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Quick Write<br />What is this quote meant to mean? Is there a way that we can apply this to the cognitive perspective?<br />“There is nothing either good or bad, but thinking makes it so.”<br />William Shakespeare<br />
Psychology 4.11<br />The Cognitive View of Depression<br />“The Power of Positive (non-faulty) Thinking)”<br />
Our Goal for Today<br />That when you leave you will be able to discuss negative thinking and its possible role in depression.<br />
What is the cognitive explanation for abnormal behavior?<br />
The Cognitive View of Depression<br />Cognitive theorists believe that people with depression constantly interpret events in negative ways.<br />These perspectives lead to their disorders.<br />The two most influential cognitive theories relating to depression are the theories of negative thinking and learned helplessness.<br />
Negative thinking<br />Theorist Aaron Beck believes that negative thinking lies “at the heart of depression”. <br />Other cognitive theorists, such as Albert Ellis, also point out maladaptive thinking as a key to depression.<br />Beck’s theory is most often associated with the disorder. According to Beck, the of maladaptive attitudes (cognitive triad), errors in thinking, and automatic thoughts combine to produce depression <br />
Maladaptive Attitudes<br />Beck believes that people develop maladaptive thoughts as they get older. <br />Their attitudes are shaped by the social influences in their lives. <br />These attitudes lead to thoughts like: “My worth is tied to the tasks I perform”.<br />Unfortunately, failure is almost inevitable in life.<br />These attitudes become schemas by which every experience is evaluated.<br />
Cognitive Triad<br />These negative schemas may lie dormant for years. <br />Later in life, upsetting situations can trigger a new round of negative thinking. <br />According to Beck, the thinking usually takes three forms: The individuals are constantly reinterpreting…<br />1. their experiences<br />2. their futures<br />3. themselves<br />…all in negative ways that lead towards depression.<br />This ultimately leads to feelings of undesirability, worthlessness, and inadequacy.<br />
Errors in Thinking<br />Repeated errors in logic that help maintain the cognitive triad.<br />5 common errors in thinking (logic)<br />1. arbitrary inferences<br />2. minimize/magnify<br />3. selective abstraction<br />4. personalization<br />5. overgeneralization<br />
1. Arbitrary Inferences<br />Huge leaps of logic lead to negative conclusions based on little or no evidence.<br />EX: That woman moved away from me on the bus because I smell.<br />
2. Tendency to minimize positive experiences and maximize the negative <br />EX: Minimizing the positive= The “A” I received on my exam was because the professor feels sorry for me.<br />Maximizing the negative= I have to miss one class, I will never be able to keep up. I should just give up.<br />
3. Selective Abstraction<br />A person focuses on one negative detail of a situation while ignoring the larger context.<br />My teacher commented on my paper and said it was good, but needed a lot of work on spelling. I am a horrible writer.<br />
4. Overgeneralization<br />Broad conclusions are drawn from small or insignificant events.<br />EX: I missed my free throw today…I will never be able to play basketball.<br />
5. Personalization<br />A person incorrectly points to themselves as the cause of a negative event.<br />EX: My parents divorced because I’m a bad person.<br />
Automatic Thoughts<br />“A steady train of unpleasant thoughts that keep suggesting to them that they are inadequate and hopeless.”<br />EX: <br />I’m worthless<br />I’ll never amount to anything<br />I let everyone down<br />These thoughts are “automatic” and seemingly endless.<br />
Research related to negative thinking<br />Research seems to support Beck’s theory of the “cognitive triad”. <br />For example, in various studies, depressed subjects have recalled unpleasant experiences more than positive ones (Lloyd and Lishman, 1975)<br />Similarly, research seems to support that performance in laboratory tasks are rated lower in depressed subjects than nondepressed subjects.<br />
Errors in Logic Research(Hammen & Krantz 1976)<br />A sample of female subjects (some suffering from depression, some not) were asked to read and interpret paragraphs about women in difficult situations.<br />Ultimately, those diagnosed as depressed made more errors in logic (arbitrary inference or magnification) in their interpretations than the nondepressed women did.<br />
Automatic Thoughts Research<br />In several studies, nondepressed subjects who are manipulated into reading negative automatic thoughtlike statements about themselves become increasingly depressed. (Bates et al., 1999)<br />Likewise, research seems to show that those who ruminate on their depressed moods suffer from longer “episodes” of depression. (Nolen-Hoeksama, 1998)<br />
Tomorrow we will discuss the concept of learned helplessness<br />
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