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Basic Organic Chemistry

An introduction to Organic chemistry.

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Basic Organic Chemistry

  1. 1. The next slide is a quick promo for my books after which the presentation will begin Thanks for your patience! Walt S. Wsautter@optonline.net More stuff at: www.wsautter.com
  2. 2. Walt’s Books for Free! Books available at: www.smashwords.com www.amazon.com
  3. 3. All organic compounds consist of carbon and hydrogen. Many also contain oxygen and nitrogen Other elements may also be present. Phosphorous, halogens and/or metals Most compounds are composed of carbon chains bonded with hydrogen
  4. 4. H H H H H | | | | | H-C–C–C–C–C–H | | | | | H H H H H A carbon / hydrogen chain (organic) H H H H H | | | | | H-C–C–C–C–C–O-H | | | | | H H H H HA carbon / hydrogen chain containing oxygen
  5. 5. Carbon can make four (4) bondsHydrogen can make one (1) bond Oxygen can make two (2) bondsNitrogen can make three (3) bonds Sulfur can make two (2) bonds Halogens can make one (1) bond | – N– –C– | | - S– H– Cl - -O-
  6. 6. Carbon can make single, double or triplebonds Hydrogen can make only single bonds Oxygen can make single or double bonds | –C–H | –C=O | –C=O | | | C–O-C | | C N
  7. 7. Nitrogen can make single, double or triplebondsSulfur can make single or double bondsHalogens can make only single bonds | | H– N – H -C–S–C- | | | H –C=S –C=N | | | - C - Br C N |
  8. 8. Naming Organic Compounds Meth = 1 C Eth = 2 C Prop = 3 C But = 4 C Pent = 5 C Hex = 6 C Hept = 7 C Oct = 8 C Study this Non = 9 C Slide and Dec = 10 Cthen click here To continue
  9. 9. Aliphatic HydrocarbonsAlkanes – All single bond between carbons (name ends in “ane”)Alkenes – contains double bonds between carbons (name ends in “ene”)Alkynes – contains triple bonds between carbons (name ends in “yne”)
  10. 10. Naming hydrocarbons starts with selecting the longest Chain (even around corners). H H H H H H | Not 5 C| chain | | | | H-C–C–C–C – C–C-H | | | 7C | | | H c Name starts H H H h H H-C-H with “hept” (7C) a | i All single bonds n H- C–H Name ends with | “ane” H Heptane
  11. 11. Naming the Side Chain H H H H H H | | | | | |H-C–C–C–C – C–C-H | | | | | | H Side Chain H H H H H-C-H | H- C–H | H
  12. 12. Some Common Side Chains H H H H | | |H- C- C -C - | H -C -H | | | H H H | Propyl Methyl C3 H7 CH3 H H H H H | | | | | H -C -HH- C- C -C -C - | | | | | H- C -H H H H H | Butyl Ethyl C4 H9 C2 H5
  13. 13. Methyl Heptane H H H H H H | | | | | | H |H-C–C–C–C – C–C-H H -C -H | | | | | | H | H H H H H-C-H Methyl | H- C–H | But where is the methyl Group attached? H
  14. 14. 3 methyl heptane H H H H H H Methyl group is | | | | | | attached to theH-C–C–C–C – C–C-H third carbon thus | 3 methyl heptane | | | | | H H H H H H-C-H | H- C–H Count from the Short end of | The chain H
  15. 15. Two side chains H The first methyl | H -C -H group is on H | H H H H the second Carbon counting | | | | | | from the short H-C–C–C–C – C–C-H end! | | | | | | H The second methyl H H H H H-C-H group is on the fifth | Carbon counting2, 5 dimethyl H- C–H from the short heptane end! | H
  16. 16. Alkenes (Double bonds) H H H H H H | | | | | | H-C–C–C–C = C–C-H | | | | | H H H H H A six Carbon chain – “hex” 2 hexene Alkene – ends in “ene”Double bond on second Carbon From shortest end of chain
  17. 17. Alkene with two side groups H | H -C -H H | H H H H | | | | | | H-C =C–C–C – C–C-H | | | | H H H H-C-H |2, 5 dimethyl H- C–H 1 heptene | H
  18. 18. Alkynes (triple bond) Longest chain 8 Carbons H H H H H H (oct) | | | | | | Triple bond H-C–C–C–C – C–C–C C-H on C atom 1 | (“yne”) | | | | | H H H H H H-C-H | 2 Carbon Side chain 4 ethyl 1 octyne H- C–H (ethyl) on | C atom 4 H
  19. 19. General Formula PropaneAlkanes (Single bonds) Cn H(2n +2) C3 H8 PropeneAlkenes (Double bonds) Cn H2n C3 H6 PropyneAlkynes (triple bonds) Cn H(2n -2) C3 H4
  20. 20. | Common O -H Organic Hydroxyl Groups – N–H | H Amine –C=O | O |Ester Linkage
  21. 21. –C=O | | | -C–O–C- O -H | | Carboxyl Ether Linkage –C=O–C=O N–H C | | | HCarbonyl Amide
  22. 22. Some functional groups are combinations of smaller functional groups | | –C=O–C=O | + -C–O–C- = O | | | |Carbonyl Ether Linkage Ester Linkage
  23. 23. | –C=O –C=O O -H + | = | Hydroxyl Carbonyl O -H Carboxyl –C=O C – N–H– N–H + –C=O = | | | | H H Amine Carbonyl Amide
  24. 24. Compounds Containing Functional Groups Alcohols -O-H H Ethyl | End in “ol” C2 H5 H -C -H | H- C -H | O-H Ethyl Alcohol Ethanol R –OHR = a Carbon/ Hydrogen chain Common name Grain alcohol
  25. 25. Compounds Containing Functional Groups H | ketones H -C -H –C=O | C=O | | H -C -H End in “one” | H- C -H | H R– C = O Methyl ethyl ketone | R ButanoneR = a Carbon/ Hydrogen chain 2 butanone is incorrect Since counting from either end would put the carbonyl On the second Carbon
  26. 26. Compounds Containing Functional Groups Aldehydes H –C=O | | H -C -H H | End in “al” H - C=O R – C=O Ethyl Aldehyde | H EthanalR = a Carbon/ Hydrogen chain Common name Acetaldehyde
  27. 27. Compounds Containing Functional Groups Acids –C=O H | | H -C -H O -H | End in “oic” C=O | R– C = O O -H | Acetic Acid O -H Ethanoic AcidR = a Carbon/ Hydrogen chain Common name Vinegar
  28. 28. Structural Isomers Same formula but different arrangement of atoms H H H H H H H | | | | | | |H- C- C -C -C -H H- C- C -C -H | | | | | | | H H H H H | H H–C–H Butane | C4 H10 H Methyl Propane C4 H10
  29. 29. Propanone Propanal
  30. 30. Chiral CarbonsMirror Image molecules
  31. 31. Molecules Cannot be Superimposed! Out of screen Into screen
  32. 32. Cis and Trans Isomers Double bond cis-butenedioic acid trans-butenedioic acid (maleic acid) (fumaric acid)“cis” like scissors (next to) “trans” across form
  33. 33. AromaticsAromatics are compounds that contain a benzene ring as part of their structure C6 H6
  34. 34. Delocalized Electron cloud Resonance structure
  35. 35. Different symbols for the Benzene Ring
  36. 36. Some Common Aromatics Aspirin
  37. 37. Cyclics and Aromatics C6 H6At first glance they look the same but aren’t

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