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overview• “There is nothing accidental in a frame in a movie,” Soar (2007).• Over one hundred specialized advertising agencies are devoted to product placement (Schor, Coke machine in Brokeback Mountain 2004).
History of Placements• Cigarettes• De Beers diamonds• E.T. & Reese’s Pieces – Reese’s sales increased 65% after the movie’s release• Seinfeld and Junior Mints
Definition of Product Placement• Inclusion of branded products, logos, or insignia in a movie, TV show, or other media (including music videos, novels, and videogames).• Plug versus Placement: – a “plug” is an on- camera mention of a brand, usually delivered by a celebrity. – Placement usually integrates a brand into a scene or story line.
Pervasiveness ofplacements• Product placements • As much as 75 amounted to $2.21 percent of all prime billion in 2005 (Lazar, time scripted shows on 2006). U.S. television include• In 2005, there were some element of 108,000 instances of brand placement product placement in TV Shows; a 30% (Consoli, 2004). increase from 2004 • Example: Mac/Apple:• La Ferle & Edwards During the first 4 (2006) found 1 months of 2006, TV placement per 3 shows mentioned or minutes of prime-time showed Apple TV programming products at least 250 times.
Catalysts for productplacement• Channel surfing, flipping• Advent of TIVO and DVRs• Fragmented Media: Cable & satellite channels, Internet, etc.• Economical: production costs for commercials far exceed placements• Permanence: A placement is forever, including the DVD release
Recent placements inmovies• Link to brandchannel, a website that itemizes product placements in movies• http:// www.brandchannel.com/brandcameo_films.asp• Example: Brands featured in Click, starring Adam Sandler: 7-Eleven, Bed Bath & Beyond, Best Buy, Budweiser, Doodles, Ford, Huffy bicycle,, Red Lobster, Twinkies, Sharp, Sony, Speedo, Tag Huer, Tic Tac, Yodels
Types of placements• Visual: a branded product serves as a prop in the scenery or background• Audible: A character refers to a brand by name• Use: A character uses a product• Integrated: the brand is integrated into the story line. – Integrated placements are the most effective• Virtual placements: (digitally added after the fact)
Theoreticalframeworks• Mere exposure: repeated exposure to a brand increases liking for the brand• Associative networks: the images and associations with the characters or story “rubs of” on the brand• Psychological reactance: movie-goers might rebel if they think their freedom to Starbucks in the avoid advertising is being background of Meet restricted the Fockers
Studies onplacements• Brand placement had a significant effect on brand image (Reijmeersdal, Neijens, & Smit, 2007)• Placements can be effective even if they are not consciously recalled (Reijmeersdal, Neijens, & Smit, 2007)• Example: Pontiac sold 1,000 Pope Benedict XVI Solstices within an hour after the wearing Prada car was featured on an episode of shoes The Apprentice in April 2005.
Placements may beoverrated• “a lot of the placements are just going to pass people by” Romaniuk, 2008)• About 70% of visual exposures were less than five seconds• 41% of brand placements in reality shows were ``slightly obscured
Reactions toplacements• Sheth & Sisodia (2005) 60% of consumers believe that marketing and advertising is “out of control.”• However, consumers (69%) report they don’t particularly mind product placements, unless they are disruptive• Placements may add to realism, verisimilitude
Newer forms ofplacement• Madison Avenue is scrambling to place brands anywhere and everywhere – Board games: Monopoly now features playing pieces molded in the image of McDonalds french fries, a Toyota Prius, a Motorola cell phone, and a Starbucks mug. – Children’s books: M&Ms sells book to help teach counting skills to preschoolers – Music: In the top 20 songs of 2005, Mercedes-Benz was mentioned 100 times, Nike 63, Cadillac 62, Bentley 51, and Rolls-Royce 46. – Prescription drugs: According to Neilson, there were 337 visual or audio mentions of Prescription drugs in 2006 – Eggs: CBS hired EggFusion, an "on- egg messaging" company, to print its logo on 35 million eggs.
Controversialplacements – Johnny Walker placed this billboard in Beirut, Lebanon at the location where a bridge had been bombed. – Placements aimed at children (Campbell 2006) • cigarettes • alcohol • junk food – Sexy placements?