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Political Development and Social Change

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Political Development and Social Change

  1. 1. Standard 4 –Political Development and Social Change Students examine the social, economic, and political struggles that led to the United States becoming a world power from the 1920s until the end of World War II Compiled by: Mr. J. Hallenus East Jefferson High School
  2. 2. US.4.1 • Use examples to show how population shifts, artistic movements, Prohibition, and the women‟s movement of the Roaring Twenties were a reflection of and a reaction to changes in American society.
  3. 3. American‟s on the Move • In addition to social changes, many changes in demographics occurred in the 1920s. Demographics are the statistics that describe a population. • The major demographic change was a movement AWAY from the countryside and towards the cities (urbanization) • Another major shift in demographics was the large numbers of Americans moving into the suburbs –areas just outside the cities.
  4. 4. American‟s on the Move • Throughout the 1920s, jobs for African-Americans in the South were scarce and low paying. As industries expanded in the 1920s, many industrial jobs opened up for African-Americans in the North. This produced what is known as the “Great Migration.” • After immigration laws were tightened, many low-paying jobs went to immigrants from Canada and Mexico. In the West, mainly Mexicans filled these jobs. As a result, a distinct barrio, or Spanish speaking neighborhood formed.
  5. 5. American‟s on the Move • In the 1920s, as suburbs grew, transportation systems needed to develop to serve the needs of the people. Cities built transportation systems that used electric trolleys that ran on tracks on the streets and powered by overhead wires. • During the 1920s, busses replaced trolleys in many areas. Busses did not need rails nor did it need wires overhead.
  6. 6. The Harlem Renaissance
  7. 7. African-American Voices in the 1920‟s • During the 1920s, African Americans in large numbers moved to cities. Due to scarce & low paying jobs in the South, many African-Americans moved North. • When large numbers of African-Americans moved to northern cities they found that they were not welcome & race riots developed (The Great Migration). The NAACP protested the treatment that African-Americans received. • For example, during the Great Migration, the number of African -Americans in Harlem grew from 50,000 in 1914 to about 200,000 in 1930.
  8. 8. The Harlem Renaissance • Harlem also became home of an African-American literary & artistic awakening in the 1920s known as the Harlem Renaissance, which celebrated African-American culture. • James Weldon Johnson emerged as a leading writer of the Harlem group. • Louis Armstrong, Duke Ellington, Bessie Smith, and Paul Robeson were African-American performers who gained notoriety during the Harlem Renaissance.
  9. 9. The Harlem Renaissance • Countee Cullen was one of the leading poets of the Harlem Renaissance. He is best known for a collection of poems called Color. • Cullen used classical style to capture the “Black” struggle. He wrote on the conflicts of the black artist in his most famous poems: “Yet Do I Marvel” & “Incident.” Cullen Poems “Yet Do I Marvel” & “Incident”
  10. 10. The Harlem Renaissance • Countee Cullen differed from many other poets of the Harlem Renaissance because, educated in a primarily white community, he lacked the background to comment from personal experience on the lives of other blacks or use popular black themes in his writing. • Cullen was a voice of protest against the sufferings of AfricanAmericans in a white society.
  11. 11. The Harlem Renaissance • Langston Hughes is the most studied poet from the Harlem Renaissance. He was a poet, short story writer, journalist, and playwright. Hughes spoke with a clear, strong voice about the joys and difficulties of being human, being American, and being black. One of Hughes more famous short stories is “Thank You, M‟am.”
  12. 12. The Harlem Renaissance • Clubs in the Harlem district of New York became the hottest places to listen to jazz, one such club was the Cotton Club.
  13. 13. Organized Crime & Prohibition in the 1920s
  14. 14. Why Prohibition? Prohibition had three main goals: (1) Eliminate drunkenness and the resulting abuse of family members and others. (2) Get rid of saloons, where prostitution, gambling, and other forms of vice thrived. (3) Prevent absenteeism and on-the-job accidents stemming from drunkenness. • In 1919, Congress passed the Volstead Act to provide a way of th Amendment (Prohibition), but it was widely enforcing the 18 ignored, especially in cities like New York City.
  15. 15. Prohibition & Organized Crime • One problem with the Volstead Act was that it did not provide the money to pay for enough men to enforce Prohibition. Also, many people were determined to break the laws; and, many law enforcement people took bribes from smugglers and bootleggers.
  16. 16. Prohibition & Organized Crime • Bootlegging became a new crime, serviced by the Bootleggers –a person who brought liquor from outside the U.S. to sell illegally. • Initially, a bootlegger had been a drinker who hid a flask of liquor in the leg of their boots. • Speakeasies –hidden saloons/nightclubs- were everywhere in cities. They provided people the opportunity to obtain liquor illegally.
  17. 17. Prohibition & Organized Crime • Bootlegging led to the formation of Organized Crime. • One of the unforeseen results of Prohibition was the formation of a new crime called racketeering, which involved bribing police and other government officials to ignore the illegal activities. • In other instances, the mob would require a business to pay a fee for “protection.” If the business owner refused, he may have his business blown to bits or he may be gunned down.
  18. 18. Prohibition & Organized Crime • The most notorious gangster who operated in Chicago, Al Capone, was nicknamed “Scarface.” He had a knack for avoiding prison because he was able to pay off judges and police. He was finally sent to prison for income tax evasion.
  19. 19. Prohibition & Organized Crime • Prohibition was in place for 13 years. • Groups like the Women‟s Christian Temperance Union continued to oppose alcohol use once prohibition ended.
  20. 20. The Lost Generation Writers
  21. 21. The Jazz Age & The Lost Generation Writers • Jazz grew out of the African-American music of the South. By the early 1900s, bands in New Orleans were playing the new mix of styles. Jazz gained great popularity on the radio waves during the 1920s. In fact, the 1920s became known as the Jazz Age… • American society troubled a group of artists and writers and they became known as the Lost Generation because they moved away from America to Paris, France. They included Ernest Hemmingway, F. Scott Fitzgerald, Gertrude Stein, and E.E. Cummings, to name a few.
  22. 22. The Jazz Age & The Lost Generation Writers • The First World War seemed to have altered the perception that if you acted with virtue, good things would happen – that good things happened to good and moral individuals. • Generally, the "Lost Generation" defines a sense of moral loss or aimlessness apparent in literary figures during the 1920s. Novels that embody this idea include This Side of Paradise & The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald,
  23. 23. The Jazz Age & The Lost Generation Writers • The fact remained that many good, young men went off to war and died, or returned home either physically or mentally wounded (for many, both), and their faith in the moral guideposts that had earlier given them hope, had in fact died. Therefore, they were "Lost."
  24. 24. Flappers
  25. 25. Flappers • During the 1920s, life changed for American women. In fact, many women felt free to experiment with bolder styles and manners.
  26. 26. Flappers • The 1920s was a time of rapid change, in which many young people, particularly young women, adopted new lifestyles and attitudes. As its rural population decreased, the United States became an urban nation, and traditional values were increasingly challenged.
  27. 27. • Flappers symbolized the change in traditional manners and morals.
  28. 28. Flappers • Young woman embraced new fashions (styles) & urban attitudes (morals & manners) of the day. These new morals and manners of the 1920s were reflected in the fashion that women wore, skirts shorter than what their mothers had worn, etc. • Traditionalists protested the new casual dances & smoking & drinking in public by women. • During this time period. women were held to a higher standard. • Despite gains in other areas, the status of women in the workplace changed very little in the 1920s. • Flappers represented women’s desire to break with the past.
  29. 29. Flappers • Flappers danced the Charleston, a new dance that embodies the spirit of the Jazz Age.
  30. 30. Suffrage at Last
  31. 31. ALICE PAUL
  32. 32. • Demonstrating their skills as organizers and activists, women won the right to vote with the ratification of the Nineteenth Amendment in 1920.
  33. 33. Anthony and Stanton: Preparing the Way • Suffragists faced ridicule, confrontations, threats, and even violence. • In 1872, Susan B. Anthony was arrested and later convicted for insisting on voting in an election. This was an act of civil disobedience –a non-violent refusal to obey a law in an effort to change it.
  34. 34. Suffragist Strategies • Suffragists continued to follow two paths to their goals: 1.Push for a constitutional amendment giving women the right to vote. This strategy proved to be more difficult. 2.Get individual states to let women vote. This approach was more successful, at first.
  35. 35. Suffrage at the Turn of the Century • By the time the National American Woman‟s Suffrage Association (NAWSA) was formed in 1890, women could buy and sell property. However, they were no closer to earning the right to vote. • By 1906, both Susan B. Anthony and Elisabeth Cady Stanton had died without seeing their dream come true.
  36. 36. A New Generation • Carrie Chapman Catt emerged as a new leader to re-energize the movement. • Alice Paul, who learned tactics while a student in England, and her friend Lucy Burns, took over the NAWSA committee working on the passage of the federal amendment. They organized a parade to draw attention to the issue –the day before the presidential inauguration.
  37. 37. A New Generation • Alice Paul‟s aggressive strategy caused a split in the women‟s suffrage campaign. Paul had formed a sub-group known as the Congressional Union (CU). She called for bypassing existing suffrage groups in the states and setting up new groups. This caused a split in NAWSA, as the CU members were expelled. • The CU went on to protest in front of the White House, burning speeches by Wilson, demonstrating, etc. They were arrested and sent to prison, where they went on hunger strikes to protest horrible prison conditions.
  38. 38. A New Generation • When the U.S. became involved in World War I, arguments for „separate‟ spheres for women and men were set aside as women stepped up to the plate to volunteer for medical work or ambulance duty, and by taking on jobs left by men who had gone off to war.
  39. 39. Victory for Suffrage • Many Americans became more supportive of suffrage as a result of women‟s activities in World War I. • The battle for women‟s suffrage ended with the ratification of the Nineteenth Amendment. • Carrie Chapman Catt led NAWSA to victory.
  40. 40. US.4.2 • Examine the economic policies, attacks on civil liberties, and the presidential administrations of the 1920s and explain how each reflected a return to isolationism.
  41. 41. Laissez-Faire & Economic Policy of the 1920s • Republican administrations of the 1920s pursued pro-business economic policies and an isolationist foreign policy. • Laissez-faire is the belief that government should play a very limited role in business. Those who support this strategy maintain that if the government does NOT interfere, the strongest businesses will succeed and therefore bring wealth to the nation as a whole.
  42. 42. Laissez-Faire & Economic Policy of the 1920s • After World War I, people had to deal with a recession -harsh economic downturn. • Mostly, Americans wanted to get back to the way things were and turn inwards (isolationism). • In the 1920s, the Republican Presidents generally favored business. Also, they sought social stability.
  43. 43. The Harding Presidency • Warren G. Harding was elected President in 1920. His campaign slogan was “a return to normalcy.” • Domestically, Harding favored business and sought social stability, which he believed would promote economic growth.
  44. 44. The Harding Presidency • Washington Conference: In 1921, Harding invited Great Britain, France, Italy, Japan, & U.S. to scrap a significant portion of their battleships and cruisers and the countries agreed. • During the 1920s, tariffs (taxes on imports) rose dramatically –the Fordney-McCumber Tariff raised the tax on imports to its highest level ever –almost 60 percent. This angered & hurt European nations who faced demands to pay off their American war debts. It was designed to protect American businesses.
  45. 45. The Harding Presidency • U.S. loaned Germany 2.5 billion dollars under the Dawes Plan so Germany could pay reparations. • Both Warren G. Harding and Calvin Coolidge based their foreign policies on isolationism –avoiding political or economic alliances with foreign nations.
  46. 46. Scandal Hits Harding‟s Administration • The Teapot Dome Scandal: Albert B. Fall, Harding‟s Secretary of the Interior, allowed a private company to drill for oil on government owned land located in Elk Hills, California & Teapot Dome, Wyoming in exchange for gifts disguised as loans and illegal payments of more than $300,000. • The scandal MAY have contributed to Harding‟s death, bringing Calvin Coolidge to the presidency.
  47. 47. Domestic Issues: Limiting Immigration • The immigration policy of the 1920s limited immigration from Italy, China, England, and Japan (this is the quota system). A quota is a numerical limit to the number of immigrants who could legally enter the country. • The National Origins Act of 1924 was an immigrant quota system. It did NOT apply to countries in the Western Hemisphere –Mexico and Canada. It reduced the number of people who could enter the United States.
  48. 48. Attacks on Civil Liberties
  49. 49. Sacco & Vanzetti Trial • April 15, 1920, Sacco and Vanzetti -Italian immigrants- were arrested for a robbery and murder they claimed that they did not commit.
  50. 50. Sacco & Vanzetti Trial • The trial of Sacco & Vanzetti was one of the more controversial events in U.S. history. Both Sacco & Vanzetti were anarchists. When they were arrested, both carrying guns, Sacco‟s gun was the same model that was used in the crime. • Many Americans believed that Sacco and Vanzetti were executed because they were immigrants with radical beliefs during the Red Scare. • Many observers called their trial “unfair.” case but, their convictions were upheld. Their lawyers appealed the • They were executed for the crime by electric chair in April 1927.
  51. 51. The Red Scare • After the War Americans wanted “normalcy” – Renewed isolationism, resurgence of nativism (suspicion of foreign born), political conservatism. – Warren G. Harding was elected president in 1920.
  52. 52. The Red Scare • • • In 1917 a Communist Revolution took place in Russia that resulted in Czar Nicholas II abdicating his throne. The revolution was led by the „Bolsheviks‟ (the Majority). They were led by Vladimir Lenin, whom made communism the official ideology of Russia. Communism meant the following: 1. The government owned all land and property. 2. A single political party controlled the government. 3. The needs of the country (MANY) always took priority over the rights of individuals. Lenin wanted to spread communism throughout the world.
  53. 53. The Red Scare • Because of Lenin‟s desire to spread communism all over the world, Americans were alarmed that immigrants coming into the country were communists. Also, Lenin and his followers promoted a system that was hostile to American values. • Because of these fears, the country was caught up in what was called the Red Scare - an intense fear of communism and other politically radical ideas. This was caused by the Russian Revolution.
  54. 54. The Red Scare & Attacks on Civil Liberties • In the Supreme Court Case Schenk v. United States, Charles Schenk sent letters to men who had been drafted urging them NOT to report to military duty. Chief Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes ruled that the government is justified in silencing free speech when there is a “clear and present danger…” • 70,000 radicals joined the Communist Party in the U.S. • Bombs were mailed to government and business leaders. • Government held people in jail, arrested the visitors that came to see them, & deported many foreign born radicals.
  55. 55. AH.4.3 • Describe the impact of major technological innovations and scientific theories of the 1920s on American Society.
  56. 56. The Scopes Trial • In the mid-1920s, some states banned the teaching of evolution (that people evolved from monkeys into human beings) in schools because the theory seemed to contradict the Bible‟s account of creation. • The Theory of Evolution deeply disturbed fundamentalists (religious traditionalists). The theory states that human beings and all other life forms developed over time from simpler life forms. Fundamentalists are against this because it goes against the Bible. Fundamentalists say the Bible is inspired by God, and therefore cannot contain errors. They take the Bible as literally true.
  57. 57. The Scopes Trial • Tennessee passed a law banning the teaching of evolution. A teacher agreed to challenge this law and taught evolution, this resulted in the Scopes Trial. • The trial proved to be a setback and a loss of momentum for the fundamentalists because William Jennings Bryan, the lawyer trying to convict Scopes, admitted that even he did not take the Bible as literal. • Scopes was found guilty, but the Tennessee Supreme Court reversed the decision on technicality.
  58. 58. The Scopes Trial • This clash over evolution, the prohibition experiment, and the emerging urban scene all were evidence of the changes and conflicts occurring during the 1920s.
  59. 59. Effect of Technology • Technology changed the landscape of American society. Inventions like the automobile enabled Americans to get out and connect with other Americans; the radio made it possible to listen to news and find out information quickly and easily; and, other inventions (sewing machine, washing machine, vacuum cleaner, etc) made the lives of women easier.
  60. 60. Technological Innovations: Ford and the Automobile • Henry Ford‟s dream was to sell cars that ordinary people could afford. • Automobile production spurred growth in all types of business in America. • Ford did not invent the assembly line, but he made it more efficient. The assembly line is a manufacturing process in which each worker does one specialized task in the construction of the final product.
  61. 61. Technological Innovations: Ford and the Automobile • The impact of the automobile was significant on American society because it changed the American „landscape.‟ • It brought about paved roads for the cars. • It changed the architecture of new construction of homes because they now came with a „carport‟ or a garage, and a driveway. • It helped bring about urban sprawl, underwater tunnels, and individual independence.
  62. 62. Technological Innovations: Ford and the Automobile • The increase in automobiles led to the rise of new businesses such as motels and gas stations. • During the 1920s, under the Republican laissez-faire policies, which limited government regulation of business, the value of the nation‟s businesses soared.
  63. 63. Technological Innovations • Airplane industry began to grow by carrying mail for the government. • Electrical conveniences were invented and became popular – radio, phonograph, washing machine, vacuum cleaner, sewing machine. • Advertising created demand for products that consumers rushed to buy using the installment plan. • Business men became respectable members of the community.
  64. 64. Technological Innovations • Charles Lindbergh: “Lucky Lindy” flew solo across the Atlantic in an airplane name “The Spirit of St. Louis” & won $25,000.
  65. 65. Technological Innovations • Amelia Earhart was inspired by Charles Lindbergh. In 1928, she became the first woman to fly across the Atlantic Ocean, although only as a passenger. • In 1932, she piloted an airplane across the Atlantic. Earhart later became the first person to fly from Hawaii to California. • In 1937, she and a navigator attempted to fly around the world. Sadly, she disappeared over the Pacific Ocean after completing two-thirds of the trip.
  66. 66. Technological Innovations • Radio came of age & people followed world events more easily. The growth of radio and other mass media helped produce a national „American‟ culture. • Jazz gained great popularity on the radio waves during the 1920s.
  67. 67. AH 4.4 • Examine the causes of the Great Depression and its effects on the American People and evaluate how the Hoover administration responded to this crisis.
  68. 68. Underlying Causes of the Depression 1. An unstable Economy: A. National wealth was unevenly distributed with most money in the hands of a few families who tended to save or invest, rather than buy goods; B Industry produced more goods than consumers wanted or could afford; C. Farmers and many workers did not share in the earlier economic boom. 2. Overspeculation: A. Buying stocks with borrowed money. B. The stock market boom was based on borrowed money rather than real value.
  69. 69. Underlying Causes of the Depression 3. Government Policies: A. Mistakes in monetary policies were also to blame. The Federal Reserve System cut interest rates. B. Worried about over speculation, the Federal Reserve limited the money supply to discourage lending. C. Therefore, there was too little money in circulation to help the economy recover after the crash.
  70. 70. Causes of the Great Depression • When Herbert Hoover took office in 1929, most Americans expected the economic prosperity to continue. However, the economy was about to change, drastically. • The 1920s were generally marked by rising stock prices, which was good for the economy. • Hoover did little to discourage the wild buying of stocks with borrowed money because he had high confidence in the business world.
  71. 71. Causes of the Great Depression • Stock market speculation was making a high-risk investment in hopes of getting a huge return. • Many investors engaged in a practice known as buying on margin, which has the buyer pay a fraction of the cost of the stock and borrow the rest of the money, to be paid back later. • Despite the prosperity of the 1920s, life remained hard for many farmers and factory workers. • To some observers, these factors –uneven wealth, rising debt, stock speculation, overproduction, and the hardship of farmers and workers clearly signaled trouble in the economy.
  72. 72. Causes of the Great Depression • The huge rise in the stock market in the 1920s mainly benefited the rich. • The consumers‟ desire for exciting new products led to an increase in personal debt –money owed. • Also, practices such as buying on margin reflected Americans‟ “getrich quick” attitude.
  73. 73. The Stock Market Crash
  74. 74. The Stock Market Crash • Throughout most of the 1920s, Americans were generally confident that business would bring continued prosperity. • Stocks had risen to the highest point ever. Generally, the economy appeared to be healthy.
  75. 75. The Stock Market Crash • In October 1929, fear gripped the floors of the New York Stock Exchange as investors watched millions of dollars slip away. This panic selling caused the United States stock market to crash. The crash led to a worldwide economic crisis called the Great Depression.
  76. 76. The Stock Market Crash • Herbert Hoover defeated Alfred E. Smith in the 1928 presidential election. • By 1929, 3% of the population owned stocks (about 4 million Americans) • Before the panic on that fateful October day, most people saw no reason to worry. In early 1928, the Dow Jones Industrial Average –an average of stock prices of major industries- had climbed to 191 –this was good. By September 3, 1929, the Dow Jones had risen to an all time high of 381.
  77. 77. The Stock Market Crash • After the peak in September, prices fell slowly. Some brokers began to call in loans while others continued to loan more. • October 29, 1929, (Black Tuesday) prices dropped drastically – stock market investors‟ fortunes were dramatically changed, as a record number of investors raced to get their money out of the stock market – in other words, sell their stocks. • The collapse of the stock market is known as the “Great Crash.” The Great Crash was part of the business cycle in which the economy grows, then contracts. • By November- investors lost 30 billion dollars which was about what WWI cost America.
  78. 78. The Stock Market Crash • After the stock market crash, President Hoover tried to help the economy by asking businesses NOT to lay off employees.
  79. 79. The Stock Market Crash • Financial Collapse – people tried to withdraw money from banks & they had no cash on hand. • 650 banks failed in 1929 & 6000 by 1933 – – – – – This was ¼ of the nations banks. Banks were not insured as they are today 85,000 businesses went bankrupt Unemployment in 1929 was 3% Unemployment in 1933 was 25% (13 million )
  80. 80. The Stock Market Crash • A contracting economy is one that is marked by a falling output of goods and services. When a contraction is long and severe it is called a depression. • The most severe economic downturn in the nation‟s history – The Great Depression- lasted from 1929 to 1941 when the United States entered World War II.
  81. 81. The Stock Market Crash • Factories began to close resulting in workers losing their jobs. • Small businesses and restaurants began to close because no one could afford to buy from them. • Farm prices, already low, continued to fall.
  82. 82. Impact on the World • The collapse of the American economic system led to a worldwide depression. World Wide Depression 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Europe trying to recover from WWI had debts Germany had to pay war reparations U.S. could not buy European goods Europe could not buy U.S. goods 1930 Hawley-Smoot tariff – highest protective tariff ever led to a dramatic drop in world trade dropped – a 40% drop.
  83. 83. Ripple Effect of the Crash 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Risky loans hurt banks: when stock prices fell businesses could not repay loans. Consumer borrowing: Customers were unable to pay back bank loans. Bank Runs: people rushing to banks to withdraw cash money. Bank Failures: Unpaid loans and bank runs caused many banks nationwide to fail (go out of business) because they could not return depositors‟ money. Savings wiped Out: bank failure caused what little people had saved to be wiped out.
  84. 84. Ripple Effect of the Crash 6. 7. 8. Cuts in Production: Businesses could not borrow money to use to produce more goods. Rise in Unemployment: as businesses cut back on production, they laid off workers so unemployment grew. Further cuts in production: As unemployment grew, and incomes shrank, people spent less and less money so businesses produced even fewer goods and, therefore, the overall output of goods in the economy dropped.
  85. 85. “Hoovervilles”
  86. 86. “Hoovervilles” • One effect of the wage cuts and unemployment was that many people could not pay rent or mortgages. Many people lost their homes & lived in shantytowns – towns made up of mostly shacks. People called them Hoovervilles because they were disgusted with President Hoover. • The rise in homelessness mainly resulted . from laid-off workers losing their homes
  87. 87. Rugged Individualism • President Hoover believed in a concept called “rugged individualism” meaning that it was up to the individual to help themselves out. It was not the place of the government to help people. It was Hoover‟s belief that the government did not need to interfere with the economy that it would work itself out. • This course of action did NOT solve the problem and the U.S. sank further into depression.
  88. 88. Hoover‟s Response • Hoover tries to reassure the nation to remain optimistic & go about business as usual. • Hoover felt that the best way to end the Depression was through voluntary controls by American businesses, not by government intervention. • Americans grew frustrated by the depression & farmers dumped milk & grain rather than sell it at a loss. • Hoover refused direct relief –cash payments or food provided by the government or other forms of federal welfare.
  89. 89. Hoover‟s Response • Hoover finally started public works projects (Boulder Dam –now called Hoover Dam) to provided jobs for unemployed. • Backed the Federal Farm Board to stabilize crop prices & hold crops from the market. The program was a failure. • Established the National Credit Corporation which loaned money to smaller banks to keep them from bankruptcy.
  90. 90. Hoover‟s Response • In 1933, Congress passed the Federal Home Loan Bank Act which lowered mortgage rates & allowed farmers and homeowners to refinance their farm loans or regular loans to avoid foreclosure and keep their property. • Reconstruction Finance Corp (RFC)- make loans available to large corporations hoping that jobs would be created. It aimed to provide government credit to banks.
  91. 91. Poverty Spreads • Poor urban dwellers had to turn to soup kitchens and bread lines (run by charitable institutions) in order to get food. Many scrounged for food by digging in garbage cans or begging on street corners. • African-Americans & Latinos faced 50% unemployment & violence from whites who wanted their jobs. Also, during the Depression, African-Americans experienced worsening conditions and discrimination in job and relief programs.
  92. 92. Poverty Spreads • Thousands left the Great Plains because of a major environmental crisis in the 1930s called the Dust Bowl –drought made worse by the fact that the farmers had exhausted the land by overproduction of crops. • In addition, because of the fact that there were few trees and crops to hold the soil, the winds blew the dust. The dust traveled for hundreds of miles. People headed west to California. They became known as Okies (from Oklahoma.)
  93. 93. AH.4.5 • Identify key New Deal programs and leaders and analyze their impact on the social, economic, and political structure of the United States.
  94. 94. Roosevelt‟s Relief, Recovery, & Reform Programs • First Hundred Days (March 9 – June 16, 1933) Congress passed 15 major pieces of legislation. These laws significantly expanded federal government‟s role in the economy. • New Deal policies focused on three goals: 1. relief for the needy 2. economic recovery 3. financial reform • FDR‟s first step was to reform banking & finance to restore confidence of people in the banking system.
  95. 95. Roosevelt‟s Relief, Recovery, & Reform Programs • One day after taking office, FDR closed all banks to prevent further withdrawals & got Congress to pass the Emergency Banking Relief Act to inspect financial condition/health of all banks before they could reopen. • On March 12,1933, the day before the banks were to reopen FDR gave his First Fireside Chat to the nation over the radio and explained that the banks that would reopen were sound, but people needed to put their money back into the system. • Glass-Steagall Banking Act created the Federal Deposit Insurance Corp (FDIC) which insured accounts up to $5,000 to give customers confidence of the safety of banks. • In May 1933, Federal Securities Act passed requiring corporations to give complete information on stock offerings & penalties if they did not comply. • In June 1934 ,Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) regulated the stock market.
  96. 96. Roosevelt‟s Relief, Recovery, & Reform Programs • By end of 1933, the 21st Amendment repealed Prohibition. Alcohol was now taxed to increase federal revenues. • The Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA)- sent funds to local relief agencies to help the people. FERA put money into public works programs – government funded projects to build public facilities. – One of those programs set up was the Civil Works Administration (CWA), it put unemployed workers on the payroll improving roads, parks, airports, and other facilities. It was a tremendous morale booster. • Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) –FDR‟s favorite program- gave young, unmarried men (18 – 25) $30 a month ($25 was sent home to worker‟s families.) This was directly responsible for creating new jobs and putting people to work. They would maintain forests, beaches, and parks. They lived in camps free of charge and received food, medical care, and job training. • The Public Works Administration (PWA) constructed community buildings as well as bridges and dams.
  97. 97. Roosevelt‟s Relief, Recovery, & Reform Programs • National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA)-promoted industrial growth by establishing codes of fair practice for business and by bolstering industrial prices. It established the National Recovery Administration. • National Recovery Administration (NRA) was created to help businesses. It spelled out what were fair business practices. National Recovery Act (NRA) set prices on some products, banned child labor, set working hours. • Agricultural Adjustment Act paid farmers not to grow crops. $200 million paid to plow under 10 million acres of cotton; six million pigs were destroyed. This was done to raise prices of farm products & help farmers. • The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) helped farmers and created jobs in one of the country‟s least developed regions. It reactivated a hydroelectric plant which generated electric power while preventing floods on the Tennessee River.
  98. 98. Key Players in the New Deal • Eleanor Roosevelt was a great advocate for poor, women, & minorities which gave a human face to FDR‟s administration. She defied tradition by actively and aggressively promoting the New Deal. She was an important advisor on Domestic Policy. • Francis Perkins was the first woman appointed to an official government position as Secretary of labor.
  99. 99. Key Players in the New Deal • Mary McLeod Bethune was head of the Office of Minority Affairs to ensure minority students got training. She held the highest position of any African-American in the New Deal. • Bethune organized a Federal Council on Negro Affairs known as the “Black Cabinet” –an unofficial group of African-American office holders - to advise FDR on racial issues.
  100. 100. Huey P. Long & New Deal Critics • Huey P. Long brought the most serious challenge to the New Deal. He proposed a program called “Share the Wealth” –a re-distribution of wealth. He wanted to limit the amount a person could earn to 1 million dollars. After that, the government would take anything over 1 million dollars in the form of income taxes. Under the banner “Every Man A King” he promised something for everyone. He was a former governor of Louisiana and a U.S. Senator. • Huey P. Long was referred to as a demagogue because he would manipulate people with half-truths and scare tactics.
  101. 101. The Court Packing Fiasco • Roosevelt proposed increasing the size of the U.S. Supreme Court from nine to fifteen justices, which became known as “FDR‟s Court Packing Plan”, but Congress refused –this New Deal initiative drew the greatest opposition. He said he wanted to help reduce the workload of the justices. • FDR felt it necessary to fill the court with people who would agree with him or be more favorable towards his New Deal legislation & programs because a series of Court cases had limited or eliminated some of the New Deal initiatives. • Many who opposed this plan did so because it would upset the balance of power in the U.S. government, giving the president too much power. • Roosevelt would eventually back down from his Court Packing Plan and the number of justices would remain at NINE.
  102. 102. The Court Packing Fiasco • However, because of resignations, he got to appoint 7 new members to the Supreme Court that favored the New Deal. • Roosevelt‟s actions caused him to lose some support in the South –both Republicans and Democrats.
  103. 103. AH.4.6 • Examine the causes of World War II and explain the reasons for U.S. entry into the war.
  104. 104. The Treaty of Versailles • Failures of the Treaty of Versailles which ended World War I led to the rise of leaders driven by dreams of national greatness & territorial expansion. • The Treaty of Versailles did not treat the losers of the war fairly. It left Germany with resentment and hostility towards the Allies. When Hitler would rise to power, one of his goals was to undo the Treaty of Versailles.
  105. 105. Adolf Hitler – leader of Germany Benito Mussolini –leader of Italy
  106. 106. Axis Powers Aggression • Hitler called hundreds of thousands of people to a political rally where he led the audience in a “holy oath” to Germany. These types of events were important to Hitler‟s totalitarian rule. A totalitarian government exerts total control over a nation. It silences all forms of opposition. It dominates every aspect of life, using terror to suppress individual rights. • Hitler and Mussolini (Italy) governed by a philosophy called fascism. Fascism emphasizes the importance of a nation or ethnic group and the supreme authority of the leader. • Mussolini began his new Roman Empire by invading Ethiopia in 1935 and again the League of Nations‟ response was ineffective. Haile Selassie, Ethiopian emperor said, “It is us today. It will be you tomorrow.”
  107. 107. Axis Powers Aggression • Hitler signs an alliance with Mussolini of Italy in 1936 and would later be joined by Japan to form the Axis Powers. • Hitler also wanted national expansion even if it meant going to war to achieve it. He saw expansion as a way to bolster national pride. • Hitler violated the Treaty of Versailles in 1936 by moving troops into the Rhineland and the League of Nations did nothing to stop him. • Hitler wanted Lebensraum (living space) for Germans, he looked to the East towards Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union for the land. This led him to continue taking land and violating the treaty and people‟s human rights.
  108. 108. Axis Powers Aggression • On March 12, 1938, German troops marched into Austria unopposed & Hitler said that Austria was now in union with Germany –known as the Anschluss. • Hitler wanted the Sudetenland (a part of Czechoslovakia) which contained 3 million German-speaking people because he said Czechoslovakia was abusing them. • Neville Chamberlain, Prime Minister of Great Britain went to Munich to talk with Hitler & agreed in the Munich Pact to allow Hitler to take over the Sudetenland without a shot being fired. This became known as a policy of appeasement –giving into a competitor‟s demands in order to keep peace.
  109. 109. World War II Begins • On March 15, 1939, Hitler took over the rest of Czechoslovakia & turned his attention to Poland. • On March 31 1939, France and Great Britain pledged support to Poland, agreeing to come to its aid if Germany invaded. • On August 23, 1939, Hitler & Stalin signed a non-aggression pact in which they agreed not to fight each other & a second secret pact in which they agreed to divide Poland between them. This eliminated the possibility of a two-front war. • Hitler invaded on Sept 1, 1939 & Poland was defeated in three weeks –this was known as the blitzkrieg or lightning war. It involved a fast and concentrated land and air attack that took the enemy by surprise.
  110. 110. World War II Begins • Germany was able to defeat Poland in less than a month for these main reasons: it was the first time that the blitzkrieg was used, so no one really knew what to expect; Germany had a more advanced military than Poland; France and Britain were unable to aid Poland in time. • Finally, the Soviet Union came to Germany‟s aid, and under the terms of the secret non-aggression pact, seized eastern Poland. • Because of the attack on Poland, Great Britain & France declared war on Germany on Sept 3, 1939. WW II had officially begun.
  111. 111. Japan Attacks Pearl Harbor • General Tojo Hideki (Hideki Tojo) became prime minister of Japan in October 1941. He supported war with the United States, though Roosevelt still hoped for peace. • A year earlier, the U.S. had cracked a top secret code. Knowing the code allowed the US. to read intercepted diplomatic messages. By November 27, 1941, the U.S. knew the Japanese fleet was on the move. They expected an attack. However, they did not know where. • The Japanese leaders believed they could cripple the American naval fleet at Pearl Harbor. • On the morning of December 7, 1941, an American army radar operator saw a large blip on the radar screen. He called the O.D. (Officer on Duty) and believing it to be American, told the radar operator, “don‟t worry about it.” and he hung up the phone.
  112. 112. Japan Attacks Pearl Harbor • Less than an hour later, Japan attacked the naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii on Dec 7, 1941, with more than 180 Japanese warplanes killing 2,400 and injuring nearly 1,200. Japan sunk or damaged 18 warships, and nearly 200 planes were destroyed. The famous battleship U.S.S. Arizona went down. • The next day the U.S. declared war on Japan. • Three days later, Hitler honored his pact with Japan and Germany declared war on the United States. This was one of the only agreements that Hitler honored. He was only obligated to defend Japan if they had been attacked. Italy also declared war on the U.S.
  113. 113. U.S.S. Arizona Memorial
  114. 114. AH.4.7 • Explain how the U.S. government financed World War II, managed the economy, and encouraged public support for the war effort.
  115. 115. Mobilizing the Armed Forces • Selective Service and Training Act required all males aged 21 through 36 to register for military service. • 5 million volunteered for service, but it was not nearly enough & another 10 million were drafted. • Americans who served in the military called themselves GIs, an abbreviation for “government issue.” GI‟s went through 8 weeks of basic training.
  116. 116. Mobilizing the Armed Forces  Women‟s Auxiliary Army Corp (WAAC) took over many duties men did in the military – NOT COMBAT. 250,000 women served in the military during the war. Army Chief of Staff, General George Marshall pushed for the formation of the WAACs because the “need for „manpower‟ was so great.” • Minorities took an active part in the military, some 500,000 MexicansAmericans, 1,000,000 African-Americans, 50,000 Asian-Americans, and 25,000 Native-Americans.
  117. 117. Mobilizing the Armed Forces • When African-Americans first joined the military, they were used in supporting roles only. As casualties mounted, the need for troops increased and African-Americans were allowed to fight. • African-Americans fought in separate units, such as the Tuskegee Airmen. Later, as casualties continued to increase, some African-Americans were allowed to serve in white units.
  118. 118. Preparing the Economy for War • The United States began to emerge from the depression as a result of producing goods for the allied forces. • To centralize agencies and resources dealing with war production, President Franklin Roosevelt created the Office of War Mobilization. • Henry Kaiser built 7 new shipyards to produce Liberty ships (cargo carrier), tankers, troop transports and small aircraft carriers. Kaiser revolutionized production techniques.
  119. 119. Preparing the Economy for War • To meet the demand for war material, the American government directed the war production of businesses. To do this, the government set up the War Production Board (WPB) • Instead of making cars, Ford Motor Company plants retooled to produce bombers. • As a result of war production, employment increased and union membership rose. • To finance the war, the government used deficit spending, they launched bond sales drives, and they raised income taxes.
  120. 120. Rationing • Shortages of consumer items prevented Americans from spending the high wages they earned during wartime. • Shortages affected the economy by limiting the number of goods people could buy. As a result, rationing occurred. Finally, the supply of goods fell short of consumer demand.
  121. 121. Patriotic Activities • Popular Culture was characterized by patriotism and high morale. • The Office of War Information was established in June 1942 to work with magazine publishers, ad agencies, and radio stations to create ads and posters that would stir American‟s patriotic feelings. • One popular idea was the victory garden which was a home vegetable garden planted to add to the home supply of food and replace farm produce sent to feed the soldiers. • The government encouraged recycling efforts to use materials for war production –it gave adults and children an opportunity to contribute to the war effort.
  122. 122. Propaganda • Some of the propaganda used during World War II focused on anti-German, antiJapanese, and anti-Italian themes. Often focusing on negative stereotypes. • Some of the propaganda was positive and focused on what you could do to help. Even comic books got into the action with titles like Captain America.
  123. 123. Propaganda • Some of the propaganda used during World War II were cartoons. Some were produced by Disney, like Der Fuehrer’s Face, a Donald Duck cartoon. It was very controversial and they no longer play that specific cartoon. It depicted the Japanese and Germans in a very negative way.
  124. 124. AH.4.8 • Examine the role of women and minority groups on the home front and in the military and describe how it changed their status in society.
  125. 125. Rosie the Riveter • Women of all ages and ethnic backgrounds went to work in the wartime economy. Many joined the workforce out of patriotism. • As men were drafted, women stepped up to fill those jobs left vacant. • Women took men‟s places in industry & proved they could weld & rivet as well as men. • At one point, women made up about 35% of the civilian work force.
  126. 126. Japanese-Americans • Japanese-Americans suffered official discrimination during the War. • During WWII, many Japanese-Americans were interned or confined to camps in isolated areas, even many of those who were born in America. • On Feb 19, 1942, FDR ordered the removal of Japanese-Americans (Nisei) from the west coast as part of a national security move. • 110,000 were put in camps - 2/3 were Nisei or native born American citizens. • In 1988, Congress passed a law awarding each surviving Japanese-American internee $20,000 tax free money and an apology.
  127. 127. African-Americans • Nearly a million African-Americans joined the military. At first, black troops were limited to supporting roles (non-combat). However, as casualties mounted, authorities reluctantly gave African-Americans the opportunity to fight. • During World War II, when given the opportunity to fight, African-Americans fought in segregated (separate) units from whites. • Once such unit was The Tuskegee Airmen. These brave soldiers became the first African-American flying unit in the United States military.
  128. 128. African-Americans • It took an executive order by President Roosevelt to open jobs and job training programs to African-Americans who were being discriminated against. • To help bring about an end to discrimination, The Double “V” campaign began where the first V was for victory over the Axis and the second V was for victory in winning equality at home. This campaign originated in The Pittsburgh Courier, an African-American newspaper. • The Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) believed in using non-violent techniques to end racism. One of their methods was the sit-in. The first sitin took place at the Jack Sprat Coffee House. Members of CORE and at least one African-American entered the restaurant and filled the counters and booths and refused to leave until EVERYONE had been served. The sit-in ended the discrimination at the coffee shop. These methods helped pave the way for the civil rights movement which would begin in the next decade.
  129. 129. Other Minorities • Mexican-Americans, as well as Mexicans, faced discrimination during the war. Towards the end of the war, more opportunities presented themselves for these individuals. • Due to a shortage of farm laborers, the U.S. sought help from Mexico. Workers from Mexico who worked on the farms were called braceros. The program brought a rise in the number of Latinos in Los Angeles and other cities in Southern California. Many of these Mexican (American) laborers lived in Spanish-speaking neighborhoods called barrios where conditions were overcrowded. • Many Native-Americans moved to the cities to work in the defense industry and their lives changed. They were used to living on the reservations. They had to quickly adapt to “white” culture. At the end of the war, those who moved away did not return to reservation life.
  130. 130. AH.4.9 • Analyze the major events, turning points, and key strategic decisions of World War II and describe how they affected the outcome of the war.
  131. 131. The Holocaust
  132. 132. The Holocaust • During World War II, the Nazis carried out a brutal plan that resulted in the deaths of 6 million Jews and millions of other victims, including 6 million Gypsies in the Soviet Union. • Jews in Europe faced persecution for their religious beliefs for centuries. In the mid-1800s, a new form of anti-Jewish prejudice arose based on racial theories. Some claimed Germanic people called “Aryans” were superior to Middle Eastern people called Semites. Semitic peoples included Arabs and Jews, but the term often applied to Jews only. • Anti-Semitism was a term used to describe the discrimination or hostility, often violent, directed at the Jews.
  133. 133. Persecution in Germany • When Hitler became Germany‟s leader in 1933, he made anti-Semitism the official policy of the nation. • One of the main goals of the Nazi‟s in the 1930s was to get rid of all Jews. • The Nuremberg Laws, passed in 1935, stripped Jews of their German citizenship. • Hitler blamed Jews for Germany‟s defeat in WWI & economic problems after the war. • Hitler wanted all Jews to leave, but because of anti-Semitism, only a small fraction were accepted in other countries.
  134. 134. Persecution in Germany • Many Jews thought they could endure the persecution until Hitler lost power. But, those illusions were destroyed on November 9, 1938, when Nazi thugs throughout Germany and Austria looted and destroyed Jewish stores, houses, and synagogues. • This incident became known as Kristallnacht, or “The Night of the Broken Glass,” a reference to the broken windows of the Jewish shops. • The Nazi‟s arrested thousands of Jews and sent them to concentration camps. Then, fines were issued to the Jews to pay for the damages of Kristallnacht. • After that night, Germany‟s remaining Jews sought any means necessary to leave the country.
  135. 135. From Murder to Genocide • As German armies overran most of Europe, more and more Jews came under their control. • They established ghettos in which the Jews were forced to live. In the Warsaw ghetto around 400,000 Jews were confined to an area about 3 percent of the size of the city. A wall topped with barbed wire and guarded by Germans surrounded them. • Jews received very little food, and hunger, overcrowding, and lack of sanitation brought on disease. • At the Wannsee Conference outside Berlin, a new policy was developed, The Final Solution of the Jewish Question. The plan was to construct special camps in Poland where genocide, or the deliberate destruction of an entire race or cultural group, was to be carried out against Europe‟s Jewish population. • These camps were different from concentration camps, where work would be done. These were death camps, used for mass murder.
  136. 136. From Murder to Genocide • The Nazi‟s chose poison gas as the most effective way to kill people. • Gas chambers were installed at the death camp in Auschwitz, located in western Poland. • Jews would be loaded onto cattle trains and shipped to the death camps. They were told they were going to The East to work. At 4 of the 6 death camps, nearly all were murdered shortly after they arrived. • The Jews were sent into shower chambers where they thought they were going to bathe and be deloused (treated for lice). They would even be given soap to complete the deception. In the chambers, the poison gas Zyklon B would kill them. • Jews would be the ones who would carry the dead bodies to the crematoria, where they would be cremated.
  137. 137. From Murder to Genocide • The Germans would salvage any article of value from the victims, including jewelry or gold fillings from their teeth. • There were so many dead bodies from the Holocaust, the Germans burned the dead bodies (crematoriums were used.) It was so horrible that ash from the bodies filled the air and the dust settled on everything around the death camps. • Those who lived, only to work, had a life expectancy of only a few months. They were fed a small piece of bread, given imitation coffee to drink, and a soup made from rotten vegetables. They slept in crowded conditions on wooden pallets. Their heads were shaved and they were tattooed with a registration number on their arm. • In August 1943, some Jews resisted the Nazis. They had a month-long revolt at the Treblinka death camp.
  138. 138. From Murder to Genocide • The U.S. government knew about the mass murder of the Jews by the Nazis as early as November 1942. The press showed little interest in reporting the story. Congress did not raise immigration quotas for Jews. • In January 1944, U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt created the War Refugee Board to help the people threatened by the Nazis. It helped save some 200,000 lives. • In November 1945, at the Nuremburg Trials, Nazi leaders were put on trial for crimes against peace, crimes against humanity, and war crimes. 12 of 24 defendants were given the death sentence. • An International Military Tribunal composed of members selected by the U.S., Great Britain, the Soviet Union, and France put former Nazi leaders on trial in the Nuremburg Trials. Most importantly, the Nuremburg Trials established the principle that individuals are responsible for their own actions. The tribunal rejected the idea that they were only “following orders.”
  139. 139. Used Zyklon B Containers Hair from the head of Jews: This hair was used in mattresses
  140. 140. Tracks leading to Death Camp at Auschwitz
  141. 141. Gates at Auschwitz
  142. 142. Remains of the Gas Chambers
  143. 143. D-Day
  144. 144. George S. Patton
  145. 145. The Invasion of Western Europe • Operation Overlord was the code for the invasion of Europe –to take Europe back from Axis Powers. It would begin on D-Day. It represented the opening of the Allied invasion of Western Europe. – D-Day (Day of Invasion) June 6, 1944 on France‟s Normandy coastline with 156,000 troops, 4,000 landing craft, 600 warships, 11,000 planes on 60 mile front. – Within a month more than 1,000,000 men and 170,000 trucks, 567,000 tons of supplies were landed in France & the push to ride France of the Germans was well under way. – Paris was freed on August 25, 1944 by French resistance troops & Americans.
  146. 146. The Invasion of Western Europe • The Battle of the Bulge: – On Dec. 16, 1944, Hitler launched a massive counterattack along an 80 mile front with the objective of seizing the Belgian port of Antwerp. – The German attack smashed into the U.S. First Army and pushed it back, forming a bulge in the Allied line. Many units were cut off from the rest of the American Army. – Eisenhower ordered General George S. Patton to the battle. Patton‟s Third Army moved north to help stop the advance.
  147. 147. The Invasion of Western Europe • The Battle of the Bulge: – After a month long battle the Germans were pushed back with heavy losses in men & materials that could not be replaced. – The Germans now were in full retreat on all fronts. – Soviets pushed into Germany from the east & the Allies pushed from the west. – The Battle of the Bulge was the largest battle fought in Western Europe during World War II.
  148. 148. The War in Europe Ends • On April 25, 1945 the Soviets stormed Berlin. The city panicked, German troops fled. • Hitler in his bunker married Eva Braun & wrote a letter to the German people blaming the Jews for starting the war & the generals for losing it. • Hitler killed himself on April 30, 1945. • Eisenhower accepted the unconditional surrender of Germany –and the end of the war in Europe- on May 8, 1945, V-E Day (Victory in Europe)
  149. 149. The Manhattan Project • The Manhattan Project was the code for the building of the Atomic Bomb, a bomb that could destroy an entire city. • J. Robert Oppenheimer led a team of scientists in a secret lab in Los Alamos, New Mexico to build the actual bomb. • The debate then turned to do we bomb or not? Some scientists claimed it would be immoral to use the weapon without warning Japan first. – Those in favor of the bomb claimed it would save American lives. – Also, the bomb should be used to justify the cost of building it. • Truman decided to use the bomb –giving Japan one last chance to surrender, or face utter destruction. Japan refused.
  150. 150. The Manhattan Project • August 6, 1945, a B-29 bomber named Enola Gay dropped an atomic bomb on the city of Hiroshima, an important Japanese military center. 43 seconds later, almost every building in the city collapsed into dust. Japanese leaders still hesitated to surrender. • On August 9, 1945, a second bomb was dropped on the city of Nagasaki, leveling half of the city. • By the end of the year, 200,000 people had died as a result of injuries and radiation poisoning caused by the atomic blasts. • Japan surrendered less than a week after the destruction of Nagasaki. They accepted the American terms for surrender (Unconditional Surrender). • Finally, September 2, 1945, the formal surrender ceremonies took place in the harbor of Tokyo on board the U.S.S Missouri–the war was over.
  151. 151. War Conferences • The Atlantic Conference -In August 1941, Churchill & FDR met in Washington to decide how to conduct the war & decided the war in Europe –the defeat of Germany was the top priority. This declaration became known as the Atlantic Charter. • The Atlantic Charter contained the terms agreed to by the U.S. and Great Britain to govern war behavior and define their aims. • FDR always considered Hitler the # 1 enemy of U.S. • After World War II, the United Nations was formed on the basis of the principles laid out in the Atlantic Charter. • Casablanca Conference January 1943: Churchill and Roosevelt mapped out strategies for the rest of the war. They decided to maintain the approach of dealing with Europe first.
  152. 152. War Conferences • Cairo Conference (1943) Roosevelt & Churchill decided that they would accept nothing less than unconditional surrender of Axis Powers. • Teheran Conference (1943) Roosevelt, Churchill, & Stalin decide to open a second battle front in Europe. Soviets to enter war against Japan after the defeat of Germany. • Yalta Conference (1945) After Germany surrendered they are to be disarmed & divided into four parts, to be governed by Great Britain, France, the United States, and the Soviet Union. Also, agree to hold war crimes trial after the war. Soviets to get concessions in Manchuria for entering war against Japan. Plus, Soviets to get 3 seats in UN General Assembly. Stalin never fulfilled his promises made at Yalta. In fact, according to critics, Roosevelt and Churchill did not do enough to prevent Soviet domination of Eastern Europe. This would set the stage for the Cold War, which would dominate the decades to come…
  153. 153. AH.4.10 • Describe how key political and military leaders affected the outcome of World War II and led to the beginning of the Cold War
  154. 154. The Big Three • • • Winston Churchill –Prime Minister of Great Britain Franklin D. Roosevelt –President of the United States Joseph Stalin –Premier of the Soviet Union
  155. 155. Harry S. Truman • Harry Truman became president, April 1945, upon the death of FDR. • It was Truman‟s decision to drop the atomic bomb on Japan.
  156. 156. Douglas MacArthur • Played an important role in the War in the Pacific (against Japan). • He was Commander of the U.S. Armed Forces in the Far East prior to the attack at Pearl Harbor. • Forced to flee the Philippines as the Japanese were invading, he vowed to return and later fulfilled that promise. • It was MacArthur who accepted Japan‟s surrender on the U.S.S. Missouri.
  157. 157. Dwight D. Eisenhower • • Supreme Allied Commander General in the United States Army