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SOCIAL INEQUALITY 
Where is the female position to the rungs of the 
development ladder 
MD. Zakiul Alam 
Roll: ZH013 
6th...
OBJECTIVES OF THE PRESENTATION 
The main objective of this presentation is to find out the women’s position to the rung of...
INTRODUCTION: INEQUALITY AND 
SOCIAL INEQUALITY 
Inequality is like an epidemic for a country which destroys a country’s d...
SOCIOLOGICAL VIEW OF SOCIAL 
INEQUALITY 
Marx and Weber’s view 
Max Weber explains social 
inequality in terms of the 
rel...
TYPES OF INEQUALITY 
Socio-political inequalities 
 Gender inequality 
 Inequality in family 
 Education inequality 
 ...
WOMEN’S POSITION: GENDER 
INEQUALITY IN BANGLADESH 
• Gender inequality refers to unequal treatment or perceptions of indi...
WOMEN’S POSITION IN HEALTH 
Child Mortality Per Thousand 
Live Births by Gender 
Year Male Female 
1993-94 46.7 62.3 
1999...
WOMEN’S POSITION IN EDUCATION 
• The percentage of the literate 
children also varies according to 
the gender. 
• The lit...
WOMEN’S POSITION IN 
EMPLOYMENT 
Year Labor force participation rate (%) for 
15+ population 
Male Female 
2003 87.4 26.1 ...
WOMEN’S POSITION IN POLITICAL 
PARTICIPATION 
• In Bangladeshi context women 
occupy only 2% of the 
parliamentary seats. ...
VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN 
• Cultural and traditional factors heavily influence 
how women are treated and regarded in 
Bangl...
CAUSES AND DETERMINATES OF INEQUALITY 
Determinants 
Two broad determinants of 
inequality 
1. Biological: Natural inequal...
LAWS AND POLICIES 
CEDAW 
• The Convention on the Elimination of All 
Forms of Discrimination against Women 
(CEDAW), adop...
RECOMMENDATION AND 
CONCLUSION 
• Although the Constitution of Bangladesh states that women have equal footing with 
men i...
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Inequality, social inequality and gender inequality: where is the women's position to the development ladder

This presentation will try to find out women's position to the development ladder in the context of Bangladesh.

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Inequality, social inequality and gender inequality: where is the women's position to the development ladder

  1. 1. SOCIAL INEQUALITY Where is the female position to the rungs of the development ladder MD. Zakiul Alam Roll: ZH013 6th Semester BSS (Hons.) Dept. of Population Sciences University of Dhaka
  2. 2. OBJECTIVES OF THE PRESENTATION The main objective of this presentation is to find out the women’s position to the rung of development ladder in bangladesh. To find out this position we need to • conceptualize the inequality • find out types of Inequality • find out Gender Inequality with women’s role and position in the development ladder in Bangladesh • find out causes of gender inequality in Bangladesh • and find out finally policy issues and policy recommendation
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION: INEQUALITY AND SOCIAL INEQUALITY Inequality is like an epidemic for a country which destroys a country’s development not only for a generation but also for a long period of time. • Inequality may refer to unequal access to anything. Shape and figure of inequality differs from different perspectives. Inequalities in different perspectives would be broadly… • Social inequality • Economic inequality • Political inequality • Health Inequality • Social inequality is the existence of unequal opportunities and rewards for different social positions or statuses within a group or society. • All are interrelated in nature; not isolated. If we want to ensure e.g. ‘social equality’ we must have to consider other perspective of inequality.
  4. 4. SOCIOLOGICAL VIEW OF SOCIAL INEQUALITY Marx and Weber’s view Max Weber explains social inequality in terms of the relationship between class, status and party. Karl Marx explains inequality in terms of the ownership of wealth and the control of material possessions. Functionalist view Functionalist theorists believe that inequality is inevitable and desirable and plays an important function in society. Social inequality lead to a meritocracy based on ability. Conflict view Conflict theorists, on the other hand, view inequality as resulting from groups with power dominate less powerful groups.
  5. 5. TYPES OF INEQUALITY Socio-political inequalities  Gender inequality  Inequality in family  Education inequality  Class Inequality  Caste Inequality  Urban and Rural Inequality  Women’s inequality in decision making  Political participation Inequality etc. Economic inequalities  Employment inequality  Unemployment inequality  Poverty Inequality  wage and age Inequality  Income Inequality  Labor force Inequality etc. Health inequalities  Health disparities  Nutritional Inequalities  Healthcare inequality  Food intake disparities etc.
  6. 6. WOMEN’S POSITION: GENDER INEQUALITY IN BANGLADESH • Gender inequality refers to unequal treatment or perceptions of individuals based on their gender. • In 2011, Bangladesh was ranked 146 out of 187 countries on the Human Development Index and 112 out 146 countries surveyed on the Gender Inequality Index. • Gender Inequalities are in the areas of such as • Health, • Education, • Employment, • political participation, • Discrimination and violence against women etc.
  7. 7. WOMEN’S POSITION IN HEALTH Child Mortality Per Thousand Live Births by Gender Year Male Female 1993-94 46.7 62.3 1999-00 28.4 37.7 2004 24.0 29.0 2007 16.0 20.0 2010 10.0 14.0 Percentage distribution of underweight children by sex year Male children (%) Female children (%) 1996-97 54.6 58.8 1999-2000 45.8 49.6 2004 48.4 48.7 2007 39.9 42.1
  8. 8. WOMEN’S POSITION IN EDUCATION • The percentage of the literate children also varies according to the gender. • The literacy of the male children was 49.5% and for female it was 40.1% in 2000 which has been increased to 61.12% for male and 54.8% for female in 2010. • In 2011, the population with at least a secondary education was 30.8% for women and 39.3% for men. Literacy Rate (%) Year Male Female 2000 49.5 40.1 2005 55.8 48.1 2010 61.12 54.8
  9. 9. WOMEN’S POSITION IN EMPLOYMENT Year Labor force participation rate (%) for 15+ population Male Female 2003 87.4 26.1 2006 86.8 29.2 2010 82.5 26.0 • Women has nearly 10% of direct contribution to GDP as 90% of RMG workers are female. • Though female labor force participation is much lower than that of male. • Not only this, there are a large wage disparities between male and female. • Female’s household work is still unpaid and neglected.
  10. 10. WOMEN’S POSITION IN POLITICAL PARTICIPATION • In Bangladeshi context women occupy only 2% of the parliamentary seats. • Less than 1% of the cabinet members are women. • Only 7.88% of civil servants are women, but only 7.88% at decision making levels • Only 20% members of local govt. are women. • There is only one women in Supreme Court and the number of district judge, additional district judge, sub-judge and senior assistant judge constitute only 1% as compare to their male counterparts. City corporation Number of ward commissioners who are elected ( MEN) Number of ward commissioners who are elected (WOMEN) DHAKA 90 30 CHITTAGONG 41 13 RAJSHAHI 30 10 KHULNA 31 10
  11. 11. VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN • Cultural and traditional factors heavily influence how women are treated and regarded in Bangladesh. • Once married, girls become property of the husbands family. • Violence in Bangladesh ranges from  acid throwing,  physical and psychological torture,  sexual harassment,  sexual assault,  rape,  dowry related violence,  trafficking,  forced prostitution,  coerced suicide  and murder. • Rape: Rape cases doubled from 564 in 2001 to 1043 in 2004. Gang rape has become increasingly prevalent as well. • Domestic violence: underreported due to social stigma and fear, data suggests In 2001, 530 domestic abuse cases were reported in Bangladeshi newspapers. In 2004, the amount of cases reported more than doubled that number at 1164 cases. • Acid violence: Bangladesh has the highest worldwide incidents of acid crimes , accounting for 9% of burn injuries in the country. • A recent study reveals that land disputes account for 27% of acid attacks, followed by 18% for family disputes, 10% for refusal of sex, 8% for refusal of romantic relationship, 5% for dowry conflicts, 4% for marital disputes, 3% for refusal of marriage proposal, 2% for political enmity, and the remaining 23% for unknown reasons.
  12. 12. CAUSES AND DETERMINATES OF INEQUALITY Determinants Two broad determinants of inequality 1. Biological: Natural inequality on the basis of sex and age 2. Non-biological: It is basically social and economic determinant e.g. gender norms, economic solvency etc. Causes  Preoccupied mindset e.g. gender norms  Lack of explicit policy initiatives  Economic hardship e.g. Poverty makes inequality  Geographic isolation: ethnic inequality of rural  Low parental education  High population growth rate  Environmental degradation and climate change  High rate of unemployment  Political instability  Unequal distribution of wealth
  13. 13. LAWS AND POLICIES CEDAW • The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW), adopted in 1979 by the UN General Assembly, is often described as an international bill of rights for women. • End discrimination against women in all forms. • Article 11 on equality in employment • and 19 on violence against women was given. National Acts • The Child Marriage Restraint Act 1929, amended in 1984, rising the age of marriage of a girl to 18 years from 15 years and that of a boy to 21 years and makes offences under this act punishable. • The Dowry Prohibition Act 1980, amended in 1982, forbidding anyone from demanding dowry, and punishing by fine and imprisonment. • Women and Children Repression Prevention Act 1995, amended in 2000, to protect women and children against any type of violence. • Acid Crime repression Act (2012), and the Acid Control Act (2002) for death penalty of acid attack perpetrators.
  14. 14. RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSION • Although the Constitution of Bangladesh states that women have equal footing with men in all spheres of public life, it also recognizes religious personal laws, which are unequal to women. • Policy should have to be implemented.

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