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My PhD Confirmation of Candidature Seminar

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17 August 2012. 10am - 12pm
QUT Gardens Point Campus.
PhD Confirmation of Candidature Seminar.

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My PhD Confirmation of Candidature Seminar

  1. 1. CONTEMPORARY AUSTRALIAN MUSLIM HOMES:PERCEPTIONS OF PRIVACY IN THE CONTEXT OF MAINTAINING MODESTY AND HOSPITALITY Confirmation of Candidature (Articulation) (BN71 to IF49) Zulkeplee Othman N8438641
  2. 2. Structure of the presentation 1. Research Interest ► Research Problems ► Research Questions 2. Literature Review 3. Aims ► Conceptual Framework 4. Research Plan ► Methodology 5. Research Timeline ► Progress to Date
  3. 3. Research Interest ►Research Problems ► Research Questions
  4. 4. A home …… 1. Is place where one lives permanently, especially as a RESEARCH household (Oxford Dictionaries Resources, 2012) INTEREST 2. Provides similar functions: • Nostalgia • Intimacy• Shelter • Domesticity• Refuge • Diversity • Commodity & Delight• Social Affiliation • Ease• Activity Culture and • Light & Air• Personalisation environment • Efficiency• Self-Identity (Altman & Chemers, • Style & Substance• Continuity 1980) • Austerity• Privacy • Comfort & Well-beingHome as an Home: a short history of anenvironmental and idea (Rybczynski, 1987)psychological concept(Hayward, 1975) quid enim sanctius, quid omni religione munitius, quam domus unusquisque civium? (What more sacred, what more strongly guarded by every holy feeling, than a mans own home?) (Cicero)
  5. 5. Home is a reflection of culture/environment relations Environmental factors 1. Climate 2. Temperature RESEARCH 3. Terrain INTERESTCultural factors1. World views2. Environmental cognitions and perceptions Technological factors3. Privacy regulation 1. Resources4. Religious and other 2. Technological skills values5. Social structure6. Family structure The home in relation to other factors (Altman and Chemers, 1980)
  6. 6. Research interest… RESEARCH INTEREST privacy modesty hospitalityCultural factors1. World views2. Environmental cognitions and perceptions3. Privacy regulation4. Religious and other Muslim homes values5. Social structure6. Family structure in Australia
  7. 7. Research Problems 2011 Census - 26% of Australian born overseas, RESEARCH 20% had at least one parent born overseas (ABS, 2012) PROBLEM 476,300 Muslims in Australia (69% increment from 2001) (ABS, 2012) No knowledge how Australian Muslims perception on home privacy Their home environment needs have implications for home designs Current housing design may contradict with Muslim privacy requirements
  8. 8. Research Questions RESEARCH QUESTION How do Australian Muslims perceive privacy in their homes, and how do RESEARCH they achieve privacy? QUESTIONS SUB QUESTION 3 SUB QUESTION 1 To what extent do Australian MuslimsWhat are Australian Muslims’ levels of perceive modesty to be important withinsatisfaction with current Australian their home environment, and how dohome designs with regard to privacy? they achieve this? SUB QUESTION 2 How do Australian Muslims perceive hospitality within their home environment?
  9. 9. Literature Review
  10. 10. Religion & Islam 1. Religio - what retains, bond or moral 2. Durkheim - religion brings people together and unite in moral community LITERATURE 3. Islam = ‘submission’ or ‘surrendering’ in Arabic (total submission to God) REVIEW 4. Prophet Muhammad (570 AD – 632 AD) was a messenger of Allah 5. Muslims do not worship Prophet Muhammad 6. Pillars in Islam: No Pillar of Iman Description a) Six Pillars of Beliefs (Iman) 1 Belief in One God Allah alone b) Five Pilars of Islam special beings to deliver messages to 2 Belief in Angels prophets mainly 25 prophets from Adam to 3 Belief in Prophets MuhammadNo Pillar of Islam Description Books of Allah: Torah (Musa/Moses), Psalms1 Shahada testimony of faith 4 Belief in Scriptures (Daud/David), Gospel (Isa/Jesus) and Al- Sociologists and historians then increasingly come together in their common affirmation2 Salat establishment of five daily prayers that religion is the most primitive of all social phenomena. It is from it revelation)emerged, Quran (Muhammad - final that have3 Sawm fasting (month of Ramadan) through successive transformations, all the other manifestations of collective activity – 5 Belief in Qiamat Life after death / Judgement Day law, morality, art, science, political forms, etc. In principle everything is religious4 Zakat alms-giving (2.5% to the poor) predestination by Allah (good or bad) of all 6 Belief in Al-Qadar5 Hajj pilgrimage to Mecca (if can afford it) things (Durkheim, 1982 [1897]:173)
  11. 11. Islam in Australia LITERATURE REVIEWFor those who’ve come across the seasWe’ve boundless plains to shareWith courage let us all combineTo advance Australia fair.Excerpt from ‘Advance Australia Fair’ (McCormick, 1878)
  12. 12. Traditional Muslim homes requirements LITERATURE 1. privacy REVIEW 2. gendered space (space for women) 3. modesty 4. space for hospitality or receiving guests And Allah has made for you from your homes a place of rest and made for you from the hides of the animals tents which you find light on your day of travel and your day of encampment; and from their wool, fur and hair is furnishing and enjoyment for a time (Al-Quran, 16:80).
  13. 13. Privacy “the right to be let alone” (Warren and Brandeis, 1890) LITERATURE REVIEW Isolation Affinity Seclusion Privacy AnonymityMarshall (1972) Westin (1970) Reserve
  14. 14. Privacy in Muslim homes O ye who believe! enter not houses other than your own, until ye have asked permission and saluted those in them: that is best for you, in order that ye may heed (what is seemly) LITERATURE (Al-Quran, 24:27) REVIEW Hierarchy of privacy domains inPersonal Psychological Bubble (Hall, 1966) traditional Muslim home (Bahammam, 1987)
  15. 15. Privacy in Muslim homes (Middle East) • Entrance door location LITERATURE • Above eye level windows Visual • High parapet walls REVIEW • Location of rooms Can be • Thick walls Dense materials achieved Acoustical • • Zoned internal spaces: through male, female, services Smell • Oud (agarwood): incense Types of privacy in Islamic teachings (Sobh and Belk, 2011; Mortada, 2003)
  16. 16. Gendered Space - Middle East And when you ask the ladies for anything, ask them from before a screen. That makes for greater purity for your hearts LITERATURE and for theirs (Al-Quran 33:53) REVIEW Men’s majlis (Alenazy, 2007) Women’s salon (Alenazy, 2007)
  17. 17. Modesty Behaviour, manner, or appearance intended to avoid impropriety or indecency (Oxford Dictionaries Resources, 2012) LITERATURE REVIEW 1. physical modesty (dress code, fashion) 2. self-improvement or self- motivation 3. social interaction (shyness, not boasting) (Boulanouar, 2006) 4. avoiding any excessive spending and showing wealth (Mortada, 2003) Faith consists of more than seventy branches. And haya (modesty) is a part of faith (from hadith Al-Bukhari)
  18. 18. Hospitality - Middle EastMALE VISITORS DESCRIPTION wife’s muhrim such as father, father-in-law, sons, son-in-laws, brothers, nephews and unclesIntimate relatives of wife LITERATURE may enter house without presence of husband REVIEW husband’s brothers or male cousinsClose family relatives host may allow guests in female areas only after female members change clothing and wear hijab may access to men’s area or majlis only through men’s reception area should seek permission to use bathroomDistant relatives and friends could enter dining area when invited by host after female members finished preparing food and out of sightCategories of male visitors in relation to women in Saudi Arabian homes (Shraim, 2000) 2007) Men’s majlis (Lockerbie Resources, 2012; Alenazy,
  19. 19. Hospitality in Traditional Malay House Eat together and not separately, for the blessings is associated with the company LITERATURE (Ibn Majah) REVIEWCommunity spirit - Malay houseThe Traditional Malay House (Nasir and Wan Teh, 2004) The Malay House (Lim, 1987)
  20. 20. Contemporary Muslim Homes across the World LITERATURE REVIEW Traditional vs Modern (Alenazy, 2007) Typical use of garage as men’s majlis in Muslim homes in Dearborn, Michigan (Emmerson, 2011)Terrace housing in Malaysia (Md Zohri, 2010)
  21. 21. Aims ►Conceptual Framework
  22. 22. Research Questions (Recap) RESEARCH QUESTION How do Australian Muslims perceive privacy in their homes, and how do AIMS they achieve privacy? SUB QUESTION 3 SUB QUESTION 1 To what extent do Australian MuslimsWhat are Australian Muslims’ levels of perceive modesty to be important withinsatisfaction with current Australian their home environment, and how dohome designs with regard to privacy? they achieve this? SUB QUESTION 2 How do Australian Muslims perceive hospitality within their home environment?
  23. 23. Culture / Environment Relations Theory NATURAL ENVIRONMENTAL ENVIRONMENT ORIENTATIONS CONCEPTUAL - topography / VIEWS FRAMEWORK - climate - cosmology - religion - flora - values - fauna - norms ENVIRONMENTAL BEHAVIOURS / PROCESSES - privacy - personal space - territoriality - crowding ENVIRONMENTAL ENVIRONMENTAL COGNITIONS OUTCOMES - perceptions - built environment - coding - homes - memory - farms - judgements - cities Altman and Chemers (1980)
  24. 24. Modified Culture / Environment Relations Theory NATURAL ENVIRONMENTAL CONCEPTUAL ENVIRONMENT ORIENTATIONS - topography / VIEWS FRAMEWORK - climate - cosmology - flora - religion - values - fauna - norms ENVIRONMENTAL OUTCOMES - Australian Muslim homes NE EO/V ENVIRONMENTAL ENVIRONMENTAL BEHAVIOURS COGNITIONS EB/P / PROCESSES - perceptions - privacy - coding - modesty - memory EO EC - hospitality - judgements Altman and Chemers (1980)
  25. 25. Privacy Regulation Theory (Altman, 1975) Privacy is •dialectic (own experiences) and CONCEPTUAL •dynamic (continuous management) Desired level FRAMEWORK 1. Privacy = temporal dynamic process - too much privacy = social isolation changes depending on internal/external conditions 2. 2 levels of privacy - desired (required) and actual (achieved) 3. Privacy - non-monotonic function - (more privacy is not necessarily better) 4. Privacy is bi-directional nature - involves input / output from others too much social = crowding 5. Privacy can be analysed in two levels - individual & group Actual level
  26. 26. Research Significance AIMS 1. First study of Muslim homes in Australia 2. New knowledge how Australian Muslims adapt western lifestyle 3. New privacy patterns and devices not considered before 4. Expand understanding of influence of culture and religion in home designs
  27. 27. Research Plan ►Methodology
  28. 28. Research Approach 1. Qualitative approach: “lived experience” of a phenomenon RESEARCH 2. Two-step process: PLAN a) explore connections conceptual framework factors b) explore patterns of privacy in Queensland Muslim homes NATURAL ENVIRONMENTAL ENVIRONMENT ORIENTATIONS - topography / VIEWS - climate - cosmology - flora - religion - fauna - values - norms ENVIRONMENTAL OUTCOMES - Australian Muslim homes ENVIRONMENTAL ENVIRONMENTAL BEHAVIOURS COGNITIONS / PROCESSES - perceptions - privacy - coding - modesty - memory - hospitality - judgements
  29. 29. Research Sample 1.Kuraby (1497 Muslims) 1.Invitation letters/ 2.Woodridge (2484 1.In a family emails and phone situation METHODOLOGY Muslims) calls to Islamic 3.Inala (630 communities Muslims) 2.Have children or 4.Eight Mile Plains 1. 20 to 60 samples: extended families 2.Follow up calls to (470 Muslims) those interested 5.Logan (432 a) 10 to 30 males 3.25 to 55 years old Muslims) - first generation 3.Screen b) 10 to 30 females OZ Muslims or 6.Morooka (321 participants Muslims) more 7.Holland Park (295 4.Sign forms prior Muslims) 4.Home owners or interview rented properties 8. Algester (237 Muslims) Research Sites Recruitment Sample Participant Method Size Selection (ABS, 2012) Research Sample
  30. 30. Measurements and Assessment Tools METHODOLOGY 1. Semi-structured interviews 1) How does your home enable you to do the things that are important to you? 2. Open-ended questions 2) How do you make your house work so as to satisfy the level of privacy you desire for yourself and your family? 3) How do your neighbourhood and community enable you to do the things you like to do and to spend with 3. Observations your family? 4) Who (the person in your household) will be responsible in the design of your interiors and arrangements of the furniture? 4. Drawings and photographs
  31. 31. Methods of Analysis 1. Coding: METHODOLOGY Open Coding Axial Coding Selective Coding ThemesMethods Themes Outcomesof Analysis Discussions 2. Successive Approximation Social Research Methods (Neuman, 2011)
  32. 32. Timeline ►Progress To Date
  33. 33. Timeline and Progress to Date TIMELINE & PROGRESSRESEARCH TIMELINE 0 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 27 30 33 36 Sep-Dec Dec 2011- Mar-Jun Dec 2012-Mar Mar-Jun Dec 2013-MarTime Elapsed Jun-Sep 2012 Sep-Dec 2012 Jun-Sep 2013 Sep-Jun 2013 Mar-Jun 2014 Jun-Sep 2014 Sep-Dec 2014 2011 Mar 2012 2012 2013 2013 2014MilestonesStage 2ArticulationConfirmationAnnual ProgressFinal SeminarLodgement of thesisGeneric CapabilitiesAdvanced information processing skills, IT AIRS EndNote Data Analysis& research technologiesResearch planning & execution Develop tools Data CollectionTheoretical, analytical, methodological, Develop Articulation process & seminar ATN Moreresearch design & problem-solving skills methodResearch health & safety, ethical clearance Health & Intellectual Ethics& intellectual property Safety PropertyProject management, academic writing & ATN Leap Research Seminar skills Final Seminar timelineoral skills Project CommercialResearch results , scholarly publications & Assess Journal articles Conference Journal articlepresentations, policy, & career planning journals
  34. 34. Timeline and Progress to DateRESEARCH TIMELINE 0 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 27 30 33 36 Sep-Dec Dec 2011- Mar-Jun Dec 2012-Mar Mar-Jun Dec 2013-MarTime Elapsed Jun-Sep 2012 Sep-Dec 2012 Jun-Sep 2013 Sep-Jun 2013 Mar-Jun 2014 Jun-Sep 2014 Sep-Dec 2014 2011 Mar 2012 2012 2013 2013 2014Coursework TIMELINE &Advanced Information Retrieval Skills(AIRS) (IFN001)Thesis Writing PROGRESSTitle & AbstractIntroductionLiterature ReviewMethodologyJournal article 1Journal article 2Journal article 3DiscussionConclusionResearch ProcessAccess LiteratureConsider Methodological ApproachesConsider Resourcing (Scholarship)Develop ToolsImplement & Analyse PilotRevising ToolsAccess SampleFieldworkData Analysis for Articles 1, 2 & 3Gather ResultsApprovals & applicationsIntellectual PropertyEthicsIndustryHealth & safetyScholarshipsGrants in AidWrite Up ScholarshipOutputs & optionsConference PapersJournal articles
  35. 35. ReferencesAlenazy, T. H. (2007). The privacy and social needs of women in contemporary Kuwaiti homes. MFA, Master of Fine Arts, Florida State University, Florida. [Electronic Thesis].Al-Kodmany, K. (1999). Residential visual privacy: traditional and modern architecture and urban design. Journal of Urban Design, 4(3), 283-311.Altman, I., & Chemers, M. M. (1980). Culture and environment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Altman, I. (1975). The environment and social behavior: privacy, personal space, territory, crowding. Monterey, Calif: Brooks/Cole Pub. Co.Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2012). Reflecting a nation: stories from the 2011 Census. Cultural diversity in Australia Retrieved 21 June, 2012, from http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/Lookup/2071.0main+features902012-2013Bahammam, A. S. (1987). Architectural patterns of privacy in Saudi Arabian housing. Master of Architecture Electronic Thesis or Dissertation, McGill University, Montreal. Available from McGill LibraryBoulanouar, A. W. (2006). The notion of modesty in Muslim women’s clothing: an Islamic point of view. [Discussion Paper]. New Zealand Journal of Asian Studies, 8(2), 134-156Durkheim, E. (1982 [1897]). The rules of sociological method and selected text on sociology and its method London: Macmillan PressEmmerson, N., O’Connell, J., & Peirson, D. (Writers). (2011). All-American Muslim. USA: TLC.Hall, E. T. (1966). The hidden dimension. Garden City, N.Y: Doubleday.Hayward, D.G. (1975). Home as an environmental and psychological concept. Landscape, October, pp. 2-9.Lim, J. Y. (1987). The Malay house: rediscovering Malaysias indigenous shelter system. [Pinang], Pulau Pinang, Malaysia: Institut Masyarakat.Marshall, N. J. (1972). Privacy and environment. Human Ecology, 1(2), 93-110. doi: 10.1007/bf01531349McCormick, P. D. (1878). Advance Australia Fair [National Anthem]. Sydney.Mortada, H. (2003). Traditional Islamic principles of built environment. New York: RoutledgeCurzon.Nasir, A. H., & Wan Teh, W. H. (2004). The traditional Malay house (Third ed.). Shah Alam, Malaysia: Penerbit Fajar Bakti.Neuman, W. L. (2011). Social research methods: qualitative and quantitative approaches (7th ed.). Unversity of Wisconsin: Pearson/Allyn & Bacon.Rybczynski, W. (1987). Home: a short history of an idea. New York, NY: Penguin Books.Shabani, M. M., Tahot, M. M. T., Arjmandi H., Che-Ani A.I. , Abdullah, N. A. G., & Usman, I. M. S. (2010). Achieving privacy in the Iranian contemporary compact apartment through flexible design. In Power Systems and Remote Sensing.Sobh, R., & Belk,. (2011). Domains of privacy and hospitality in Arab Gulf homes. Journal of Islamic Marketing, 2(2), 125-137.Warren, S. D., & Brandeis, L. D. (1890). The right to privacy. Harvard Law Review, 4(5), 193-220.Westin, A., (1970). Privacy and freedom (first ed. 1967). Atheneum, New York.
  36. 36. Thank You Laurie Buys | Rosemary Aird | Evonne Miller | Jeff Sommerfeld | John Lockerbie | Peter Gould | Bachar Houli | Panel Members | Lynda Lawson |SEF and CIF staff | HDR colleagues | QUT Library | and everyone attending this seminarAny questions?

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