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Excavations reveal a modern human presence dating back to the Paleolithic period, 200,000 years ago.The Italic tribes like Umbrians, Latins , Volsci, Samnites, Celts and Ligures which inhabited northern Italy, and many others are most of Indo-European stock; main historic peoples of non-Indo-European heritage include the Etruscans, the Elymians and Sicani in Sicily and the prehistoric Sardinians
In the 6th century the Byzantine EmperorJustinian Ireconquered Italy from the Ostrogoths. The invasion of a new wave of Germanic tribes, the Lombards late in the same century, reduced the Byzantine presence to the Exarchate of Ravenna and other lands in southern Italy. The Lombard reign of northern and central Italy was absorbed into the Frankish Empire by Charlemagne in the late 8th century
Ancient Rome was at first a small agricultural community founded c. the 8th century BC, that grew over the course of the centuries into a colossal empire encompassing the whole Mediterranean SeaIn a slow decline since the late 4th century AD, the empire finally broke into two parts in 395 AD: the Western Roman Empire and the Eastern Roman Empire. The western part, under the pressure of the Franks, the Vandals, the Huns, the Goths and other populations from Eastern Europe, finally dissolved, leaving the Italian peninsula divided into small independent kingdoms and feuding city states for the next 1,300 years. The eastern part sole heir to the Roman legacy.
In the south, Sicily became an Islamic emirate in the 9th century, and thrived until the Normans conquered it in the late 11th century, together with most of the Lombard and Byzantine states of southern Italy.). In Sardinia, the former Byzantines provinces became independent states known as giudicati, although most of the island was under Genoese or Pisan control, until the Aragonese conquered it in the 15th century.
From 17-19 centuries italywas characterized by foreign domination: following the Italian Wars (1494 to 1559), Italy saw a long period of relative peace, first under Habsburg Spain (1559 to 1713) and then under Habsburg Austria (1713 to 1796).. The plague of 1575–77 claimed some 50,000 victims in Venice. In the first half of the 17th century a plague claimed some 1,730,000 victims, or about 14% of Italy’s population. The Great Plague of Milan occurred from 1629 through 1631 in northern Italy, with the cities of Lombardy and Venice experiencing particularly high death rates. In 1656 the plague killed about half of Naples' 300,000 inhabitants. During the Napoleonic Wars, the northern part of the country was invaded and reorganized as a new kingdom of Italy, that was a client state of the French Empire from 1796 to 1814, while the southern half of the peninsula was administered by Joachim Murat, Napoleon's brother in law, that was crowned as King of Naples. The Congress of Vienna (1814) restored the situation of the late 18th century, which was however quickly overturned by the incipient movement of Italian unification
The country's total area is 301,230 km², of which 294,020 km² is land and 7,210 km² is water. Including the islands, Italy has a coastline and border of 7,600 km on the Adriatic, Ionian, Tyrrhenian seas (740 km), and borders shared with France (488 km), Austria (430 km), Slovenia (232 km) and Switzerland; San Marino (39 km) and Vatican City (3.2 km), both enclaves, account for the remainder
borders shared with France , Austria , Slovenia and Switzerland
The climate of Italy is highly diverse and can be far from the stereotypical Mediterranean climate, depending on location. Most of the inland northern regions of Italy, for example Piedmont, Lombardy and Emilia-Romagna, have a climate variously described as humid continental or temperate. climte of the “Po valley region iscontinental with harsh winters and hot summersThe coastal regions have mild winters and warm and generally dry summers.
ROME: Capital city of Italy and of the Lazio region (Latium), and Italy's largest and most populous city, with about 2.8 million inhabitants. Rome is also the historic capital of the Roman EmpireIt has many ancient monuments, interesting medieval churches, beautiful fountains, museums, and Renaissance palaces. Modern Rome is a bustling and lively city and has some excellent restaurants and nightlife. The Vatican and St. Peter's are also found in Rome.
Venice is a unique city built on water in the middle of a lagoon. Venice is one of Italy's most beautiful and romantic cities as well as one of the most popular for visitors to Italy. The heart of Venice is Piazza San Marco with its magnificent church. There are many museums, palaces, and churches to visit and wandering along Venice's canals is interesting. Venice is in the northeast of Italy and historically was a bridge between East and West.
Milan, one of Europe's richest cities, is known for stylish shops, galleries, and restaurants and has a faster pace of life than most Italian cities. It also has a rich artistic and cultural heritage. Its Duomo, with its beautiful marble facade, is magnificent. La Scala is one of the world's most famous opera houses.
Capital of the Piedmont region, with a population of 908,000 inhabitants. Turin, host of the 2006 Winter Olympics, is a major cultural hub with excellent museums, elegant shops, and good restaurants. There are also some very nice examples of baroque architecture and historic palaces. Turin has many historic cafes, artisan workshops, and arcades. Turin is in the northwest of Italy, between the Po River and the foothills of the Alps.
It is the home of the oldest continually operating university of the Western world, founded in 1088Bologna is known for its beauty, wealth, cuisine, and left-wing politics. Its streets are lined with beautiful arcades, making it a good place to walk even in the rain. It has one of Europe's oldest universities and a nice medieval center. There are several attractive squares, lined with buildings with nice porticoes. Bologna is the capital of the Emilia-Romagna region in northern Italy.
Florence is one of the most important Renaissance architectural and art centers. Its Duomo and Baptistery are magnificent but crowded with tourists as is their large piazza. Florence has several interesting museums with many famous paintings and sculptures. There are also Medici palaces and gardens. Florence is in Tuscany.
The statistics showing the ranks of cities in terms of their population is as follows:Rome : most populas city with apopulation of 2761477
The Santa Maria del Fiore cathedral in Florence has the biggest brick dome in the world and is considered a masterpiece of Italian architecture. ranks 84th in the world for ecological sustainability.one of the world's largest producers of renewable energy, ranking as the world’s fifth largest solar energy producer.
Italian Scuderia Ferrari is the oldest surviving team in Grand Prix racing, having competed since 1948, and statistically the most successful Formula One team in history with a record of 15 drivers' championships and 16 constructors' championships.Italy won the 2006 FIFA World Cup, and is currently the second most successful football team in the world, after Brazil, having won four FIFA World Cups.
Milan's Bocconi University, has been ranked among the top 20 best business schools in the world by The Wall Street Journal international rankings, especially thanks to its M.B.A. program, which in 2007 placed it no. 17 in the world in terms of graduate recruitment preference by major multinational companies Forbes has ranked Bocconi no. 1 worldwide in the specific category Value for MoneyIt ranks no. 5 in Europe and no. 15 in the world.La Sapienza University in Rome is Europe's largest, with 140,000 students
In italy there is a belief that red flower represents secrecy purple represents bad luck and yellow shows jealousy so never try to give such coloured flowers to italians.
About 68% of Italian population is classified as urban,which is a relatively low figure among developed countries. During the last two decades, Italy underwent a devolution process, that eventually led to the creation of administrative metropolitan areas, in order to give major cities and their metropolitan areas a provincial status (somehow similar to PRC's direct-controlled municipality). However, none of these new local authorities has yet become fully operative. According to OECD, the largest conurbations are:Milan – 7.4 millionRome – 3.7 millionNaples – 3.1 millionTurin – 2.2 million
Due to late unification the customs and traditions recognized as italian can be identified by the regions of their origin.Despite the political and social distinction of these regions, Italy's contributions to the cultural and historical heritage of Europe and the world remain immense. Italy is home to the greatest number of UNESCOWorld Heritage Sites (47) to date, and has rich collections of world art, culture and literature from many different periods. Italy has had a broad cultural influence worldwide, also because numerous Italians emigrated to other countries during the Italian diasporaItaly has100,000 monuments of any sort (museums, palaces, buildings, statues, churches, art galleries, villas, fountains, historic houses and archaeological remains).
ITALIAN is the official language of Italy, and 93% of population are native Italian speakers. Around 50% of population speak a regional dialect as mother tongue. Friulian, one of these dialects, is spoken by 600,000 people in the north east of Italy, which is 1% of the entire population. Other northern minority languages include Ladin, Slovene, German, which enjoys equal recognition with Italian in the province of Alto-Adige, and French, which is legally recognised in the Alpine region of the Val d'Aosta. Albanian is spoken by 0.2% of the population, mainly in the southern part of Italy, as too are Croatian and Greek.Catalan is spoken in one city, Alghero, on the island of Sardinia, by around 0.07% of the population. On the rest of the island, Sardinian is spoken by over 1m, which comes to 1.7% of the Italian population.
The family is the centre of the social structure and provides a stabilizing influence for its members. . In the north, generally only the nuclear family lives together; while in the south, the extended family often resides together in one house. . The family provides both emotional and financial support to its members.
Appearances matter in Italy. . The way you dress can indicate your social status, your family's background, and your education level. . First impressions are lasting impressions in Italy. . The concept of 'bellafigura' or good image is important to Italians. . They unconsciously assess another person's age and social standing in the first few seconds of meeting them, often before any words are exchanged. . Clothes are important to Italians. . They are extremely fashion conscious and judge people on their appearance.
Greetings are enthusiastic yet rather formal. . The usual handshake with direct eye contact and a smile suffices between strangers.. Once a relationship develops, air-kissing on both cheeks, starting with the left is often added as well as a pat on the back between men. . Wait until invited to move to a first name basis. . Italians are guided by first impressions, so it is important that you demonstrate propriety and respect when greeting people, especially when meeting them for the first time. . Many Italians use calling cards in social situations. These are slightly larger than traditional business cards and include the person's name, address, title or academic honours, and their telephone number.
Do not give chrysanthemums as they are used at funerals. . Do not give red flowers as they indicate secrecy. . Do not give yellow flowers as they indicate jealousy. If you bring wine, make sure it is a good vintage. Quality, rather than quantity, is important.. Do not wrap gifts in black, as is traditionally a mourning colour. . Do not wrap gifts in purple, as it is a symbol of bad luck. . Gifts are usually opened when received.
If an invitation says the dress is informal, wear stylish clothes that are still rather formal, i.e., jacket and tie for men and an elegant dress for women. . Punctuality is not mandatory. You may arrive between 15 minutes late if invited to dinner and up to 30 minutes late if invited to a party. . If you are invited to a meal, bring gift-wrapped such as wine or chocolates. . If you are invited for dinner and want to send flowers, have them delivered that day.
1.Italians prefer to do business with people they know and trust. They prefer face-to-face contact, Demeanour is important as Italians judge people on appearances and the first impression you make will be a lasting one. 2. Appointments are mandatory and should be made in writing 2 to 3 weeks in advance. In the north, punctuality is viewed as a virtue Decisions are not reached in meetings. Meetings are meant for a free flow of ideas and to let everyone have their say.3. Dressing well is a priority in Italy. . Men should wear dark coloured, conservative business suits. . Women should wear either business suits or conservative dresses. . Elegant accessories are equally important for men and women.4 Business cards are exchanged after the formal introduction. . To demonstrate proper respect for the other person, look closely at their business card before putting it in your card holder. Italian cards are often plain white with black print.
Italy is known for its considerable architectural achievements, such as the construction of arches, domes and similar structures during ancient Rome
Nevada county Italian festival: celebrated on 17& 18 sep in the memorial parkFestaItaliana: celebrated on1st weekend of August in sacra mentoThe sicilian festival: celebrated on 18th May in sicily island of italyChristmas day easter and new year are also celebrated all over the country
. Italian painting is traditionally characterized by a warmth of colour and light, as exemplified in the works of Caravaggio and TitianSome popular artists are Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Donatello, Botticelli, Fra Angelico, Tintoretto, Caravaggio, Bernini, Titian and Raphael.The Last Supper& Mona Lisa by Leonardo da Vinci are most parodied portrait and religious painting of all time.
the Divine Comedy by poet Dante Alighieri, is considered amongst the foremost literary statements produced in Europe during the Middle Ages.: Giovanni Boccaccio, Giacomo Leopardi, Alessandro Manzoni, Torquato Tasso, Ludovico Ariosto, and Petrarch are the famous literary personalities all over the world.
Italian theatre reveal Roman tradition which was heavily influenced by the Greek.dramatists translate from the Greek. For example, Seneca's Phaedra was based on Euripides, many of the comedies of Plautus were direct translations of works by Menander.. Travelling troupes of players amuse people in the form of juggling, acrobatics and humorous plays based on a repertoire of established characters with a rough storyline, called canovaccio.
Italy is widely known for being the birthplace of opera.Italian opera was believed to have been founded in the early 17th century, in Italian cities such as Mantua and Venice
The Italian film industry was born between 1903 and 1908 with three companies: the SocietàItaliana Cines, the Ambrosio Film and the Itala Film.The first Italian film was a few seconds long, showing Pope Leo XIII giving a blessing to the camera. After the war, Italian film was widely recognised and exported until an artistic decline around the 1980s.Notable Italian film directors from this period include Vittorio De Sica, Federico Fellini, Sergio Leone, Pier Paolo Pasolini, Luchino Visconti, Michelangelo Antonioni and Dario Argento. In recent years, the Italian scene has received only occasional international attention, with movies like La vita è bella
Through the centuries, Italy has given birth to some notable scientific minds. Amongst them the most famous areLeonardo da Vinci having contributions to art, biology, and technology. Galileo Galilei : a physicist, mathematician, and astronomer The physicist Enrico Fermi, a Nobel prize laureate, was the leader of the team that built the first nuclear reactor and is also noted for his many other contributions to physics, including the quantum theoryNobel laureate Camillo Golgi discovered the Golgi complex received the Nobel Prize for his work
Italy has a long sporting tradition.The most popular sport is football. Basketball and volleyball are the next most popular games, with Italy having a rich tradition in both. Italy won the 2006 FIFA World Cup, and is currently the second most successful football team in the world, after Brazil, having won four FIFA World Cups. It has also got strong traditions in cycling, tennis, athletics, fencing, winter sports and rugby.
Italian fashion has amongst the world's most important fashion designs, such as those of France, USA, Great Britain and Japan. Fashion has always been an important part of the culture of Italy, and its society, and Italians are well known for their attention to dressing-up well, and "la bellafigura", or good impression, remains traditional in the Italian way of living.Italian designs began to become one of Europe's main trendsetters eversince the 11th-16th centuries, when artistic development in Italy was at its peak. Cities such as Venice, Milan, Florence and Vicenza started to produce luxury goods, hats, cosmetics, jewelry and rich fabrics. During the 17th-early 20th centuries, Italian fashion lost its importance, and Europe's main trendsetter became France, as French fashion began to become hugely popular, eversince luxury dresses began to be designed for the courtiers of Louis XIV. However, since the 1951-53 fashion soirées held by Giovanni Battista Giorgini in Florence, the "Italian school" started to compete with the French haute couture, as labels such as Ferragamo and Gucci began to contend with Chanel and Dior. Currently Milan, Italy's center of design, is considered the true fashion capital of the world, according to the 2009 Global Language Monitor, and Rome is ranked 4th. Both these cities annually compete with other major international centres, such as Paris, New York, London and Tokyo.
Fashion in Italy started to become the most fashionable in Europe since the 11th century, and powerful cities of the time, such as [[VeniceMilan, Florence, Vicenza and Rome began to produce robes, jewelry, textiles, shoes, fabrics, ornaments and elaborate dresses. Italian fashion reached its peak during the Renaissance. As Italy is widely recognized as the cradle and birthplace of the Renaissance, art, music, education, finance and philosophy flourished, and along with it, Italian fashion designs became immensely popular (especially those worn by the Medicis in Florence. The fashions of France, were considered the most fashionable in Europe).
Classic ItalianFor women, pair a short, fitted black dress with thigh-high stockings and boots or high heels. Another option is a mini pencil skirt paired with a pin-striped blazer over a low-cut shirt. Add a loosely tied tie if desired. Cap the outfit off with a rimmed hat and a gun holstered around your thigh.For men, sleek style is pivotal. A black or pin-striped suit, paired with a flashy tie and dark shirt is the classic look. Add a rimmed hat, shiny black shoes and a large gun, either held or tucked into your waist band. Throw a cigar in your breast pocket for an added touch.
Italian wedding dresses, designed to match the Italian culture, can add the finishing touches to a culturally oriented wedding. As the Italian community has many traditions revolving around marriage, proper Italian wedding dresses can add a lot to the wedding. Buying an Italian wedding dress for the most beautiful day in life is an important engagement for the bride. Italy offers some of the finest and most spectacular selections of wedding dresses in Europe.
Italian fashion has a long tradition, and is regarded as one of the most important in the world, along with French fashion, American fashion, British fashion and Japanese fashion. Milan, Florence and Rome are Italy's main fashion capitalsMajor Italian fashion labels, such as Gucci, Prada, Versace, Valentino, Armani, Dolce & Gabbana, Missoni, Fendi, Moschino, Max Mara and Ferragamo, to name a few, are regarded as amongst the finest fashion houses in the world. Also, the fashion magazine Vogue Italia, is considered the most important and prestigious fashion magazine in the world
Italy is also prominent in the field of design, notably interior design, architectural design, industrial design and urban design. Italy has produced some well-known furniture designers, such as GioPonti and EttoreSottsass
The history of Italian cooking actually stems all the back to the traditions of the Romans and Greeks.There are about 20 regions in Italy and different types of food can be found in each one. Long ago it was difficult for Italians to travel to other regions within Italy. This resulted in distinct styles and ways to prepare food in each region as few people were exposed to other types of cooking. So even though Italy does not seem to be a very large nation geographically, it still has a wide range of flavor.The best Italian food and particularly tasty recipes goes back a long way and everyone seems to love food cooked the Italian way. It is a food rich in history and each Italian city has added its own signature authentic Italian recipes to the pot.Traditional and authentic Italian food has become famous all over the world, particularly its pasta based dishes and the use of cheese. The food is mostly combined with sauces, cured meats and antipastos.
Rice (Riso) dishes are very common in Northern Italy, especially in the Lombardia and Veneto regions, though rice dishes are found in all the country.
Cake with Orange JuiceThis is an Italian breakfast cake made of orange juice. It takes only 10 minutes of preparation to cook this easy, simple and fast recipe and it is delightfulPeach jam tart with AmarettiA tart with hearts, what a delicious dessert to share Italians with their Valentine!PastieraNapoletanaThis is a dessert typical of Naples that in Italy is used to be prepared during the Easter periodStrawberry jam tartA delicious dessert with strawberry jam! Simple and fastZelten the Italian recipe for Zelten that is the traditional dessert prepared in Trentino Alto Adige during the Christmas feas
Biscuits with HazelnutsThis is a another delicious Italian recipe of biscuits made of hazelnuts and cacaoNovember BiscuitsThis is an Italian recipe for a typical kind of biscuits, called "Pane deiMorti", traditional from Lombardia . It is prepared for the 2nd of November in every yearCenciThis is a typical dessert of Tuscany served in the Carnival periodChocolate Carnival BallsThis coulored sweet is a great idea for every partyAlmond BiscuitsThis is another delicious Italian recipe of biscuits made of almonds. Also these biscuits, like cacao biscuits presented in a previous recipe
I GIGLI: Company’s largest shopping centre and one of the most important in Italy and is situated in tuscanyThe centre’s name and logo are derived from the heraldic shield of the city of Florence.A bike sharing scheme is in operation and there are electric car charge points in the car park coz of environmental and sustainability issues
Italy's public education is free and compulsory from 6 to 15 years of age] and has a five-year primary stage and an eight-year secondary stage, divided into first-grade secondary school (middle school) and second-grade secondary school (or high school). Italy has a high public education standard, surpassing that of other comparable developed countries, such as the UK and Germany.The country has both public and private education systems.According to National Science Indicators (1981–2002), a database produced by Research Services Group containing listings of output and citation statistics for more than 90 countries, Italy has an above-average output of scientific papers (in terms of number of papers written with at least one author being from Italy) in space science (9.75% of papers in the world being from Italy), mathematics (5.51% of papers in the world), computer science, neurosciences, and physics; the lowest, but still slightly above world-average, output in terms of number of papers produced is recorded in the social sciences, psychology and psychiatry, and economics and business.
15 Italian universities are ranked in the 2010 as World University Rankings? out of which, two are ranked in the Top 200 of the worldThere are five subjects which draw the attention of international students from all over the world. They are: health, humanities, sciences, social studies and technology
Italy and the Western world's oldest college is the University of Bologna. In 2009, the University of Bologna is, according to The Times, the only Italian college in the top 200 World Universities. The University of Bologna is the highest ranked university in Italy. It also ranks as the 176th best university in the world according to the QS World University Rankings 2010.
Sapienza University of Rome is the only other Italian university which is ranked at an impressive 190th rank, internationally.
The University of Padua,is one of Europe's oldest universities in the world.
Other top universities and polytechnics include the Polytechnic University of Turin, the Politecnicodi Milano
Italy is the fourth highest tourist earner, and fifth most visited country in the world, behind France (76.0 million),Spain (55.6 million), United States (49.4 million), and ChinaPeople mainly come to Italy for its rich art, cuisine, history, fashion and culture, its beautiful coastline and beaches, its mountains, and priceless ancient monuments, especially those from the Greek civilization and Roman civilization.
People have visited Italy for centuries, yet the first actual tourists to come to Italy for touristic reasons were aristocrats during the Grand Tour, beginning in the late 17th century, and flourishing in the 18th century.Rome, as the capital of the powerful and influential Roman Empire attracted thousands to the city and country from all over the empire, which included most of the Mediterranean, Northern Africa, mainland Great Britain (England) and the parts of the Middle East. Traders and merchants came to Italy from several different parts of the world.
Places such as Venice, Florence, Rome, Naples and Sicily still remained the top attractions. By the 1850s, less-cultural visits began to be made, and several tourists also came to Italy for its nature and weather. . Islands such as Capri, Ischia, Procida and Elba became more popular, and the Northern Lakes, such as Lake Como, Lake Maggiore and Lake Garda became more frequently visited, notably by wealthy foreigners and academics.
.Tourism to Italy remained very popular until the late-1920s and early-1930s, when, with the Great Depression and the economic crisis, several could no longer afford to visit the country, and the increasing political instability in the country meant that less and less tourists came. Only old touristic groups, such as the Scorpioni in Tuscany remained alive.. In Piedmont and the Aosta Valley, ski resorts and chalets began to be built. The 1970s also brought a wave of foreign tourists to Italy, since Mediterranean resorts saw a rise in international visitors.. Cheap hotels were built in the 1960s, and with the rise of wealth, even a working-class Italian family could afford a one-week holiday somewhere along the Italian coast. The late-1960s also brought mass-popularity to mountain holidays and skiing
Northwest Italy include Turin, the manufacturing capital & Milan, the business and fashion capital of the countryNortheastItaly:Venice, Verona,Vicenza, Padua, Trento, Bolzano, Bologna, Ferrara, Piacenza, Parma, Ravenna and Trieste Central Italy:the world's best known landmarks such as the Colosseum. Florence, Tuscany's most visited city, nearby cities like Siena, Pisa, and Lucca also have rich cultural heritages.
Naples is the most visited city in the area, and the ruins of Pompeii are the most visited sights. Other important tourist destinations include the Amalfi Coast and Ravello, Apulia and the beaches and sights of Calabria, as well as up-and-coming agritourism make this less visited region become increasingly popular.The largest island in the country is a diverse and popular tourist island, famous for its archaeology, seascape and unique Sicilian cuisine.Large island some 250 kilometers west of the Italian coastline. It includes several popular tourist attractions and has several beaches and archaeological ruins.
, in 2010 Italy was the eighth-largest economy in the world and the fourth-largest in Europe in terms of nominal GDP, and the tenth-largest economy in the world and fifth-largest in Europe in terms of PPP (purchasing power parity) GDP. Italy is member of the Group of Eight (G8) industrialized nations,Italy was transformed from a weak, agricultural based economy which had been severely affected by the consequences of World War II, into one of the world's most industrialized nations, and a leading country in world trade and exports The country is also well-known for its influential and innovative business economic sector, an industrious and competitive agricultural sector (Italy is the world's largest wine producer), and for its creative and high-quality automobile, industrial, appliance and fashion design.
Italy has a smaller number of global multinational corporations than other economies of comparable size, but there is a large number of small and medium-sized enterprises, and in the Northern "industrial triangle" (Milan-Turin-Genoa) or the Tuscan industrial triangle (Florence-Prato-Pistoia), where there is an area of intense industrial and machinery production, notably in their several industrial districts, which are the backbone of the Italian industry. This has produced a manufacturing sector often focused on the export of niche market and luxury products, that if on one side is less capable to compete on the quantity, on the other side is more capable of facing the competition from China and other emerging Asian economies based on lower labour costs, with higher quality products
Italy's major exports and companies by sector are motor vehicles (Fiat, Aprilia, Ducati, Piaggio); chemicals and petrochemicals (Eni); energy and electrical engineering (Enel, Edison); home appliances (Candy, Indesit), aerospace and defense technologies (AleniaAeronautica, Agusta, Finmeccanica), firearms (Beretta), fashion (Armani, Valentino, Versace, Dolce & Gabbana, Roberto Cavalli, Benetton, Prada, Luxottica); food processing (Ferrero, Barilla Group, Martini & Rossi, Campari, Parmalat); sport and luxury vehicles (Ferrari, Maserati, Lamborghini, Pagani); yachts (Ferretti, Azimut
India has trade relations with italy since 1929 specifically with coimbatoreIn 1966 the indo italy chamber of commerce and industry was established in kolkata , a non profit organization recognized by italy whose members are related with the industrial market in india.Italy is one of the countries to make the european union and it is the fourth largest trading partner with india . Both countries import and export goods and servicesAn agreement was signed regarding this and steps are being taken to accomplish such things as raising the dollar figure from $8 billion to $ 10 billion during the upcoming year.
Tourism is one of the fastest growing and profitable sectors of the national economy: with 43.7 million international tourist arrivals and total receipts estimated at $42.7 billion, Italy is the fourth highest tourism earner and the fifth most visited country in the world. Despite a slump in the late-1980s and during the Gulf War, Italy has, since the mid-1990s, rebuilt a strong tourism industry. Italy's most popular tourist attractions are the Colosseum (4 million tourists per year, and the world's 39th most visited sight) and the ruins at Pompeii (48th in the world, with 2.5 million visitors).
In 2004 the transport sector in Italy generated a turnover of about 119.4 billion euros, employing 935,700 persons in 153,700 enterprises. Regarding the national road network, in 2002 there were 668,721 km (415,612 mi) of serviceable roads in Italy, including 6,487 km (4,031 mi) of motorways, state-owned but privately operated by Atlantia. In 2005, about 34,667,000 passenger cars (590 cars per 1,000 people) and 4,015,000 goods vehicles circulated on the national road network.
Italy is a founding member of the European Community, now the European Union (EU), and of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). Italy was admitted to the United Nations in 1955, and it is a member and strong supporter of a wide number of international organizations, such as the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade/World Trade Organization (GATT/WTO), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), the Council of Europe, and the Central European Initiative. Its recent turns in the rotating presidency of international organisations include the Conference for Security and Co-operation in Europe (CSCE), the forerunner of the OSCE, in 1994; G8; and the EU in 2009 and from July to December 2003.Italy strongly supports multilateral international politics, endorsing the United Nations and its international security activities. Italy deployed troops in support of UN peacekeeping missions in Somalia, Mozambique, and East Timor and provides support for NATO and UN operations in Bosnia, Kosovo and Albania. Italy deployed over 2,000 troops in Afghanistan in support of Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) from February 2003. Italy still supports international efforts to reconstruct and stabilize Iraq, but it has withdrawn its military contingent of some 3,200 troops as of November 2006, maintaining only humanitarian operators and other civilian personnel. In August 2006 Italy deployed about 2,450 troops in Lebanon for the United Nations' peacekeeping missionUNIFIL.
the world’s leading insurance operators, with significant market shares in Germany, France, Austria, Spain, Switzerland and further afield in Israel.
5,700 branches well distributed throughout the country
Italy has had a public healthcare system since 1978. Healthcare spending in Italy accounted for more than 9.0% of the national GDP in 2008, slightly above the OECD countries' average of 8.9%. However, Italy ranks as having the world's 2nd best healthcare system, and the world's 3rd best healthcare performance.Italy had the 12th highest worldwide life expectancy in 2010, while, as in many others western countries, seeing an increase in the proportion of overweight and obese people, with 34.2% of Italians self reporting as overweight and 9.8% self reporting as obese. The proportion of daily smokers was 22% in 2008. Smoking in public places including bars, restaurants, night clubs and offices has been restricted to specially ventilated rooms since 2005.
Aurelia Hospital: International hospital with some English speaking doctors.Aventino Medical Group: Offering a large number of highly-qualified international and English-speaking health professionalsBambino Gesu: This is the children's hospital, one of the most renowned hospitals in Rome with some English speaking doctors.Grimaldi Medical Group Mundi International HospitalIt is the public health insurance card issued to every italian citizen.
Final ppt of italy
HISTORY• Derived from term Italia, from Latin meaning "land of young cattle”• The bull was a symbol of the southern Italian tribes during the Samnite Wars• Italy was named after Italus, mentioned also by Aristotle and Thucydides• Italic tribes : Umbrians, Latins , Volsci, Samnites, Celts and Ligures inhabited northern Italy• Non-Indo-European heritage include the Etruscans, the Elymians and Sicani in Sicily and the prehistoric Sardinians.
ANCIENT ITALY• 6th century- Byzantine Emperor Justinian I reconquered Italy from Ostrogoths• The invasion of Germanic tribes, the Lombards late in the same century, reduced the Byzantine presence to the Exarchate of Ravenna and other lands in southern Italy.• The Lombard reign of northern and central Italy absorbed into the Frankish Empire by Charlemagne in the late 8th century
MIDDLE AGE• 8th and 7th centuries BC Greek colonies established all along the coast of Sicily and the southern part of the Italian Peninsula became known as Magna Graecia• The Phoenicians established colonies on the coasts of Sardinia and Sicily.• 17th to the 11th century BC Mycenaean Greeks established contacts with Italy
• founded on 8th century BC, grew into a colossal empire encompassing the whole Mediterranean Sea• 395 AD: the Western Roman Empire and the Eastern Roman Empire• The western part, under Franks, the Vandals, the Huns, the Goths and other populations• The eastern part became Roman legacy.
• 9th century- In the south, Sicily became an Islamic emirate , thrived until the Normans conquered it in the late 11th century, together with most of the Lombard and Byzantine states of southern Italy.• In Sardinia, the former Byzantines provinces became independent states known as giudicati, island was under Genoese or Pisan control, until the Aragonese conquered it in the 15th century.
Foreign domination and Napoleonic Wars• 17th–19th centuries: foreign rule• 17th century-Plague in italy• Napoleonic Wars in 18th century
Formation• Unification 17 March 1861• Republic 2 June 1946• Prime minister
• Location: Southern Europe• The boot-shaped Italian Peninsula• lies between latitudes 35° and 48° N, and longitudes 6° and 19° E• area 301,230 km², 294,020 km² is land and 7,210 km² is water• coastline and border of 7,600 km on the Adriatic, Ionian, Tyrrhenian seas
CLIMATE• Highly diverse and , depending on location.• Piedmont, Lombardy and Emilia-Romagna, have humid continental or temperate climate.• climate of the Po valley region is continental with harsh winters and hot summers.• The coastal regions have mild winters and warm and dry summers.
MAJOR CITIES• ROME: Capital city of Italy , largest and most populous city, 2.8 million inhabitants. The historic capital of the Roman Empire
• VENICE: famous for its canals & palaces built on water. Venice is the Capital of the Veneto region• population: 271,251.
• MILAN: One of the world capitals of design and fashion and capital of the Lombardy region.
• TURIN: Important industrial city• a business and cultural centre in northern Italy• headquarter of the Fiat company.• Population: 908,000 inhabitants.
• BOLOGNA: Capital city of the Emilia-Romagna region.• One of the top cities in Italy in terms of quality of life
• FLORENCE: one of the most important Renaissance architectural and art centers.• Duomo and Baptistery are magnificent
MAJOR CITIESRANK CITY POPUL. RANK CITY POPUL.1 ROME 2761477 8 FLORENCE 3712822 MILAN 1324110 9 BARI 3204753 NAPLES 959574 10 CATANIA 2934584 TURIN 907563 11 VENICE 2708845 PALERMO 655875 12 VERONA 2639646 GENOA 607906 13 MESSINA 2425037 BOLOGNA 380181 14 PADUA 214198
INTERESTING FACTS• The Santa Maria del Fiore cathedral• ranks 84th in the world for ecological sustainability.• one of the worlds largest producers of renewable energy
• Italian Scuderia Ferrari is the oldest surviving team in Grand Prix racing• Italy won the 2006 FIFA World Cup• currently the second most successful football team in the world, after Brazil, having won four FIFA World Cups.• Genoa: Hometown of explorer Christopher Columbus, composer Niccolò Paganini, actor Vittorio Gassman.
• Milans Bocconi University, ranked among the top 20 best business schools in the world• Forbes has ranked Bocconi no. 1 worldwide in the specific category Value for Money• It ranks no. 5 in Europe and no. 15 in the world.• La Sapienza University in Rome is Europes largest, with 140,000 students
• Mont Blanc - the highest point in Italy and the European Union• 14 volcanoes in Italy, three of which are active: Etna , Stromboli and Vesuvius
• Most famous Indian politician i.e Mrs. Sonia Gandhi is a native of Italy• Birth place of pizza & pasta• Red flower: secrecy• Purple flower: bad luck• Yellow flower : jealousy
POPULATION• Italy has the fourth-largest population in the European Union and the 23rd-largest population worldwide with estimation of 60.6 million.• The population density- 200 persons per sq km, is the fifth highest in the European Union.• About 68% of Italian population is classified as urban contributed mainly by:• Milan 7.4 million Rome 3.7million• Naples 3.1million Turin 2.2 million
• Despite the political and social distinction of regions, Italys contributions to the cultural and historical heritage of Europe and the world is immense.• Italy is home to the greatest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and has rich collections of world art, culture and literature from many different periods due to emigrations during Italian diaspora.• 100,000 monuments of any sort.
LANGUAGES• official language: Italian• numerous dialects spoken all over the country and some Italians cannot speak Italian at all.• FRIULIAN: one of the dialects• a number of minority languages have co- official status. French is co-official in the Valle d’Aosta.• German has the same status as that of French.
RELIGION• Roman Catholic with mature Protestant and Jewish communities and a growing Muslim immigrant community
• 74% Italians believe in God, or a form of a spiritual life force.• 16% believe there is some sort of spirit or life force.• 6% do not believe that there is any sort of spirit, God, or life force.
FAMILY VALUES• The family: centre of the social structure and provides a stabilizing influence for its members.• In the north nuclear family lives together• In the south the extended family resides together in one house.
ITALIAN STYLES• Appearances matter in Italy• Dress indicate social status, familys background and education level• First impressions are lasting impressions• The concept of bella figura• Clothes are important to Italians.•
BUSINESS ETIQUETTE• Relationships & Communication• Business Meeting Etiquette• Dressing etiquette• Business cards
ARCHITECTURE• Broad and diverse architectural style.• considerable architectural achievements• Colosseum, the Milan Cathedral and Florence cathedral, the Leaning Tower of Pisa and the building designs of Venice.
FESTIVALS• Nevada county Italian festival: 17& 18 sep• Festa Italiana: 1st weekend of August• The sicilian festival: 18th May
VISUAL ART• Painting: a warmth of colour and light, as shown in the works of Caravaggio and Titian• Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Donatello Botticelli, Fra Angelico,Caravaggio,Bernini, Titian and Raphael• The Last Supper& Mona Lisa
LITERATURE• The Divine Comedy by poet Dante Alighieri• Giovanni Boccaccio, Giacomo Leopardi, Alessandro Manzoni, Torquato Tasso, Ludovico Ariosto and Petrarch
THEATRE• Italian theatre reveal Roman tradition• Dramatists translate from the Greek.• Senecas Phaedra was based on Euripides• The comedies of Plautus were direct translations of Menander• Travelling troupes amuse people in the form of juggling, acrobatics and humorous plays
MUSIC role in• classical music has played an important Italian culture.• Instruments like piano and violin, were invented in Italy, and many of the prevailing classical music forms such as the symphony, concerto, and sonata were innovations of 16th and 17th century.• the birthplace of oper, founded in the early 17th century, in cities such as Mantua and Venice.
• jazz has a strong foothold in Italy. Most notable centers of jazz music in Italy include Milan, Rome, and Sicily.• Italian pop music is represented annually with the Sanremo Music Festival which served as inspiration for the Eurovision song contest, and the Festival of Two Worlds in Spoleto.
CINEMA• 1903 and 1908 :The Italian film industry born three companies: the Società Italiana Cines, the Ambrosio Film and the Itala Film• The first Italian film was a few seconds long, showing Pope Leo XIII giving a blessing to the camera.• After the war, Italian film widely recognised
SCIENCE• Through the centuries, Italy has given birth to some notable scientific minds• Some are Leonardo da vinci , Galileo Galilei, Enrico Fermi• Nobel laureate Camillo Golgi discovered Golgi complex received the Nobel Prize for his work
SPORTS• long sporting tradition• most popular sport: football• Basketball and volleyball: next most popular games• It has also got strong traditions in cycling, tennis, athletics, fencing, cycling, motorbiking and rugby.
History of Italian fashion• Italian fashion has a long tradition, is regarded as one of the most important in the world.• Most fashionable in Europe• recognized as the cradle and birthplace of the Renaissance
• According to the 2009 Global Language Monitor, Milan was nominated the true fashion capital of the world.• Major Italian fashion labels are Gucci, Prada, Versace, Valentino, Armani, Dolce & Gabbana, Missoni, Fendi, Moschino, Max Mara and Ferragamo• Vogue Italia- the fashion magazine.
• Prominent in the field of design basically interior design, architectural design, industrial design and urban design.• Italy has produced some well-known furniture designers, such as Gio Ponti and Ettore Sottsass.• The latest trends in footwears emerge from italy only and then spread to whole of the world.
ITALIAN FOODS• history of Italian cooking• Italian food has become famous all over the world• Its pasta based dishes and the use of cheese• The food is mostly combined with sauces
List of Dishes and recipes• Braciole• Bruschetta• Bresaola• Crostini con condimenti misti• Capicollo• Culatello• Curried Braised Rabbit stew• Insalata caprese• Insalata russa• Mozzarelline fritte (fried small mozzarellas)
Soup and sauce recipes• Acquacotta• Bagna càuda• Garmugia• Ginestrata• Minestrone• Pasta e fagioli• Sugo al Pomodoro• Fonduta• Grine Sauce
RICE DISHES• Arancine di riso• Basic Risotto• Insalata di riso• Pomodori col riso• Risotto alla milanese or Risotto with saffron• Risi e bisi• Risotto con la lüganega• Riso with schrimps• Riso con piselli (risi e bisi)• Riso alla toscana• Riso al nero di seppia
Italian DessertsCake with Orange Peach jam tart withJuice Amaretti Pastiera NapoletanaStrawberry jamtart Zelten
Traditional Italian Biscuits November Cenci Almond Biscuits BiscuitsChocolate Biscuits withCarnival Balls Hazelnuts
SHOPPING CENTRES• CAMPANIA: situated in Marcianise & started in April 2003 by a company called Corio
• I GIGLI: Company’s largest shopping centre and one of the most important in Italy , situated in Tuscany• A bike sharing scheme is in operation• electric car charge points in the car park
• PORTA DI ROMA: innovative & Europe’s biggest shopping centre opened in July 2007 situated in Rome
• ROMA EST: one of the biggest shopping center in Italy, placed outside the city of Rome but it is quite easy to reach
• VULCANO BUONO: a shopping mall and leisure center located in Nola. Inaugurated on December 7, 2007 & designed by renowned Italian architect Renzo Piano
• public education is free and compulsory from 6 to 15 years of age and has a five-year primary stage and an eight-year secondary stage.• an above-average output of scientific papers as compared to 90 countries in world.
• 15 Italian universities ranked in the 2010 QS World University Rankings• two are ranked in the Top 200 of the world
TOURISM• Italy is the fourth highest tourist earner, and fifth most visited country in the world• more than 43.2 million tourists a year visit the country• rich art, cuisine, history, fashion and culture, its beautiful coastline and beaches, its mountains, ancient monuments especially those from the Greek civilization and Roman civilization.
• Tourism is one of the fastest growing and most profitable industrial sectors, with an estimated revenue of $42.7 billion• the first actual tourists to come to Italy were aristocrats during the Grand Tour, in late 17th century, and flourishing in the 18th century.• Rome attracted thousands tourists from all over the world which included most of the Mediterranean, Northern Africa,England and the parts of the Middle East• Traders and merchants came to Italy from several different parts of the world.
• Top attractions : Venice, Florence, Rome, Naples and Sicily• By the 1850s, less-cultural visits began to be made, and several tourists also came to Italy for its nature and weather• Ligurian coast around Venice, coastal Tuscany and the Amalfi coast are popular.• Capri, Ischia, Procida and Elba, and the Northern Lakes, such as Lake Como, Lake Maggiore and Lake Garda
• Tourism remained very popular until the late- 1920s and early-1930s• Economic depression & political instability reduced the tourism rate• Italian economic miracle and raised living standards: increased tourism• Cheap hotels• Ski resorts & chalets were built
• Northwest Italy: Turin, the manufacturing capital & Milan, the business and fashion capital of the country• NortheastItaly:Venice,Verona,Vicenza, Padua, Trento, Bolzano, Bolo gna, Ferrara, Piacenza• Central Italy: the worlds best known landmarks such as the Colosseum. Florence, Tuscanys most visited city, nearby cities like Siena, Pisa, and Lucca also have rich cultural heritages.
• SOUTHERN ITALY- Apulia,Basilicata,Calabria,Campania & Molise.• Naples• Sicily- largest island in the country &famous for its archaeology, seascape and unique Sicilian cuisine• Sardinia- Large island, 250 kilometers west of the Italian coastline, includes beaches and archaeological ruins
ECONOMY• Economy changed from agriculture to industrial state• Seventh largest economy in the world• Unemployment is around 8.4% in 2011 and is forecast to remain around that level for years• The major economy is constituted by-• Corporation• Transports• Tourism
• Itlay has capitalist economy.• Italy is member of the Group of Eight (G8) industrialized nations.• The country is also well-known for its influential and innovative business economic sector
CORPORATIONS• Smaller number of global multinational corporations.• Large number of small and medium-sized enterprises• "industrial triangle" (Milan-Turin-Genoa)• “Tuscan industrial triangle” (Florence-Prato- Pistoia)
• country was the worlds 7th largest exporter in 2009.• Italys major exports and companies by sector are motor vehicles ,chemicals and petrochemicals, electrical engineering, home appliances, aerospace and defense technologies, firearms , fashion; food processing, sport and luxury vehicles ,yachts.
Trade partners• Italys closest trade ties are with the other countries of the European Union, with whom it conducts about 59% of its total trade. Its largest EU trade partners, in order of market share, are Germany (12.9%), France (11.4%), and Spain (7.4%).
Trade relations with India• Trade relations since 1929• 1966- Indo Italy chamber of commerce & industry established• Italy is the fourth largest trading partner with India• India exports such items as textiles,chemicals , dyes , minerals such as iron ore , food products• Italy exports machinery , oils , textile including weaving , spinning machines• An agreement signed regarding this
Tourism• Fastest growing and profitable sector of the national economy• 43.7 million international tourist arrivals and total receipts estimated at $42.7 billion.• Fourth highest tourism earner and the fifth most visited country in the world.• Italys most popular tourist attractions are the Colosseum , the ruins at Pompeii , Florence & Venice
Transport• 2011: turnover of about 119.4 billion euros.• Employment: 935,700 persons in 153,700 enterprises.• National road network : 34,667,000 passenger cars and 4,015,000 goods vehicles circulated• National railway network : 16,287 km of which 69% is electrified, 4,937 locomotives and railcars circulated• National inland waterways network : 1,477 km of navigable rivers and channels . 30 main airports and 43 seaports• In 2005 Italy maintained a civilian air fleet of about 389,000 units and a merchant fleet of 581 ships
ENEL UTILITIESone of the largest European utility providers,with a home base in Italy and subsidiaries inSpain, Russia, Latin America and EasternEuropeproduces, distributes and sells electricity andgas all over Europe, North America and LatinAmerica
ENI OIL an Italian multinational oil and gas company, present in 70 countries, and currently Italys largest industrial company with a market capitalization of 87.7 billion euros• partner with ONGC and GAIL India
GENERALI GROUP INSURANCE• founded in 1831 in Trieste, is one of the most significant participants in the global insurance and financial products market• Now present in 40 Countries• market shares in Germany, France, Austria, Spain, Switzerland and Israel
INTESA SANPAOLO BANKING• the top banking groups in the euro zone• leader in Italy in all business areas (retail, corporate and wealth management)• 5,700 branches• Subsidiaries in Central-Eastern Europe, Middle East and North Africa with a network of more than 1,700 branches
UNI CREDIT GROUP BANKING • an Italy-based, pan-European banking organization • Subsidiaries in 22 countries • Registered office in Rome • Divisionsin London, Milan, Munich, Vienna, Budapest and Warsaw
Italian companies operating in India• Fiat India• Benetton India• ST microelectronics• Wellspun zucchi textiles• Perfetti van melle india
HEALTH &CARE• public healthcare system since 1978.Healthcare account for more than 9.0% of GDP• worlds 2nd best healthcare system, and the worlds 3rd best healthcare performance• 12th highest worldwide life expectancy• Smoking in public places including bars, restaurants, night clubs and offices has been restricted to specially ventilated rooms since 2005.
MAJOR HEALTH CARE SECTORS• Aurelia Hospital• Aventino Medical Group• Bambino Gesu• Grimaldi Medical Group• Mundi International Hospital
SWOT ANALYSISSTRENGTHS WEAKNESS:5th largest industrial economy of world :Limited natural resources:important member of G8 :Imports are high: fashion hub : high public debts:processing & manufacturing of goods :expensive labourLeading exporter in apparel trade :high crime zoneOPPORTUNITIES THREATS:World’s 4th largest gold reserve :uncertainity in retail sector:Better relations with India, U.S , China :economic division between northern &:Import of energy for processing & southern Italymanufacturing :low production rate of apparels:Oracle & Microsoft has started it’s :security & potential threats fromoperation in the country terrorists & other gangs
ITALY AT A GLANCE• Capital city: Rome• Republic day: 2nd June• National flag: Tri coloured flag• National animal: Italian Wolf• National flower: white lily or poppy• National anthem: Carto de italiana• National bird: bluebird• National game: football• Currency: Euro(56.69 indian rupees)
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