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Hybrid Memory Cube: Developing Scalable and Resilient Memory Systems

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Micron travels to the 2014 Linley Data Center Conference to discuss the development and production of the Hybrid Memory Cube (HMC).

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Hybrid Memory Cube: Developing Scalable and Resilient Memory Systems

  1. 1. Hybrid Memory Cube Developing Scalable and Resilient Memory Systems Ryan Baxter Senior Manager, Business Development Server and Storage DRAM ©2013 Micron Technology, Inc. All rights reserved. Products are warranted only to meet Micron’s production data sheet specifications. Information, products, and/or specifications are subject to change without notice. All information is provided on an ―AS IS‖ basis without warranties of any kind. Dates are estimates only. Drawings are not to scale. Micron and the Micron logo are trademarks of Micron Technology, Inc. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners. ©2013 Micron Technology, Inc. | 1
  2. 2. Demand Drivers ▶ Insatiable need for bandwidth ▶ Impact of the cloud ▶ Global demand for mobility ▶ Big data analytics challenge Annual Data Center IP Traffic 2012-2017 CAGR: 25% EB/Yr 10,000 Within Data Center Enterprise Computing Data Center to Data Center 7,500 Data Center to User 5,000 High-Performance Computing 2,500 SOCs & Microservers 0 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Acceleration & Co-Processing Source: Cisco Global Cloud Index 2013 ©2013 Micron Technology, Inc. | 2
  3. 3. HMC - A Revolutionary Shift Increased Bandwidth Greater Power Efficiency Lower TCO Reduced System Latency Smaller, Scalable, & Flexible ©2013 Micron Technology, Inc. | 3
  4. 4. Over 120 adopters to date! Pace of adoption increasing—2013 adopters doubled from 2012 “…unprecedented levels of memory performance” - Electronic News “…like adding a turbocharger to your computer” - EE Times 40th Anniversary: “one of the top ten technologies expected to redefine the industry‖ ©2013 Micron Technology, Inc. | 4
  5. 5. System Memory Bandwidth GB/s DDR4 90 4 Memory Channels 284 Pins Per DIMM Up to 85GB/s 12 Speed Bins 6+ yrs to Standardize 75 DDR3 3-4 Memory Channels 240 Pins Per DIMM Up to 59.7GB/s 5 Speed Bins DDR2 60 45 2 Memory Channels Up to 10.7GB/s 3 Speed Bins Bandwidth Per Memory Channel DDR 1-2 Memory Channels Up to 6.4GB/s 85 page specification <3 Yrs to Standardize 30 2012–2017 CAGR: 12.3% 15 0 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Traditional Memory Designs Do Not Scale and Drive Exponential Complexity ©2013 Micron Technology, Inc. | 5
  6. 6. High-Performance Memory Comparison Single-Link HMC vs. DDR3L-1600 and DDR4-2133 What does it take to support 60 GB/s? Requirements Channel Complexity TCO Valuation 90% simpler than DDR3L 88% simpler than DDR4 DDR3L DDR4 HMC 0 0 Energy Efficiency 66% greener than DDR3L 55% greener than DDR4 3,000 0 Board Footprint 95% smaller than DDR3L 94% smaller than DDR4 250 20 40 0 300 750 pins 500 600 DDR3L DDR4 HMC 6,000 2 9,000 mm DDR3L DDR4 HMC 60 pJ/b DDR3L Bandwidth 10.2X greater than DDR3L 8.5X greater than DDR4 DDR4 HMC ©2013 Micron Technology, Inc. MB/ 900 pin | 6
  7. 7. Enabling Technologies Abstracted Memory Management Memory Vaults vs. DRAM Arrays • Significantly improves bandwidth, quality, and reliability vs. traditional DRAM technologies Logic Base Controller • Reduces memory complexity and significantly increases performance • Allows memory to scale with CPU performance February 12, 2014 Through-Silicon Via (TSV) Assembly Innovative Design & Process Flow • Incorporates thousands of TSV sites per die to reduce signal lengths and power • Enables memory scalability through parallelism Sophisticated Package Assembly • Provides higher component density and significantly improves signal integrity ©2013 Micron Technology, Inc. | 7
  8. 8. HMC Architecture Vault Control Logic Base Vault Control Memory Control Refresh Controller Crossbar Switch Link Interface Controller Link Interface Controller Link Interface Controller Read Buffer Read Data DRAM Sequencer Memory Control Write Buffer Write Data Vault Control Request Vault Control TSV Repair DRAM Repair Crossbar Switch Link Interface Controller Detail of Memory Interface Processor Links 3DI & TSV Technology DRAM7 DRAM6 DRAM5 DRAM4 DRAM3 DRAM2 DRAM1 DRAM0 Logic Chip Logic Base • Multiple high-speed local buses for data movement • Advanced memory controller functions • DRAM control at the memory rather than at distant host controller • Reduced memory controller complexity and increased efficiency Vault Vaults are managed to maximize overall device availability • Optimized management of energy and refresh DRAM Logic Base February 12, 2014 • Self test, error detection, correction, and repair in the logic base layer Micron Confidential | ©2013 Micron Technology, Inc. | 8
  9. 9. HMC Architecture Link Controller Interface HMC-SR Options: 10 Gb/s, 12.5 Gb/s, or 15 Gb/s HMC Host TX 16 Lanes 16 Lanes TX 8 or 16 Transmit Lanes RX RX Example: February 12, 2014 8 or 16 Receive Lanes Micron Confidential | ©2013 Micron Technology, Inc. | 9
  10. 10. Packet-Based Communication Protocol NOT affected by any DRAM-related timings, nor is it DRAM-specific! ▶ Packets comprised of 128-bit (16-byte) FLITs  Packets include 1 to 9 FLITs, depending on command ▶ Host issues requests & HMC issues responses ▶ Each packet contains 64-bit header and 64-bit tail (1 FLIT) ▶ Multiple data transfer sizes supported (16B to 128B) ▶ Commands include reads, writes, atomics, error responses  Simultaneous READs and WRITEs supported Micron Confidential | ©2013 Micron Technology, Inc. | 10
  11. 11. Host Processor Memory Management Simple memory requests and responses; no DRAM timings to manage Functions moved to HMC for management Manufacturing Test • Burn-in • At-speed functional Manage field maintenance and self test Manage all present and future DRAM scaling and process variation issues Manage 100+ different DRAM timing parameters DRAM Layer TSV TSV TSV TSV TSV TSV TSV TSV DRAM Layer DRAM Layer DRAM Layer HOST Re-drive Layer Non-Managed DRAM (DDR, WIO2, HBM, etc.) Si Interposer February 12, 2014 Micron Confidential | ©2013 Micron Technology, Inc. | 11
  12. 12. HMC Near Memory ▶ All links between host CPU and HMC logic layer ▶ Maximum bandwidth per GB capacity: HPC/Server – CPU/GPU  Graphics  Networking systems  Test equipment  February 12, 2014 Micron Confidential | ©2013 Micron Technology, Inc. | 12
  13. 13. HMC ―Far‖ Memory ▶ Far Memory: Some HMC links connect to host – some to other cubes  Scalable to meet system requirements  Available in module form or soldered-down  ▶ Future Products May Include: Higher-speed electrical (SERDES)  Optical interfaces  Higher stack count for greater capacity  Non-DRAM memory technologies  February 12, 2014 Micron Confidential | ©2013 Micron Technology, Inc. | 13
  14. 14. HMC Reliability ▶ Built-in RAS features Logic stability (DRAM controls in logic) DRAM Array Reliable handshake (packet integrity verified before memory access) Logic / Interface DRAM Array DRAM Array Logic / Interface Logic / Interface Vault data ECC-protected Host Link retry CRC protection on link interface Logic / Interface DRAM Array February 12, 2014 Address/command parity for array transactions Micron Confidential | ©2013 Micron Technology, Inc. | 14
  15. 15. HMC Standard Packages Up to 1.28 Tb/s memory bandwidth! Standard BGA packaging solutions: Cost-effective packaging using existing ecosystems February 12, 2014 Micron Confidential | ©2013 Micron Technology, Inc. | 15
  16. 16. Hybrid Memory Cube Micron Memory Innovation We’ve combined fast logic process technology and advanced DRAM designs to create an entirely new category we’re calling Hybrid Memory Cube (HMC) technology. The end result is a high-bandwidth, low-energy, high-density memory system that’s unlike anything on the market today. Unprecedented Performance HMC will provide a revolutionary performance shift that will enrich next-generation networking and enable exaflop-scale supercomputing: Reduced Power Fraction of the energy per bit Reduced Footprint 90% less space than today’s RDIMMs Increased Bandwidth 15X the performance of DDR3* * HMC SR-15G vs. DDR3-1333 February 12, 2014 Micron Confidential | ©2013 Micron Technology, Inc. | 16