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Introduction to Gas Transportation

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Introduction to Gas Transportation and Storage technology including pipeline, CNG, LNG, GTL, GTW, methane hydrate, and the importance of gas sales agreement in a gas value chain.

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Introduction to Gas Transportation

  1. 1. Introduction to Gas Transportation By Puput Aryanto Risanto 22 December 2016
  2. 2. Oil & Gas Industry Upstream Midstream Downstream Finding, lifting, and processing oil & gas from subsurface into surface and ready for transportation. Also known as Exploration and Production (E&P). Transportation and storage of crude oil and natural gas from E&P plant for further processing by pipeline, railway, road, or tanker. Processing of crude oil and natural gas into useful final product or raw material for other industry. Also known as Refining & Marketing (R&M)
  3. 3. Gas Dilemma • In the early history of oil industry, natural gas in considered by-product (waste) during drilling attempt for searching oil. Only gas found during drilling is considered failure since gas is flammable and cannot be processed & stored.and cannot be processed & stored. • Gas can only be contained in a pipe and burnt immediately in a safe place, either for heating, boiling water, or burnt for nothing, known as flare. Oil in Alberta on 1950 Canadian postage stamp, showing two drilling derricks, storage tanks, and flaring of "waste" gas,1914 - 1918 era.
  4. 4. Gas Problem • Not like crude oil which is liquid in room temperature (25oC / 77oF) & atmospheric pressure (1 atm / 101,325 Pascal / 14.7 psi), natural gas is gaseous state in room temperature & atmospheric pressure. • Gas has lower density than oil, meaning in a same volume, gas has lower mass & energy density.gas has lower mass & energy density. • In room temperature & atmospheric pressure, gas will occupy very large space, hence it’s not practical & economic to store gas in this state. • Since can’t be stored naturally, gas must be used or transported immediately if required in other place. • Gas delivery must match requirement, excess gas can only be flared (burnt) or vented (released to atmosphere).
  5. 5. Ideal Gas Equation • Behaviour of gas in many condition can be described in Ideal Gas Equation pV = nRT or V = (nRT) / p • Where p = pressure, V = volume, n = gas• Where p = pressure, V = volume, n = gas amount (number of mole), R = ideal gas constant, and T = temperature. • It means to reduce Volume, we must reduce Temperature or increase Pressure (or both) since n is given and R is constant.
  6. 6. Gas Value • Despite all known problems, gas has several advantages over oil or coal, i.e. : – Cleaner fuel (less emission) for power plant & vehicle – Cheaper than oil-based fuel, i.e. gasoline – Can be used as a feed stock / raw material of– Can be used as a feed stock / raw material of petrochemical industry like fertilizer • With all above advantages, gas demand slowly grows and oil company start thinking to monetize its gas reserve. • Gas must be transported from the wellhead to the customer to bring value to the producer. • Gas company shall regulate the volume to match customer requirement while minimizing wasted gas.
  7. 7. Gas Monetization • To bring the optimum value of gas, method of gas transportation & storage becomes very critical. • Remember, as per ideal gas equation, gas must be compressed and/or cooled to reduce the volume. • Gas can also be converted into another form and transported in the new form.transported in the new form. • The technology used to reduce the gas volume or convert into another form will depend mainly on the gas delivery volume and distance from gas producer to gas consumer. • However, it will also depend on the price, consumer requirement, and technology maturation.
  8. 8. Gas Transportation Technology Technology Vol Reduction Pipelines 70-100 CNG 250-300 LNG 600 Hydrated 150-200Hydrated 150-200 CNG : Compressed Natural Gas LNG : Liquefied Natural Gas GTL : Gas To Liquid GTW : Gas To Wire
  9. 9. Technology Selection GTL LNG and/or GTL • Pipeline is the traditional, well proven method and the most economic for short distance • LNG is used for large volume gas in a veryvolume gas in a very long distance • CNG is used when the volume is not economic enough for LNG • GTL is the most advance method to convert low value gas into high value liquid, hence small volume can be made economic
  10. 10. Pipeline • Pipeline is a long pipe for conveying fluid (oil, gas, water, etc) over long distance. • Gas must be compressed by a gas compressor in order to be able to receiving point. • Pipeline is only for gas transporting, even tough• Pipeline is only for gas transporting, even tough sometimes it is used as “gas temporary storage.” • Gas compression ratio in a pipeline depends on the gas volume delivery, distance, inlet pressure and required pressure on the receiving point.
  11. 11. Gas Booster Station • If the distance is very long, a gas compressor might be placed between pipeline section known as booster compressor Multi-stage booster pump, use the same principle like booster compressor
  12. 12. Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) • Gas is compressed up to 20-25 Mega (million) Pascal / 2900-3600 psi and stored in a hard tank, normally in cylindrical or spherical shape, known as CNG (Compressed Natural Gas). CNG only occupy less than 1% of space compare to volumeoccupy less than 1% of space compare to volume in atmospheric pressure. • CNG can be transported via road & sea, and can be easily used by reducing its pressure. • However, for large quantity over long distance, CNG is considered not economical.
  13. 13. CNG transportation CNG transportation concept vessel ( CNG distributionCNG distribution truck
  14. 14. Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) • In this method, gas is cooled down to -161 o C / - 256 o F at atmospheric pressure till condenses to a clear, colorless, and odorless, liquid know as LNG. • This liquefaction reduce the volume by 600 times, makes it very economic for large volumemakes it very economic for large volume transportation over very long distance. • Natural gas must be purified to contain only methane and ethane (or 100% methane) before supercooled to form LNG. • LNG will be converted back to a gas form in the receiving facility, known as regasification terminal.
  15. 15. LNG process diagram LNG process diagram at PT Badak NGL, Bontang, Indonesia
  16. 16. LNG value chain
  17. 17. Gas To Liquid (GTL) • Many confusion the difference between GTL and LNG since both contain “Liquid & Gas” term. • While LNG is a physical reaction to convert natural gas (methane) in a gas form to a liquid form, GTL is a chemical reaction to convert natural gasis a chemical reaction to convert natural gas (methane) in a gas form to a different, more complex, and valuable substance in a liquid form. • GTL process is much more complex and costly, hence not much GTL plant in the world compare to LNG plant.
  18. 18. GTL definition & history • A chemical process to convert natural gas into synthetic liquid (can be crude oil, diesel fuel, aviation fuel, or gasoline) through Fischer-Tropsch (FT) process. • Originally invented in early 1920 by German• Originally invented in early 1920 by German chemist Franz Fischer and Hans Tropsch in Germany which later on used by the Germany during World War II. • Highly exothermic (produce a lot of heat) which can be used to generate steam or power.
  19. 19. GTL process • Major steps in GTL process : Remove impurities such as mercury & hydrogen sulphide Produce synthesis gas from Natural Gas and Air / Oxygen. FT synthesis to convert synthesis gas to long chain, heavy paraffinic liquid. Paraffin is a mixture of high-molecular- weight alkanes (i.e., saturated hydrocarbons with the general formula CnH2n+2, where n is an integer). • Byproducts is large amount of water and small amount of CO2, olefins, oxygenates, and alcohol.
  20. 20. Simplified GTL block diagram GTL can convert natural gas into more valuable liquid like kerosene, gasoline, and LPG. Conversion ratio is about 10 thousand of cubic feet (mcf) raw gas into 1 barrel liquid product.
  21. 21. Gas To Wire (GTW) • GTW is a term of converting gas into electricity in a location close to (or even on top of) a gas field and transfer the electric power to the customer via transmission and distribution lines. • Gas is used as a fuel of gas turbine (or gas engine in a small scale) driving a power generator.small scale) driving a power generator. • In a large scale, waste heat from a gas turbine can be used to convert water into steam to turn steam turbine connected to other or same power generator. This configuration is known as Combined Cycle Gas Turbine Power Plant. • Technical-commercial evaluation must be carefully conducted whether building power plant close to gas field (GTW) or transfer gas to power plant close to consumer.
  22. 22. Combined Cycle Gas Turbine 1. Air is compressed in a compressor, then mixed with the gas fuel 2. Combustor ignites air-gas mix, then turn the gas turbine 3. Hot excess gas3. Hot excess gas convert water into steam in a Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG) 4. Steam turns steam turbine 5. Both gas & steam turbine drive single generator to produce electricity Simplified CCGT Power Plant block diagram
  23. 23. Methane Hydrate • Methane hydrate / gas hydrate / methane ice / fire ice / methane clathrate is a solid clathrate (chemical substance consisting of a lattice that trap molecules) in which large amount of methane (the biggest portion of natural gas) is trapped within crystal structure of water, forming a solid similar to ice.similar to ice. • It is found naturally under sediments on the ocean floor. • Method to transfer natural gas in the form of methane hydrate is still under experiment, yet to commercialized.
  24. 24. Gas Sales Agreement (GSA) • Due to high investment of gas production facility, long term gas sales agreement must be established first prior to gas field development. • Normally, agreement must exist for at least 10 years. • The most critical factor is gas price calculation. • Gas price depends on field complexity, gas delivery• Gas price depends on field complexity, gas delivery volume, sales period, seller economic criteria, buyer capability, and local law & regulation. • Gas price may be fixed over sales period, but normally it is a function of oil price with floor (min) price to protect seller and ceiling (max) price to protect buyer. • That’s why, not like oil price which is same for similar oil quality, gas price can vary even for the similar gas quality.
  25. 25. Thank YouThank YouThank YouThank You –––– TerimaTerimaTerimaTerima KasihKasihKasihKasih Petronas FLNG Satu (PFLNG Satu) The world first Floating LNG on stream
  26. 26. About the Author Puput Aryanto Risanto, PMP is a Project Management Professional certified Sr. Project Engineer with 12+ years experience in oil & gas industry. Currently he is working for Premier Oil Natuna Sea B.V. in Jakarta, Indonesia. Previously he worked for Petronas Carigali Sdn. Bhd. in KL, Malaysia, Premier OilCarigali Sdn. Bhd. in KL, Malaysia, Premier Oil Natuna Sea B.V. in Jakarta and Total E&P Indonesie in Balikpapan, Indonesia. His expertise includes project engineering & management, joint venture management, engineering & construction management, & electrical engineering-construction- inspection. He can be contacted at email or linkedin Puput Aryanto Risanto.