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Personas One of the user-centered design approaches• Based on interviews, observation, research• Primary, secondary (+ supplementary)• Serve as a guide to the design process• Does not substitute involving real users in the process
Irene, 28 Example Background: real estate agent, dance instructor Description: Irene has a hectic life. Dance competitions are approaching and as an instructor, she needs to schedule extra trainings for 15 people, which should also ﬁt into her own busy calendar. Irene is mostly connected through mobile. Goals:• Irene needs a easy way to schedule training events for 15 people• She wants to quickly see which days are suitable for others on the go, since she mostly uses internet on her mobile
ScenariosScenarios describe likely goal-driveninteractions between types of users (personas) and the system.
ExampleIt’s morning and Irene stops at a gas station on her way to ameeting. While ﬁlling the tank she decides to quickly check whetherher dance group has agreed upon the next training day.Irene takes her phone. She logs in to a serviceand sees and overview of proposed dates. Irenenotices that only 11 people of 15 has replied.She also sees that for most next Monday andSaturday suited best. Irene needs the ﬁnalanswer soon, so she send a reminder to thosewho have not yet replied. Then she closes thephone and continues her journey.
Scenarios• Consists of goals, expectations, motivations, actions and reactions• Aims to mirror the real context and usage• Does not yet include system-speciﬁc solutions E.g.: “Robert clicks on a green button...” Better: “Robert proceeds to...”
User Stories Written sequences of actions and events that lead to an outcome• Good stories are standalone, short and testable• Bridge between users, designers and developers• A quick way to process new requirements
User Stories“As a <role>, I want to <do what > so that I could <beneﬁt how>.”
User StoriesExample“As an organizer, I want to easilyschedule an event for several peopleso that I could teach a dance class.”
User StoriesExample“As an organizer, I want to sent areminder to those who have not yetreplied so I will know which daysuites best for all.”
User Story • Describes one speciﬁc need • Not too detailed • Testable “As an organizer I want to click on various days in calendarI want to provide several meeting day options.”
“As an organizer, I want to easilyschedule an event for several peopleso that I could teach a dance class.” “As an organizer, I want to provide few options for upcoming meeting day” “As an organizer, I want to invite people to choose the best day for them” “As an organizer, I want check what days others have proposed.”