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Developing and Delivering Zinc Wheat: The Role of Wheat in Reducing Hidden Hunger

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Presentation delivered by Dr. Wolfgang Pfeiffer (HarvestPlus, Colombia) at Borlaug Summit on Wheat for Food Security. March 25 - 28, 2014, Ciudad Obregon, Mexico.

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Developing and Delivering Zinc Wheat: The Role of Wheat in Reducing Hidden Hunger

  1. 1. Wolfgang H. Pfeiffer Developing and Delivering Zinc Wheat: The Role of Wheat in Reducing Hidden Hunger
  2. 2. The 21st Century faces Major Food Security Challenges
  3. 3. Environmental degradation Nitrogen Algae growth from fertilizer N Sea of Cortez, Mexico Source: I. Ortiz-Monasterio
  4. 4. The loss of Genetic Resources
  5. 5. 1987 2003 A dwindling resources base Water Alvaro Obregon Dam Yaqui Valley, Sonora Mexico
  6. 6. 2 billion people in the developing world are iron deficient Women and children are the primary victims Micronutrient Deficiency Hidden Hunger 2 billion+ affected Photo: C. Hotz
  7. 7. HarvestPlus - an interdisciplinary, global alliance of more than 200 scientific and implementation partners in over 40 countries that seeks to reduce hidden hunger and provide micronutrients directly through … high-yielding, high-profit varieties of key staple foods that they eat HarvestPlus is a joint venture between two CGIAR Centers, the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) based in Cali, Colombia and the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) based in Washington, D.C. addressed by
  8. 8. What can We do now? • Diversify the diet expensive & out of reach for many • Fortify Food e.g. with iron, iodine need access to the market - buy processed food • Provide Supplements e.g. vitamin A, iron, zinc need access to the health care system - high delivery cost
  9. 9. What can Biofortification do? • Develop wheat, rice, maize, cassava and other staples packed with additional vitamins or minerals…. • Nutritional benefits coming from the crops, harvest after harvest, with no additional costs • Reach those who are not reached by other nutrition interventions
  10. 10. HarvestPlus Impact & Product Pathway Development of Crop Product Concepts Discovery: HPlus I 2004-2008 Determine Cost /Benefit compared to other Interventions Identify Target Populations & Staple food consumption Setting Nutrient Target Levels Screening & Determine Breeding Feasibility
  11. 11. Initial Target Areas for Zinc dense Wheat Baseline Micronutrient Level in Commercial Crop 25 µgg-1 Target Increment to be added 12 µgg-1 ME1: Temperate Irrigated High Production NWPZ ME5: Irrigated High Temperate Stress EGPZ
  12. 12. % of Physiologic Requirement1) for Zinc achieved by different Levels of +12ppm Zinc Wheat Intake Consumed g/day % Requirement 1) Woman in child bearing age
  13. 13. Genetic Variation for Zinc & Iron in Wheat Iron µgg-1 Zinc µgg-1 Variation to surpass the target in wild relative species & synthetic wheat + Lack of genetic variation in adapted, high yielding genotypes -
  14. 14. Cakmak et al., 2009 Endosperm Aleurone Embryo High Zinc Wheat Low Zinc Co-localization Protein Zinc Iron Amino Acids
  15. 15. HarvestPlus Impact & Product Pathway Nutrition Retention and Bioavailability Nutritional Efficacy Studies on Human Subjects Crop Development Development: HPlus II 2009-2013 GxE Performance Testing in Target Countries
  16. 16. HarvestPlus Impact & Product Pathway Release C Seed Production Launch | Test Marketing Delivery: HPlus III 2014 - 2018 Advocacy Delivery | Commercialization Marketing Awareness | Demand Creation Acceptability Studies Market & Product Development Shakti man
  17. 17. Q #1: Can breeding increase nutrients to levels that improve nutrition? Will Biofortification Work?
  18. 18. Cassava Vitamin A Nigeria & DRC Beans Iron Rwanda & DRC Maize Vitamin A Zambia Release Dates for Crops for Africa & Asia 2007 Sweetpotato Vitamin A Uganda Pearl Millet Iron India Rice Zinc Bangladesh Wheat Zinc India | Pakistan 2015 2013 2012 2013 20122011 2013 2012
  19. 19. Biofortified crops released in 27 countries 18 in Africa, 4 in Asia, 5 in LAC In-testing in 43 countries 26 in Africa, 8 in Asia, 9 in LAC 4 Vita-A , 5 Iron , 4 Zinc Crops Sorghum Banana Plantain Cowpea Potato Lentil
  20. 20. Q #2: Are the extra nutrients bioavailable at sufficient levels to improve micronutrient status? Will Biofortification Work?
  21. 21. How do we know zinc wheat works? 2008 - 2011 2009 - 2010 2014 - 2015 Sangam Vihar, New Delhi Bangalore Children 4-6 years & Women in child bearing age School children in Bangalore n=1500 women & 1500 children per group x 2 groups n=150 per group x 3 groups New Delhi; JHU & Subharti Medical College ETH & St. John’s Medical College Zinc wheat contributes a significant proportion of the Zinc EAR in the target population P Zinc in biofortified wheat is bioavailable,absorbed and utilized P Does zinc wheat consumption improve zinc status of women and children?
  22. 22. Q #3: Will farmers adopt zinc wheat and will consumers buy & eat in sufficient quantities? Will Biofortification Work?
  23. 23. > 1.5 million farming households reached 2011 - 2013 > 7.5 million farming household members consuming Delivery / Commercialization > 1.1 million farming households targeted in 2014
  24. 24. Crop Development , Testing & Commercialization Partnership Public Sector: DWR – (ICAR) IARI - Delhi PAU - Ludhiana BHU - Varanasi CIMMYT Private Sector: Ankur Seeds, Ajeet Seeds, Astha Beej Ltd, Bayer Crop Science, DCM Shriram Ltd., Krishidhan, Mahyco, Nirmal Seeds, Nuziveedu Seeds, Pantnagar Tarai Agri Seeds, Rasi Seeds, Shakati Vardhak, Sri Sai Seeds, Shriyanshi Seeds
  25. 25. What is the Way Forward? Photo: Neil Palmer (CIAT)
  26. 26. HarvestPlus III will demonstrate the viability of biofortification as a global solution and lay foundation for scale by HarvestPlus III 2014-2018 Strategic Priorities Research, communicate and advocate strategically Strengthen the pipeline of biofortified varieties Scale up delivery in target countries and expand delivery to new countries
  27. 27. HarvestPlus Phase III Strategic Priorities Scale up delivery in target countries and expand delivery to new countries Target Countries • Implement country level business plans Expansion Countries • Scale up delivery of prioritized crops in target geographies through partnerships • Develop & deploy technical assistance capabilities to support partnerships
  28. 28. Quick Assessment of the Relative Role/Value of Main Partner Groups
  29. 29. Breed competitive crops to target nutrient levels and broader applicability across agro-ecological zones & uses Molecular markers & diagnostic tool development Zinc as core trait / non- negotiable trait → endorsed by CG-Center DGs Anti-nutrients & promoters Phytate / Phytase … Strengthen the pipeline of biofortified varieties • Successfully develop next waves of crops • Enhance knowledge base & deliver improved enabling technologies • Mainstream biofortification • Improve bioavailability of zinc and iron HarvestPlus Phase III Strategic Priorities
  30. 30. Thank You!
  31. 31. Wheat India – Eastern Gangetic Plains Zone Test marketing of 5 zinc wheat leads - 1000 mini- kits in 2013 -2014; additional leads are in testing