and the predictivity of most organ models has yet to be
Pharmaceutical companies and regulatory authorities have recognized the importance
of this technology and are highly engaged with them.
Scientists must learn from previous mistakes and combine efforts to improve
In this regard political and financial support is pivotal. Furthermore, joint efforts of
expert groups in academia, pharmaceutical industry, and regulatory authorities are
now needed to approach and overcome current bottlenecks.
Accordingly, governments initiatives are required to promote not only the
development of organ (disease) models but also their implementation in preclinical
drug testing, otherwise the full potential of organ models may never be realized.
Concluding Remarks & Future Perspectives:
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