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Node Web Development 2nd Edition: Chapter3 Node Modules



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Node Web Development 2nd Edition: Chapter3 Node Modules

  1. 1. Node Modules Rick Chang
  2. 2. Modules One module per .js file Objects not assigned to exports are not visible to any code outside the module The globals in a module are actually local to that module Called module encapsulation
  3. 3. Module simple.js using require() var count = 0; = function() { return count++; } ! exports.hello = function() { return "Hello, World!"; } $ node > var s = require('./simple'); undefined > 0 > 1 > 2 > s.hello() 'Hello, World!'
  4. 4. Module encapsulation module1.js module2.js 24 Jul 15:41:32 - A = a different value A, B = a different value B, values = { A: 'value A', B: 'value B' } var util = require("util"); var m1 = require("./module1"); ! var A = "a different value A"; var B = "a different value B"; ! util.log('A = ' + A + ', B = ' + B + ', values = ' + util.inspect(m1.values())); var A = "value A"; var B = "value B"; exports.values = function() { return { A : A, B : B }; }; Result
  5. 5. Module identifiers Module identifiers: relative, absolute, top-level relative ./, ../, absolute begin with / top-level node_modules directory
  6. 6. node_modules Hierarchy Node searches the node_modules in the current directory If not found, move to the parent directory until it reaches the root of the file system. System-wide modules
  7. 7. node_modules Hierarchy /home/david/projects/drawapp/lib/node_modules /home/david/projects/drawapp/node_modules /home/david/projects/node_modules /home/david/node_modules /home/node_modules /node_modules
  8. 8. System-wide modules All system-wide modules in /$ {NODE_HOME}/lib/node_modules
  9. 9. Package format package.json is followed by CommonJS Pacakge/1.0 specification The documentation of package.json npm help json
  10. 10. Dependency Package format “dependencies": { "foo" : "1.0.0 – 2.x.x", "bar" : ">=1.0.2 <2.1.2" } Executable command bin: { 'nodeload.js': './nodeload.js', 'nl.js': './nl.js' }
  11. 11. Package format Describe directory structure directories: { lib: './lib', bin: './bin' } "scripts": { "prepublish": "npm prune", "test": "mocha --require test/support/env --reporter dot --check-leaks test/ test/acceptance/" } Run scripts in the life cycle of the package, which include install, activate, uninstall, update The documentation npm help scripts
  12. 12. NPM Search package npm search [packagename] Public package repository
  13. 13. NPM Show the whole package.json npm view [packagename] Show the specific attributes of the package.json npm view express dependencies npm view express author npm view express repository.url
  14. 14. NPM Install package in system-wide modules npm install -g express Install package with the specific version in current directory npm install express@3.15.0 Uninstall package npm uninstall express
  15. 15. NPM Eliminate the duplicate modules npm deduce List your installed packages npm list npm list -g
  16. 16. NPM Go the folder of the installed package npm explore express npm explore express -g
  17. 17. Build your package Initial your package to build the skeleton npm init name: (tmod2) version: (0.0.0) 0.0.1 description: this is test module entry point: (index.js) test command: git repository: keywords: test, learn author: Rick Chang license: (ISC) MIT About to write to xxx/ch3/tmod2/package.json: ! { "name": "tmod2", "version": "0.0.1", "description": "this is test module", "main": "index.js", "scripts": { "test": "echo "Error: no test specified" && exit 1" }, "keywords": [ "test", "learn" ], "author": "Rick Chang", "license": "MIT" }
  18. 18. Build your package Before publishing your package, test it npm link Create a symbolic link in your system-wide modules Publish npm publish
  19. 19. Configuration settings All configuration settings are in ${HOME}/.npmrc or <Node Install Directory>/etc/npmrc Get the config value npm get [key] npm config get [key] Change the config vale npm set [key value] npm config set [key value]
  20. 20. Configuration settings List your configuration settings npm config list Delete the key npm config delete [key]
  21. 21. Configuration settings Enable color mode to show npm data npm set color true Enable parse mode to show npm data npm set parseable true Enable global mode to install packages in system-wide npm set global true